Advertisement

Ciliary Body as a Therapeutic Target

  • Jeffrey A. KammerEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The concept of cilioablation has been around for nearly 100 years. Unfortunately, the early forms of cyclodestruction were saddled with a high rate of visual loss and phthisis bulbi. Over time, there have been incremental changes in technology that have facilitated better results with a lower incidence of deleterious side effects. The diode laser is one such innovation that has revolutionized how cyclodestruction is performed. The risk-benefit profile is strong enough that there has been an expansion of the indications for using cyclophotocoagulation. With the advent of endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation, some clinicians are even using this technology in patients with early glaucoma. More recently, there have been additional ciliodestructive (i.e., micropulse diode laser) or ciliomodulating (i.e., high-intensity focused ultrasound) techniques that have the potential to be equally effective as diode laser cyclophotocoagulation with much less peripheral tissue damage.

Keywords

Ciliary Body Cystoid Macular Edema Glaucoma Medication Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty Neovascular Glaucoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

CPC

Cyclophotocoagulation

IOP

Intraocular pressure

Supplementary material

Video 4.1

This is a video of Dr. Steven Vold performing transscleral diode cyclophotocoagulation. (video courtesy of Steven Vold, M.D., Rogers, AK) (MOV 1137 kb)

Video 4.2

This is a video of Dr. Malik Kahook performing endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation. This technique facilitates precise targeting of the ciliary processes with minimal collateral damage. Notice the opacification and contraction of the ciliary processes as he “paints” the tissue with laser energy (video courtesy of Malik Kahook, M.D., Aurora, CO) (MOV 1137 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Coppez L. Au sujet des applications chirurgicales de la diathermie enophthalmologie. Bull Soc Belge Ophthalmol. 1929;58:56–7.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Coppez L. La technique de la diathermie en ophthalmologie. Bull Soc Belge Ophthalmol. 1927;55:91–2.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Weve H. Die zyklodiatermie das corpus ciliare bei glaukom. Zentralbl Ophthalmol. 1933;29:562–9.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vogt A. Cyclodiathermy puncture in cases of glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 1940;24:288–97.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vogt A. Versuche zur intraokularen druckherabsetzung mittelst diatermiescha digung des corpus ciliare (Zyklodipatermiestichelung). Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 1936;97:672–7.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Edmonds C, De Roetth Jr A, Howard GM. Histopathologic changes following cryosurgery and diathermy of the rabbit ciliary body. Am J Ophthalmol. 1970;69:65–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Allingham RR, Damji KF, Freedman S, Moroi SE, Shafranov G, Shields MB, editors. Shields’ Textbook of Glaucoma. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Albaugh CH, Dunphy EB. Cyclodiathermy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1942;27:543–57.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Berens C. Glaucoma surgery: an evaluation of cycloelectrolysis and cyclodiathermy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1955;54:548–62.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Walton DS, Grant WM. Penetrating cyclodiathermy for filtration. Arch Ophthalmol. 1970;83:47–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bietti G. Surgical intervention on the ciliary body: new trends for the relief of glaucoma. J Am Med Assoc. 1950;142(12):889–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bellows AR, Grant WM. Cyclocryotherapy in advanced inadequately controlled glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1973;75:679–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bellows AR. Cyclocryotherapy for glaucoma. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1981;21(1):99–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bellows AR, Grant WM. Cyclocryotherapy of chronic open angle glaucoma in aphakic eyes. Am J Ophthalmol. 1978;85:615–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shields MB. Cyclodestructive surgery for glaucoma: past, present and future. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1985;83:285–303.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    West CE, Wood TO, Kaufman HE. Cyclocryotherapy for glaucoma pre or post penetrating keratoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol. 1973;76:485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Binder PS, Abel R, Kaufman HE. Cyclocryotherapy for glaucoma after penetrating keratoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol. 1975;79:489–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Prost M. Cyclocryotherapy for glaucoma: evaluation of techniques. Surv Ophthalmol. 1983;28:93–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Faulborn J, Birnbaum F. Zyklokryotherapie hamorrhagischer glaukome: langzeitbeobachtungen und histologische befunde. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 1977;170:651–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Krupin T, Mitchell KB, Becker B. Cyclocryotherapy in neovascular glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1978;86:24–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    McLean JM, Lincoff HA. Cryosurgery of the ciliary body. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1964;62:385–407.