Risk Factors for Periprosthetic Joint Infection

  • Benjamin Zmistowski
  • Pouya Alijanipour


Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a potential complication in any prosthetic joint, even in the absence of known risk factors. However, effective minimization of the risk for PJI requires elimination of known factors that increase the opportunity for exposure of the joint to pathogens or limit the body’s ability to eliminate intra-articular pathogens. Known risk factors for PJI can be categorized into patient-related, surgery-related, inpatient postoperative, and long-term factors. While overlap of factors can occur between these groups, it is important to appreciate that the presence of these risks at any point increases the opportunity for the development of PJI. This chapter discusses the mechanism and impact of the factors that compose these groups.


Surgical Site Infection Total Joint Arthroplasty Periprosthetic Joint Infection Total Joint Replacement Nasal Carriage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Katz JN, Barrett J, Mahomed NN, et al. Association between hospital and surgeon procedure volume and the outcomes of total knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004;86(9):1909–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mahomed NN, Barrett J, Katz JN, et al. Epidemiology of total knee replacement in the United States Medicare population. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87(6):1222–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Santaguida PL, Hawker GA, Hudak PL, et al. Patient characteristics affecting the prognosis of total hip and knee joint arthroplasty: a systematic review. Can J Surg. 2008;51(6):428–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Parvizi J, Jacovides C, Zmistowski B, Jung KA. Definition of periprosthetic joint infection: is there a consensus? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469(11):3022–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kurtz SM, Lau E, Schmier J, et al. Infection burden for hip and knee arthroplasty in the United States. J Arthroplasty. 2008;23(7):984–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Soohoo NF, Farng E, Lieberman JR, Chambers L, Zingmond DS. Factors that predict short-term complication rates after total hip arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010. Accessed 1 May 2010.
  7. 7.
    SooHoo NF, Lieberman JR, Ko CY, Zingmond DS. Factors predicting complication rates following total knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88(3):480–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ridgeway S, Wilson J, Charlet A, Kafatos G, Pearson A, Coello R. Infection of the surgical site after arthroplasty of the hip. J. Bone Joint Surg. Br. 2005;87(6):844–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jämsen E, Huhtala H, Puolakka T, Moilanen T. Risk factors for infection after knee arthroplasty. A register-based analysis of 43,149 cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009;91(1):38–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Robertsson O, Knutson K, Lewold S, Lidgren L. The Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register 1975-1997: an update with special emphasis on 41,223 knees operated on in 1988-1997. Acta Orthop Scand. 2001;72(5):503–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pedersen AB, Svendsson JE, Johnsen SP, Riis A, Overgaard S. Risk factors for revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty. A population-based study of 80,756 primary procedures in the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry. Acta Orthop. 2010;81(5):542–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dale H, Skråmm I, Løwer HL, et al. Infection after primary hip arthroplasty: a comparison of 3 Norwegian health registers. Acta Orthop. 2011;82(6):646–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schrøder HM, Kristensen PW, Petersen MB, Nielsen PT. Patient survival after total knee arthroplasty. 5-year data in 926 patients. Acta Orthop Scand. 1998;69(1):35–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tosi LL, Boyan BD, Boskey AL. Does sex matter in musculoskeletal health? The influence of sex and gender on musculoskeletal health. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87(7):1631–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kurtz S, Ong K, Lau E, et al. Prosthetic joint infection risk after TKA in the medicare population. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009. Accessed 30 Nov 2009.
  16. 16.
    Ong KL, Kurtz SM, Lau E, et al. Prosthetic joint infection risk after total hip arthroplasty in the Medicare population. J Arthroplasty. 2009;24(6 Suppl):105–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mahomed NN, Barrett JA, Katz JN, et al. Rates and outcomes of primary and revision total hip replacement in the United States medicare population. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85-A(1):27–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lübbeke A, Stern R, Garavaglia G, Zurcher L, Hoffmeyer P. Differences in outcomes of obese women and men undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;57(2):327–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Willis-Owen CA, Konyves A, Martin DK. Factors affecting the incidence of infection in hip and knee replacement: an analysis of 5277 cases. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010;92(8):1128–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cordero-Ampuero J, Esteban J, García-Rey E. Results after late polymicrobial, gram-negative, and methicillin-resistant infections in knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010. Accessed 29 March 2010.