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Demols E, Brihaye-VanGeertruden M. Cyclocryoapplication. Ophthalmologica. 1975;171:332–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lincoff H, Cavero R, Nadel A, McLean JM. Cryosurgery of the ciliary body. Arch Ophthalmol. 1968;79:196–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Paterson CA, Paterson EF. Experimental cryosurgery. Arch Ophthalmol. 1971;86:425–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    De Roetth A. Cryosurgery for glaucoma. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1967;7(2):351–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Quigley HA. Histological and physiological studies of cyclocryotherapy in primate and human eyes. Am J Ophthalmol. 1976;82:722–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brihaye M, Oosterhuis JA. Experimental cryoapplication with variations in the pressure exerted on the sclera. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K. 1972;92:860.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wesley RD, Kielar RA. Cyclocryotherapy in treatment of glaucoma. Glaucoma. 1980;3:533–8.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Higginbotham EJ, Lee DA, Bartels SP, Richardson T, Miller M. Effects of cyclocryotherapy on aqueous humor dynamics in cats. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988;106:396–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Boniuk M. Cryotherapy in neovascular glaucoma. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1974;78:337–43.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brindley G, Shields MB. Values and limitations of cyclocryotherapy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1986;224:545–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Palmeris G, Moschos M, Chimonidou E, Velissaropoulos P. Einige bemer kungen zur anwendung der zyklokryopexie in der behandlung der verchiedenen glaukomfarmen. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 1976;169:439–41.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Caprioli J, Strang SL, Spaeth GL, Poryzees EH. Cyclocryotherapy in the treatment of advanced glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1985;92:947–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    De Roetth A. Cryosurgery for the treatment of advanced chronic simple glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1968;66:1034–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bellows AR. Cyclocryotherapy. In: Chandler P, Grant WM, editors. Glaucoma. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger; 1979. p. 311–5.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Weekers R, Lavergne G, Watillon M, Gilson M, Legros AM. Effects of photocoagulation of ciliary body upon ocular tension. Am J Ophthalmol. 1961;52:156–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Smith RS, Stein MN. Ocular hazards of transscleral laser radiation: II. Intraocular injury produced by ruby and neodymium lasers. Am J Ophthalmol. 1969;67:100–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Beckman H, Waeltermann J. Transscleral ruby laser cyclophotocoagulation. Am J Ophthalmol. 1984;98:788–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fankhauser F, van der Zypen E, Kwasniewska S, Rol P, England C. Transscleral cyclophotocoagulation using a neodymium:YAG laser. Ophthalmic Surg. 1986;17:94–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Schuman JS, Puliafito CA. Laser cyclophotocoagulation. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1990;30(2):111–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gandham SB, Katz LJ. Cyclodestructive procedures. In: Gross RL, editor. Clinical glaucoma management: critical signs in diagnosis and therapy. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 2001.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    England C, Van der Zypen E, Fankhauser F, Kwasniewska A. A comparison of optical methods use for transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in rabbit eyes produced with the Nd:YAG laser: a morphological, physical and clinical analysis. Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 1988;2:87–102.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Krasnov MM, Naumidi LP, Federov AA. Morphological research on the ciliary body in contact transscleral laser cyclocoagulation of human and rabbit eyes. Vestn Oftalmol. 1988;04:11–3.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wilensky JT, Welch D, Mirolovich M. Transscleral cyclocoagulation using a neodymium:YAG laser. Ophthalmic Surg. 1985;16:95–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Schubert HD, Agarwala A, Arbizo V. Changes in aqueous outflow after in vitro neodymium-aluminum-garnet laser cyclophotocoagulation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1990;31:1834–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schmidt KG, Vhuytan KG, Camras CB, Zhan G, Podos SM. The role of prostaglandins and uveoscleral outflow in the reduction of intraocular pressure after contact transscleral Nd:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci Abstr Issue. 1992;33:1269.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Van der Zypen E, England C, Fankhauser S. The effect of transscleral laser cyclophotocoagulation on rabbit ciliary body vascularization. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1989;227:172–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shields MB, Wilkerson MH, Echelman DA. A comparison of two energy levels for noncontact transscleral neodymium-YAG cyclophotocoagulation. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111:484–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mastrobattista JM, Luntz M. Ciliary body ablation: where are we and how did we get here? Surv Ophthalmol. 1996;41(3):193–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Crymes BM, Gross RL. The influence of laser lesion placement in neodymium:YAG cyclophotocoagulation (abstract). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1989;30(Suppl):353–4.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schubert HD. Noncontact and contact pars plana transscleral neodymium:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation in postmortem eyes. Ophthalmology. 1989;96:1471–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hampton C, Shields MB. Transscleral neodymium-YAG cyclophotocoagulation. A histologic study of human autopsy eyes. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988;106:1121–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Allingham RR, de Kater AW, Bellows AR, Hsu J. Probe placement and power levels in contact transscleral neodymium:YAG cyclophotocoagulation. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990;108:738–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fiore PM, Latina MA. A technique for precise placement of laser applications in transscleral Nd:YAG cyclophotocoagulation. Am J Ophthalmol. 1989;107:292–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Stolzenburg S, Muller-Stolzenburg N, Krresse S, Muller GJ. Contact cyclophotocoagulation with the continuous wave Nd:YAG laser with quartz fiber. Optimizing coagulation parameters. Ophthalmologe. 1992;89:210–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fankhauser F, Kwasniewska S, Van der Zypen E. Cyclodestructive procedures. Clinical and morphological aspects: A review. Ophthalmologica. 2004;218:77–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hampton C, Shields MB, Miller KN, Blasin M. Evaluation of a protocol for transscleral neodymium:YAG cyclophotocoagulation in one hundred consecutive patients. Ophthalmology. 1990;97:910–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Devenyi RG, Trope GE, Hunter WH, Badeeb O. Neodymium-YAG transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in human eyes. Ophthalmology. 1987;94:1519–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Trope GE, Ma S. Mid term effects of neodymium:YAG thermal cyclophotocoagulation in glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1990;97:73–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Klapper RM, Wandel T, Donnenfeld E, Perry HD. Transscleral neodymium:YAG thermal cyclophotocoagulation in refractory glaucoma. A preliminary report. Ophthalmology. 1988;95:719–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Balazsi G. Noncontact thermal mode Nd:YAG laser transscleral cyclocoagulation in the treatment of glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1991;98:18581863.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wright MM, Grajewski AL, Feuer WJ. Nd:YAG cyclophotocoagulation: outcome of treatment for uncontrolled glaucoma. Ophthalmic Surg. 1991;22:279–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Schuman JS, Bellows AR, Shingleton BJ, Latina MA, Allingham RR, Belcher CD, Pulifito CA. Contact transscleral Nd:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation. Midterm results. Ophthalmology. 1992;99:1089–94; discussion 1095.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Schuman JS, Puliafito CA, Allingham RR, Belcher CD, Bellows AR, Latina MA, Shingleton BJ. Contact transscleral Nd:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation. Ophthalmology. 1990;97:571–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Brancato R, Giovanni L, Trabbuchi G, Pietroni C. Contact transscleral cyclophotocoagulation with Nd: YAG laser in uncontrolled glaucoma. Ophthalmic Surg. 1989;20:547–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Simmons RB, Shields MB, Blasini M, Wilkerson M, Stern RA. Transscleral Nd:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation with a contact lens. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991;112:671–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zaidman GW, Wandel T. Transscleral YAG laser photocoagulation for uncontrolled glaucoma in corneal patients. Cornea. 1988;7:112–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Thofts RA, Gordon JM, Dohlman CH. Glaucoma following keratoplasty. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1974;78:352–64.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Threlkeld AB, Shields MB. Non-contact transscleral Nd:YAG cyclophotocoagulation for glaucoma after penetrating keratoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995;120:569–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Maus M, Katz LJ. Choroidal detachment, flat anterior chamber, and hypotony as complications of neodymium:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation. Ophthalmology. 1990;97:69–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fiore PM, Melamed S, Krug JH. Focal scleral thinning after transscleral Nd:YAG cyclophotocoagulation. Ophthalmic Surg. 1989;20:215–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cyrlin MN, Beckman H, Czedik C. Nd:YAG laser transscleral cyclocoagulation treatment for severe glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci Suppl. 1985;26:157.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wand M, Schuman JS, Puliafito CA. Malignant glaucoma after contact transscleral Nd:YAG cyclophotocoagulation. J Glaucoma. 1993;2:110–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hardten DR, Brown JD. Malignant glaucoma after Nd:YAG cyclophotocoagulation. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991;111:245–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shields MB, Shields SE. Noncontact transscleral Nd:YAG cyclophotocoagulation: a long-term follow up of 500 patients. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1994;92:271–87.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Edward DP, Brown SVL, Higginbotham E, Jennings T, Tessler HH, Tso MO. Sympathetic ophthalmia following Nd:YAG cyclotherapy. Ophthalmic Surg. 1989;20:544–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kalenak JW, Pardinson JM, Kass MA, Kolker AE. Transscleral neodymium:YAG laser cyclocoagulation for uncontrolled glaucoma. Ophthalmic Surg. 1990;21:346–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lam S, Tessler HH, Lam BI, Wilensky JT. High incidence of sympathetic ophthalmia after contact and non-contact neodymium:Yag cyclotherapy. Ophthalmology. 1992;99:1818–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Suzudi Y, Araie M, Yumita A, Yamamoto T. Transscleral Nd:YAG laser cyclophotocoagulation versus cyclocryotherapy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1991;229(1):33–6.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pratesi R. Diode lasers in photomedicine. J Quantum Electron. 1984;20:1432–9.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Peyman GA, Naguid KS, Gaasterland D. Transscleral application of a semiconductor diode laser. Lasers Surg Med. 1990;10:569–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hennis HL, Assia E, Stewart WC, Legler UF, Apple DJ. Transscleral cyclophotocoagulation using a semiconductor diode laser in cadaver eyes. Ophthalmic Surg. 1991;22:274–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Assia E, Hennis HL, Stewart WC, Legler UF, Carlson AN, Apple DJ. A comparison of neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet and diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation and cyclocryotherapy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1991;32:2774–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Schuman JS, Jacobson JJ, Puliafito CA, Noecker RJ, Reidy WT. Experimental use of semiconductor diode laser in contact transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in rabbits. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990;108:1152–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hennis HL, Stewart WC. Semiconductor diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in patients with glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1992;113:81–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gaasterland DE, Pollack IP. Initial experience with a new method of laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation for ciliary ablation in severe glaucoma. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1992;90:225–43.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Chen TC, Pasquale LR, Walton DS, Grosskreutz CL. Diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1999;39(1):169–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gupta N, Weinreb RN. Diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation. J Glaucoma. 1997;6:426–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Brancato R, Carassa R, Bettin P, Fiori M, Trabucchi G. Contact transscleral cyclophotocoagulation with diode laser in refractory glaucoma. Eur J Ophthalmol. 1995;5(1):32–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rebolleda G, Munoz F, Murube J. Audible pops during cyclodiode procedures. J Glauocoma. 1999;8(3):177–83.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Monsour M, Albrecht K, Gaasterland D. Contact semiconductor diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in human autopsy eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1991;32:860.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Jampel HD, Wells AP, Gupta N. Cyclodestruction. In: Weinreb R, Crowston J, editors. Glaucoma surgery: open angle glaucoma, Consensus series 2. The Netherlands: Kugler Publications; 2005. p. 122–5.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Pastor SA, Sing K, Lee DA, Juzych MS, Lin SC, Netland PA, Nguyen NT. Cyclophotocoagulation: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology. 2001;108(11):2130–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sharkey J, Murray T. Identification of the ora serrata and ciliary body by transillumination in eyes undergoing transscleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (letter). Ophthalmic Surg. 1994;25:479–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Youn J, Cox TA, Herndon LW, Allingham RR, Shields MB. A clinical comparison of transscleral cyclophotocoagulation with Neodymium:YAG and semiconductor diode lasers. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;126:640–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Oguri A, Takahashi E, Tomita G, Yamamoto T, Jikihara S, Kitazawa Y. Transscleral cyclophotocoagulation with the diode laser for neovascular glaucoma. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1998;29:722–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kosoko O, Gaasterland DE, Pollack IP, Enger CL. Long term outcome of initial ciliary ablation with contact diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation for severe glaucoma. The diode laser ciliary ablation study group. Ophthalmology. 1996;103(8):1294–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Vernon SA, Koppens JM, Menon GJ, Negi AK. Diode laser cycloablation in adult glaucoma: long-term results of a standard protocol and review of current literature. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2006;34:411–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Utrata R, Rehurek J. Long-term results of transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in refractory pediatric glaucoma patients. Ophthalmologica. 2003;217(6):393–400.