  21. 21.
    Malchau H, Herberts P, Eisler T, Garellick G, Söderman P. The Swedish total hip replacement register. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002;84-A Suppl 2:2–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chesney D, Sales J, Elton R, Brenkel IJ. Infection after knee arthroplasty a prospective study of 1509 cases. J Arthroplasty. 2008;23(3):355–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jämsen E, Nevalainen P, Kalliovalkama J, Moilanen T. Preoperative hyperglycemia predicts infected total knee replacement. Eur J Intern Med. 2010;21(3):196–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kalmeijer MD, Van Nieuwland-Bollen E, Bogaers-Hofman D, De Baere GA. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a major risk factor for surgical-site infections in orthopedic surgery. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2000;21(5):319–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kim M-K, Patel RA, Shinn AH, et al. Evaluation of gender difference in skin type and pH. J Dermatol Sci. 2006;41(2):153–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fierer N, Hamady M, Lauber CL, Knight R. The influence of sex, handedness, and washing on the diversity of hand surface bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(46):17994–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Larsson I, Bertéus Forslund H, Lindroos AK, et al. Body composition in the SOS (Swedish Obese Subjects) reference study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28(10):1317–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Herwaldt LA, Cullen JJ, French P, et al. Preoperative risk factors for nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004;25(6):481–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Franks P, Clancy CM. Referrals of adult patients from primary care: demographic disparities and their relationship to HMO insurance. J Fam Pract. 1997;45(1):47–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hawker GA, Wright JG, Coyte PC, et al. Differences between men and women in the rate of use of hip and knee arthroplasty. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(14):1016–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Borkhoff CM, Hawker GA, Kreder HJ, et al. The effect of patients’ sex on physicians’ recommendations for total knee arthroplasty. CMAJ. 2008;178(6):681–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ibrahim SA, Stone RA, Han X, et al. Racial/ethnic differences in surgical outcomes in veterans following knee or hip arthroplasty. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52(10):3143–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nwachukwu BU, Kenny AD, Losina E, Chibnik LB, Katz JN. Complications for racial and ethnic minority groups after total hip and knee replacement: a review of the literature. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92(2):338–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dunlop DD, Manheim LM, Song J, et al. Age and racial/ethnic disparities in arthritis-related hip and knee surgeries. Med Care. 2008;46(2):200–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wilson MG, May DS, Kelly JJ. Racial differences in the use of total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis among older Americans. Ethn Dis. 1994;4(1):57–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kamath AF, Horneff JG, Gaffney V, Israelite CL, Nelson CL. Ethnic and gender differences in the functional disparities after primary total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010;468(12):3355–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Collins TC, Daley J, Henderson WH, Khuri SF. Risk factors for prolonged length of stay after major elective surgery. Ann Surg. 1999;230(2):251–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Weaver F, Hynes D, Hopkinson W, et al. Preoperative risks and outcomes of hip and knee arthroplasty in the Veterans Health Administration. J Arthroplasty. 2003;18(6):693–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Webb BG, Lichtman DM, Wagner RA. Risk factors in total joint arthroplasty: comparison of infection rates in patients with different socioeconomic backgrounds. Orthopedics. 2008;31(5):445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Anon. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: executive summary. Expert Panel on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(4):899–917.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gandhi R, Razak F, Davey JR, Mahomed NN. Metabolic syndrome and the functional outcomes of hip and knee arthroplasty. J Rheumatol. 2010;37(9):1917–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gandhi K, Viscusi ER, Schwenk ES, Pulido L, Parvizi J. Quantifying cardiovascular risks in patients with metabolic syndrome undergoing total joint arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2011. Accessed 23 Oct 2011.
  43. 43.
    Dy CJ, Wilkinson JD, Tamariz L, Scully SP. Influence of preoperative cardiovascular risk factor clusters on complications of total joint arthroplasty. Am J Orthop. 2011;40(11):560–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Namba RS, Paxton L, Fithian DC, Stone ML. Obesity and perioperative morbidity in total hip and total knee arthroplasty patients. J Arthroplasty. 2005;20 Suppl 3:46–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Malinzak RA, Ritter MA, Berend ME, et al. Morbidly obese, diabetic, younger, and unilateral joint arthroplasty patients have elevated total joint arthroplasty infection rates. J Arthroplasty. 2009;24(6 Suppl):84–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Winiarsky R, Barth P, Lotke P. Total knee arthroplasty in morbidly obese patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1998;80(12):1770–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Guss D, Bhattacharyya T. Perioperative management of the obese orthopaedic patient. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2006;14(7):425–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Patel VP, Walsh M, Sehgal B, et al. Factors associated with prolonged wound drainage after primary total hip and knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(1):33–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hopf HW, Hunt TK, West JM, et al. Wound tissue oxygen tension predicts the risk of wound infection in surgical patients. Arch Surg. 1997;132(9):997–1004; discussion 1005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pozzilli P, Leslie RD. Infections and diabetes: mechanisms and prospects for prevention. Diabet Med. 1994;11(10):935–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dronge AS, Perkal MF, Kancir S, et al. Long-term glycemic control and postoperative infectious complications. Arch Surg. 2006;141(4):375–80; discussion 380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Moucha CS, Clyburn T, Evans RP, Prokuski L. Modifiable risk factors for surgical site infection. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011;93(4):398–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dowsey MM, Choong PFM. Obesity is a major risk factor for prosthetic infection after primary hip arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466(1):153–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dowsey MM, Choong PFM. Obese diabetic patients are at substantial risk for deep infection after primary TKA. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009;467(6):1577–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Peersman G, Laskin R, Davis J, Peterson M. Infection in total knee replacement: a retrospective review of 6489 total knee replacements. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2001;392:15–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pulido L, Ghanem E, Joshi A, Purtill JJ, Parvizi J. Periprosthetic joint infection: the incidence, timing, and predisposing factors. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466(7):1710–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jorgensen LN, Kallehave F, Christensen E, Siana JE, Gottrup F. Less collagen production in smokers. Surgery. 1998;123(4):450–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Glassman SD, Anagnost SC, Parker A, et al. The effect of cigarette smoking and smoking cessation on spinal fusion. Spine. 2000;25(20):2608–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sørensen LT, Jørgensen S, Petersen LJ, et al. Acute effects of nicotine and smoking on blood flow, tissue oxygen, and aerobe metabolism of the skin and subcutis. J Surg Res. 2009;152(2):224–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Møller AM, Villebro N, Pedersen T, Tønnesen H. Effect of preoperative smoking intervention on postoperative complications: a randomised clinical trial. Lancet. 2002;359(9301):114–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Thomsen T, Villebro N, Møller AM. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(7):CD002294.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Khan LAK, Cowie JG, Ballantyne JA, Brenkel IJ. The complication rate and medium-term functional outcome after total hip replacement in smokers. Hip Int. 2009;19(1):47–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wurtz LD, Feinberg JR, Capello WN, Meldrum R, Kay PJ. Elective primary total hip arthroplasty in octogenarians. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003;58(5):M468–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cram P, Lu X, Kaboli PJ, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of Medicare patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, 1991-2008. JAMA. 2011;305(15):1560–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    MacWilliam CH, Yood MU, Verner JJ, McCarthy BD, Ward RE. Patient-related risk factors that predict poor outcome after total hip replacement. Health Serv Res. 1996;31(5):623–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Greenfield S, Apolone G, McNeil BJ, Cleary PD. The importance of co-existent disease in the occurrence of postoperative complications and one-year recovery in patients undergoing total hip replacement. Comorbidity and outcomes after hip replacement. Med Care. 1993;31(2):141–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Perka C, Arnold U, Buttgereit F. Influencing factors on perioperative morbidity in knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2000;378:183–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kreder HJ, Grosso P, Williams JI, et al. Provider volume and other predictors of outcome after total knee arthroplasty: a population study in Ontario. Can J Surg. 2003;46(1):15–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lai K, Bohm ER, Burnell C, Hedden DR. Presence of medical comorbidities in patients with infected primary hip or knee arthroplasties. J Arthroplasty. 2007;22(5):651–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    De Groot V, Beckerman H, Lankhorst GJ, Bouter LM. How to measure comorbidity. A critical review of available methods. J Clin Epidemiol. 2003;56(3):221–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mortazavi SMJ, Schwartzenberger J, Austin MS, Purtill JJ, Parvizi J. Revision total knee arthroplasty infection: incidence and predictors. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010;468(8):2052–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mak PHK, Campbell RCH, Irwin MG. The ASA physical status classification: inter-observer consistency. American Society of Anesthesiologists. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2002;30(5):633–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ranta S, Hynynen M, Tammisto T. A survey of the ASA physical status classification: significant variation in allocation among Finnish anaesthesiologists. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1997;41(5):629–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Salemi C, Anderson D, Flores D. American Society of Anesthesiology scoring discrepancies affecting the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System: surgical-site-infection risk index rates. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1997;18(4):246–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Culver DH, Horan TC, Gaynes RP, et al. Surgical wound infection rates by wound class, operative procedure, and patient risk index. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. Am J Med. 1991;91(3B):152S–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gaynes RP, Culver DH, Horan TC, et al. Surgical site infection (SSI) rates in the United States, 1992-1998: the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System basic SSI risk index. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33 Suppl 2:S69–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Anon. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System Report, data summary from January 1992 through June 2004, issued October 2004. Am J Infect Control. 2004;32(8):470–85.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Berbari EF, Hanssen AD, Duffy MC, et al. Risk factors for prosthetic joint infection: case-control study. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;27(5):1247–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Luessenhop CP, Higgins LD, Brause BD, Ranawat CS. Multiple prosthetic infections after total joint arthroplasty. Risk factor analysis. J Arthroplasty. 1996;11(7):862–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bongartz T, Halligan CS, Osmon DR, et al. Incidence and risk factors of prosthetic joint infection after total hip or knee replacement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;59(12):1713–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Doran MF, Crowson CS, Pond GR, O’Fallon WM, Gabriel SE. Frequency of infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with controls: a population-based study. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46(9):2287–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    White RH, McCurdy SA, Marder RA. Early morbidity after total hip replacement: rheumatoid arthritis versus osteoarthritis. J Gen Intern Med. 1990;5(4):304–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wicke C, Halliday B, Allen D, et al. Effects of steroids and retinoids on wound healing. Arch Surg. 2000;135(11):1265–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Berbari EF, Osmon DR, Duffy MCT, et al. Outcome of prosthetic joint infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: the impact of medical and surgical therapy in 200 episodes. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42(2):216–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bassetti S, Wasmer S, Hasler P, et al. Staphylococcus aureus in patients with rheumatoid arthritis under conventional and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment. J Rheumatol. 2005;32(11):2125–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Jackson MS, Bagg J, Gupta MN, Sturrock RD. Oral carriage of staphylococci in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 1999;38(6):572–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Olsen NJ, Stein CM. New drugs for rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(21):2167–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Howe CR, Gardner GC, Kadel NJ. Perioperative medication management for the patient with rheumatoid arthritis. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2006;14(9):544–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Grennan D, Gray J, Loudon J, Fear S. Methotrexate and early postoperative complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery. Ann Rheum Dis. 2001;60(3):214–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    McInnes IB, Schett G. Cytokines in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Nat Rev Immunol. 2007;7(6):429–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Momohara S, Kawakami K, Iwamoto T, et al. Prosthetic joint infection after total hip or knee arthroplasty in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with nonbiologic and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Mod Rheumatol. 2011;21(5):469–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Giles JT, Bartlett SJ, Gelber AC, et al. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitor therapy and risk of serious postoperative orthopedic infection in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;55(2):333–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bongartz T, Sutton AJ, Sweeting MJ, et al. Anti-TNF antibody therapy in rheumatoid arthritis and the risk of serious infections and malignancies. JAMA. 2006;295(19):2275–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Zintzaras E, Dahabreh IJ, Giannouli S, Voulgarelis M, Moutsopoulos HM. Infliximab and methotrexate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of dosage regimens. Clin Ther. 2008;30(11):1939–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Jafari SM, Casper DS, Restrepo C, et al. Periprosthetic joint infection: are patients with multiple prosthetic joints at risk? J Arthroplasty. 2012;27(6):877–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Bolognesi MP, Marchant Jr MH, Viens NA, et al. The impact of diabetes on perioperative patient outcomes after total hip and total knee arthroplasty in the United States. J Arthroplasty. 2008;23(6 Suppl 1):92–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Umpierrez GE, Hellman R, Korytkowski MT, et al. Management of hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients in non-critical care setting: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(1):16–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Pomposelli JJ, Baxter III JK, Babineau TJ, et al. Early postoperative glucose control predicts nosocomial infection rate in diabetic patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1998;22(2):77–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Meding JB, Reddleman K, Keating ME, et al. Total knee replacement in patients with diabetes mellitus. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2003;416:208–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Iorio R, Williams KM, Marcantonio AJ, et al. Diabetes mellitus, hemoglobin A1C, and the incidence of total joint arthroplasty infection. J Arthroplasty. 2011. Accessed 26 Jan 2012.
  101. 101.
    Marchant MH, Viens NA, Cook C, Vail TP, Bolognesi MP. The impact of glycemic control and diabetes mellitus on perioperative outcomes after total joint arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009;91(7):1621–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mraovic B, Suh D, Jacovides C, Parvizi J. Perioperative hyperglycemia and postoperative infection after lower limb arthroplasty. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2011;5(2):412–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Anon. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Lancet. 1998;352(9131):837–53.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Anon. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1993;329(14):977–86.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Anon. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2008. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(Suppl 1):S12–54.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Mraovic B, Hipszer BR, Epstein RH, et al. Preadmission hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for in-hospital symptomatic pulmonary embolism after major orthopedic surgery. J Arthroplasty. 2010;25(1):64–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Jain NB, Guller U, Pietrobon R, Bond TK, Higgins LD. Comorbidities increase complication rates in patients having arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2005;435:232–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Yang K, Yeo SJ, Lee BP, Lo NN. Total knee arthroplasty in diabetic patients: a study of 109 consecutive cases. J Arthroplasty. 2001;16(1):102–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Serna F, Mont MA, Krackow KA, Hungerford DS. Total knee arthroplasty in diabetic patients. Comparison to a matched control group. J Arthroplasty. 1994;9(4):375–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Moeckel B, Huo MH, Salvati EA, Pellicci PM. Total hip arthroplasty in patients with diabetes mellitus. J Arthroplasty. 1993;8(3):279–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    England SP, Stern SH, Insall JN, Windsor RE. Total knee arthroplasty in diabetes mellitus. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1990;260:130–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Papagelopoulos PJ, Idusuyi OB, Wallrichs SL, Morrey BF. Long term outcome and survivorship analysis of primary total knee arthroplasty in patients with diabetes mellitus. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1996;330:124–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Wymenga AB, Van Horn JR, Theeuwes A, Muytjens HL, Slooff TJ. Perioperative factors associated with septic arthritis after arthroplasty. Prospective multicenter study of 362 knee and 2,651 hip operations. Acta Orthop Scand. 1992;63(6):665–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Burgos LG, Ebert TJ, Asiddao C, et al. Increased intraoperative cardiovascular morbidity in diabetics with autonomic neuropathy. Anesthesiology. 1989;70(4):591–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Rizvi AA, Chillag SA, Chillag KJ. Perioperative management of diabetes and hyperglycemia in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2010;18(7):426–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Bozic KJ, Lau E, Kurtz S, Ong K, Berry DJ. Patient-related risk factors for postoperative mortality and periprosthetic joint infection in medicare patients undergoing TKA. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012;470(1):130–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Liddle AD, Abram S, Iyer S, Andrade AJ. Streptococcus gallolyticus prosthetic joint infection associated with undiagnosed colonic malignancy. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2012;20(6):1069–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Allerberger F, Kasten MJ, Cockerill III FR, Krismer M, Dierich MP. Listeria monocytogenes infection in prosthetic joints. Int Orthop. 1992;16(3):237–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Chougle A, Narayanaswamy V. Delayed presentation of prosthetic joint infection due to Listeria monocytogenes. Int J Clin Pract. 2004;58(4):420–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Morshed S, Malek F, Silverstein RM, O’Donnell RJ. Clostridium cadaveris septic arthritis after total hip arthroplasty in a metastatic breast cancer patient. J Arthroplasty. 2007;22(2):289–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Chodos MD, Johnson CA. Hematogenous infection of a total knee arthroplasty with Klebsiella pneumoniae in association with occult adenocarcinoma of the cecum. J Arthroplasty. 2009;24(1):158.e9–13.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Finn OJ. Immune response as a biomarker for cancer detection and a lot more. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(12):1288–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Klein RS, Recco RA, Catalano MT, et al. Association of Streptococcus bovis with carcinoma of the colon. N Engl J Med. 1977;297(15):800–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Srivastava A, Ostrander J, Martin S, Walter N. Mycobacterium bovis infection of total hip arthroplasty after intravesicular Bacille Calmette-Guérin therapy. Am J Orthop. 2011;40(11):E226–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Habermann B, Eberhardt C, Kurth AA. Total joint replacement in HIV positive patients. J Infect. 2008;57(1):41–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Harrison WJ. HIV/AIDS in trauma and orthopaedic surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2005;87(9):1178–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Allroggen A, Frese A, Rahmann A, et al. HIV associated arthritis: case report and review of the literature. Eur J Med Res. 2005;10(7):305–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Hicks JL, Ribbans WJ, Buzzard B, et al. Infected joint replacements in HIV-positive patients with haemophilia. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2001;83(7):1050–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Luck Jr JV, Logan LR, Benson DR, Glasser DB. Human immunodeficiency virus infection: complications and outcome of orthopaedic surgery. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1996;4(6):297–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Ganesh R, Castle D, McGibbon D, Phillips I, Bradbeer C. Staphylococcal carriage and HIV infection. Lancet. 1989;2(8662):558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Birch NC, Ribbans WJ, Goldman E, Lee CA. Knee replacement in haemophilia. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1994;76(1):165–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Unger AS, Kessler CM, Lewis RJ. Total knee arthroplasty in human immunodeficiency virus-infected hemophiliacs. J Arthroplasty. 1995;10(4):448–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Phillips AM, Sabin CA, Ribbans WJ, Lee CA. Orthopaedic surgery in hemophilic patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1997;343:81–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Ragni MV, Crossett LS, Herndon JH. Postoperative infection following orthopaedic surgery in human immunodeficiency virus-infected hemophiliacs with CD4 counts < or = 200/mm3. J Arthroplasty. 1995;10(6):716–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Harrison WJ, Lewis CP, Lavy CBD. Wound healing after implant surgery in HIV-positive patients. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2002;84(6):802–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Guth AA, Hofstetter SR, Pachter HL. Human immunodeficiency virus and the trauma patient: factors influencing postoperative infectious complications. J Trauma. 1996;41(2):251–5; discussion 255–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Parvizi J, Sullivan TA, Pagnano MW, Trousdale RT, Bolander ME. Total joint arthroplasty in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients: an alarming rate of early failure. J Arthroplasty. 2003;18(3):259–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Govender S, Harrison WJ, Lukhele M. Impact of HIV on bone and joint surgery. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2008;22(4):605–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Hagar W, Vichinsky E. Advances in clinical research in sickle cell disease. Br J Haematol. 2008;141(3):346–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Steinberg MH. Management of sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(13):1021–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Jeong GK, Ruchelsman DE, Jazrawi LM, Jaffe WL. Total hip arthroplasty in sickle cell hemoglobinopathies. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2005;13(3):208–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Vichinsky EP, Neumayr LD, Haberkern C, et al. The perioperative complication rate of orthopedic surgery in sickle cell disease: report of the National Sickle Cell Surgery Study Group. Am J Hematol. 1999;62(3):129–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Hernigou P, Zilber S, Filippini P, et al. Total THA in adult osteonecrosis related to sickle cell disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466(2):300–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Acurio MT, Friedman RJ. Hip arthroplasty in patients with sickle-cell haemoglobinopathy. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1992;74(3):367–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Moran MC, Huo MH, Garvin KL, Pellicci PM, Salvati EA. Total hip arthroplasty in sickle cell hemoglobinopathy. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1993;294:140–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kamble S, Telen MJ, Dinan MA, Grussemeyer CA, Reed SD. Costs and length of stay for patients with and without sickle cell disease after hysterectomy, appendectomy, or knee replacement. Am J Hematol. 2010;85(1):79–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Ilyas I, Moreau P. Simultaneous bilateral total hip arthroplasty in sickle cell disease. J Arthroplasty. 2002;17(4):441–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Norian JM, Ries MD, Karp S, Hambleton J. Total knee arthroplasty in hemophilic arthropathy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002;84-A(7):1138–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Goddard NJ, Mann HA, Lee CA. Total knee replacement in patients with end-stage haemophilic arthropathy: 25-year results. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010;92(8):1085–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Rodriguez-Merchan EC. Total knee replacement in haemophilic arthropathy. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2007;89(2):186–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Rodriguez-Merchan EC, Gomez-Cardero P, Jimenez-Yuste V. Infection after total knee arthroplasty in haemophilic arthropathy with special emphasis on late infection. Haemophilia. 2011;17(5):e831–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Solimeno LP, Mancuso ME, Pasta G, et al. Factors influencing the long-term outcome of primary total knee replacement in haemophiliacs: a review of 116 procedures at a single institution. Br J Haematol. 2009;145(2):227–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Chiang CC, Chen PQ, Shen MC, Tsai W. Total knee arthroplasty for severe haemophilic arthropathy: long-term experience in Taiwan. Haemophilia. 2008;14(4):828–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Massin P, Lautridou C, Cappelli M, et al. Total knee arthroplasty with limitations of flexion. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2009;95(4 Suppl 1):S1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Silva M, Luck Jr JV. Long-term results of primary total knee replacement in patients with hemophilia. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87(1):85–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Galat DD, McGovern SC, Hanssen AD, et al. Early return to surgery for evacuation of a postoperative hematoma after primary total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90(11):2331–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Zingg PO, Fucentese SF, Lutz W, et al. Haemophilic knee arthropathy: long-term outcome after total knee replacement. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2012. Accessed May 19, 2012.
  158. 158.
    Jensen JE, Smith TK, Jensen TG, et al. The Frank Stinchfield Award Paper. Nutritional assessment of orthopaedic patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery. Hip. 1981:123–35.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Greene KA, Wilde AH, Stulberg BN. Preoperative nutritional status of total joint patients. Relationship to postoperative wound complications. J Arthroplasty. 1991;6(4):321–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Nawabi DH, Chin KF, Keen RW, Haddad FS. Vitamin D deficiency in patients with osteoarthritis undergoing total hip replacement: a cause for concern? J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010;92(4):496–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Lavernia CJ, Sierra RJ, Baerga L. Nutritional parameters and short term outcome in arthroplasty. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999;18(3):274–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Gherini S, Vaughn BK, Lombardi Jr AV, Mallory TH. Delayed wound healing and nutritional deficiencies after total hip arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1993;293:188–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Marín LA, Salido JA, López A, Silva A. Preoperative nutritional evaluation as a prognostic tool for wound healing. Acta Orthop Scand. 2002;73(1):2–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Del Savio GC, Zelicof SB, Wexler LM, et al. Preoperative nutritional status and outcome of elective total hip replacement. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1996;326:153–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Jaberi FM, Parvizi J, Haytmanek CT, Joshi A, Purtill J. Procrastination of wound drainage and malnutrition affect the outcome of joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466(6):1368–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Bozic KJ, Lau E, Kurtz S, et al. Patient-related risk factors for periprosthetic joint infection and postoperative mortality following total hip arthroplasty in medicare patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94(9):794–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Suzuki G, Saito S, Ishii T, et al. Previous fracture surgery is a major risk factor of infection after total knee arthroplasty. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011;19(12):2040–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Abramson S, Weissmann G. The mechanisms of action of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1989;7 Suppl 3:S163–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Parvizi J, Miller AG, Gandhi K. Multimodal pain management after total joint arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011;93(11):1075–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Samama CM, Bastien O, Forestier F, et al. Antiplatelet agents in the perioperative period: expert recommendations of the French Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care (SFAR) 2001–summary statement. Can J Anaesth. 2002;49(6):S26–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Robinson CM, Christie J, Malcolm-Smith N. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, perioperative blood loss, and transfusion requirements in elective hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 1993;8(6):607–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Patrono C, García Rodríguez LA, Landolfi R, Baigent C. Low-dose aspirin for the prevention of atherothrombosis. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(22):2373–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Blasco-Colmenares E, Perl TM, Guallar E, et al. Aspirin plus clopidogrel and risk of infection after coronary artery bypass surgery. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(8):788–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Biancari F, Airaksinen KEJ, Lip GYH. Benefits and risks of using clopidogrel before coronary artery bypass surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials and observational studies. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012;143(3):665–75.e4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Klinger MHF, Jelkmann W. Role of blood platelets in infection and inflammation. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2002;22(9):913–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Von Hundelshausen P, Weber C. Platelets as immune cells: bridging inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Circ Res. 2007;100(1):27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Nandi S, Aghazadeh M, Talmo C, Robbins C, Bono J. Perioperative clopidogrel and postoperative events after hip and knee arthroplasties. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012;470(5):1436–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Haas SB, Barrack RL, Westrich G. Venous thromboembolic disease after total hip and knee arthroplasty. Instr Course Lect. 2009;58:781–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Douketis JD, Eikelboom JW, Quinlan DJ, Willan AR, Crowther MA. Short-duration prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism after total hip or knee replacement: a meta-analysis of prospective studies investigating symptomatic outcomes. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162(13):1465–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Parvizi J, Ghanem E, Joshi A, et al. Does “excessive” anticoagulation predispose to periprosthetic infection? J Arthroplasty. 2007;22(6 Suppl 2):24–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Stern SH, Wixson RL, O’Connor D. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of enoxaparin and warfarin for prevention of deep vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2000;15(2):153–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Fitzgerald RH, Spiro TE, Trowbridge AA, et al. Prevention of venous thromboembolic disease following primary total knee arthroplasty. A randomized, multicenter, open-label, parallel-group comparison of enoxaparin and warfarin. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001;83-A(6):900–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Colwell Jr CW, Collis DK, Paulson R, et al. Comparison of enoxaparin and warfarin for the prevention of venous thromboembolic disease after total hip arthroplasty. Evaluation during hospitalization and three months after discharge. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1999;81(7):932–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Sachs RA, Smith JH, Kuney M, Paxton L. Does anticoagulation do more harm than good?: A comparison of patients treated without prophylaxis and patients treated with low-dose warfarin after total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2003;18(4):389–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Minnema B, Vearncombe M, Augustin A, Gollish J, Simor AE. Risk factors for surgical-site infection following primary total knee arthroplasty. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004;25(6):477–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Wilson MG, Kelley K, Thornhill TS. Infection as a complication of total knee-replacement arthroplasty. Risk factors and treatment in sixty-seven cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1990;72(6):