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kirwan JF, Shah P, Khaw PT. Diode laser cyclophotocoagulation: role in the management of refractory pediatric glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2002;109(2):316–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sood S, Beck AD. Cyclophotocoagulation versus sequential tube shunt as a secondary intervention following primary tube shunt failure in pediatric glaucoma. J AAPOS. 2009;13(4):379–83.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Malik R, Ellingham RB, Suleman H, Morgan WH. Refractory glaucoma – tube or diode? Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;34:771–7.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Yildirim N, Yalvac IS, Sahin A, Ozer A, Bozca T. A comparative study between diode laser cyclophotocoagulation and the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant in neovascular glaucoma – A long term follow-up. J Glaucoma. 2009;18(3):192–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Bloom PA, Tsai JC, Sharma K, Miller MH, Rice NS, Hitchings RA, Khaw PT. Trans-scleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation in the treatment of advanced refractory glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1997;104:1508–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hawkins TA, Stewart WC. One year results of semiconductor transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in patients with glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111:488–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Shah P, Lee GA, Kirwan JK, Bunce C, Bloom PA, Ficker LA, Khaw PT. Cyclodiode photocoagulation for refractory glaucoma after penetrating keratoplasty. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:1986–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Delgado MF, Dickens CJ, Iwach AG, Novack GD, Nychka DS, Wong PC, Nguyen N. Long-term results of noncontact neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet cyclophotocoagulation in neovascular glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(5):895–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Stinson WG, Sherwood MB. Cyclodestructive procedures for advanced glaucoma: an update. In: Jay B, Kirkness CM, editors. Recent advances in ophthalmology. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1995. p. 91–103.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kumar N, Chang A, Beaumont P. Sympathetic ophthalmia following ciliary body laser cyclophotocoagulation for rubeotic glaucoma. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2004;32:196–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Ganesh SK, Rishi K. Necrotizing scleritis following diode laser trans-scleral cyclophotocoagulation. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2006;54(3):199–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Prata TS, Lima VC, Pinto LM, Costa EF, Melo LA. Diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation – induced staphyloma following trabeculectomy with mitomycin c. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2008;39(4):343–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Wagenfeld L, Klemm M, Feuerberg F, Zeitz O. Incidence of vitreoretinal complications following cyclophotocoagulation. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009;247:1565–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Contreras I, Noval S, Gonzalez J, Rebolleda G, Munoz-Negrete FJ. IOP spikes following contact transscleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2004;79(3):105–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kumar H, Gupta S, Agarwal A. Corneal edema following diode laser cyclophotocoagulation in an eye with secondary glaucoma. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56(4):317–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Quagliano F, Fontana L, Parente G, Tassinari G. Choroidal effusion after diode laser cyclophotocoagulation in Sturge-Weber syndrome. J AAPOS. 2008;12(5):526–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Benson MT, Nelson ME. Cyclocryotherapy: a review of cases over a 10-year period. Br J Ophthalmol. 1990;74:103–5.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Sidoti PA, Dunphy TR, Baerveldt G, LaBree L, Minckler DS, Lee PP, Heuer DK. Experience with the baerveldt glaucoma implant in treating neovascular glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1995;102:1107–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Goldenberg-Cohen N, Bahar I, Ostashinski M, Lusky M, Weinberger D, Gaton D. Cyclocryotherapy versus transscleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation for uncontrolled intraocular pressure. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2005;36(4):272–9.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wilensky JT, Kammer J. Long-term visual outcome of transscleral laser cyclotherapy in eyes with ambulatory vision. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(7):1389–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kramp K, Vick HP, Guthoff R. Transscleral diode laser contact cyclophotocoagulation in the treatment of different glaucomas, also as primary surgery. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2002;240:698–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Egbert PR, Fiadoyor S, Budenz DL, Dadzie P, Byrd S. Diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation as a primary surgical treatment for primary open-angle glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119:345–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ansari E, Gandhewar J. Long-term efficacy and visual acuity following transscleral diode laser photocoagulation in cases of refractory and non-refractory glaucoma. Eye. 2007;21:936–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Agarwal P, Dulku S, Nolan W, Song V. The UK National Cyclodiode Survey. Eye. 2011;25(2):166–73.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Shields MB. Intraocular cyclophotocoagulation. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK. 1986;105:237–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Uram M. Endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation in glaucoma management. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 1995;6(2):19–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Yu JY, Kahook MY, Lathrop KL, Noecker RJ. The effect of probe placement and type of viscoelastic material on endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation laser energy transmission. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2008;39(2):133–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kahook MY, Lathrop KL, Noecker RJ. One-site versus two-site endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation. J Glaucoma. 2007;16(6):527–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Nocker RJ, Kahook MY, Berke SJ, Nichamin LD, Weston JM, Mackool R, Tyson F, Lima F, Kleinfeldt N. Uncontrolled intraocular pressure after endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation – comment. J Glaucoma. 2008;17(3):250–1.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Berke SJ, Sturm RT, Caronia RM et al. Phacoemulsification combined with endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECP) in the management of cataract and medically controlled glaucoma: a large, long term study. Presented at the AGS annual meeting, Charleston, Mar 2006.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Chen J, Cohn RA, Lin SC, Cortes AE, Alvarado JA. Endoscopic photocoagulation of the ciliary body for treatment of refractory glaucomas. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997;124(6):787–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gayton JL, Van Der Karr M, Sanders V. Combined cataract and glaucoma surgery: trabeculectomy versus endoscopic laser cycloablation. J Cataract Refract Surg. 1999;25(9):1214–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Lima FE, Magacho L, Carvalho DM, Susanna R, Avila MP. A prospective, comparative study between endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation and the Ahmed drainage implant in refractory glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2004;13(3):233–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Neely DE, Plager DA. Endocyclophotocoagulation for management of difficult pediatric glaucomas. J AAPOS. 2001;5(4):221–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Carter BC, Plager DA, Neely DE, Sprunger DT, Sondhi N, Roberts GJ. Endoscopic diode laser cyclophotocoagulation in the management of aphakic and pseudophakic glaucoma in children. J AAPOS. 2007;11(1):34–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Barkana Y, Morad Y, Ben-nun J. Endoscopic photocoagulation of the ciliary body after repeated failure of trans-scleral diode-laser cyclophotocoagulation. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;133(3):405–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Al-Haddad CE, Freedman SF. Endoscopic laser cyclophotocoagulation in pediatric glaucoma with corneal opacities. J AAPOS. 2007;11(1):23–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Lima FE, Carvalho DM, Avila MP. Phacoemulsification and endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation as primary surgical procedure in coexisting cataract and glaucoma (in Portuguese). Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2010;73:419–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Ahmad S, Wallace DJ, Herndon LW. Phthisis after endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2008;39(5):407–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Fea AM, Dorin G. Laser treatment of glaucoma: evolution of laser trabeculoplasty techniques. Tech Ophthalmol. 2008;6(2):45–52.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kammer JA. Laser trabeculoplasty: treatment with a diode laser appears to lower IOP while minimizing complications. Glaucoma Today. 2012;10(2):18–28.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Ho CL. Micropulse diode transscleral cyclophotocoagulation. Asian J Ophthalmol. 2002;3(3,4) 2001 supplement.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Tan AM, Chockalingam M, Aquino MC, Lim ZI, See JL, Chew PT. Micropulse transscleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation in the treatment of refractory glaucoma. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;38:266–72.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Silverman RH, Vogelsang B, Rondeau MJ, Coleman DJ. Therapeutic ultrasound for the treatment of glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991;111(3):327–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Cato S. Ultrasound circular cyclo-coagulation – innovation in glaucoma with high intensive focused ultrasound. Eur Ophthalmic Rev. 2011;5(2):1–76.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Aptel F, Charrel T, Lafon C, et al. Miniaturized high-intensity focused ultrasound device in patients with glaucoma: a clinical pilot study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52(12):8747–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Schwartz DN. Ultrasonic treatment of glaucoma. U.S. Pat. 0152626A1, 17 Jun 2010.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Schwartz DN. Ultrasonic treatment of glaucoma. U.S. Pat. 7909781B2, 22 Mar 2011.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesVanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical CenterNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations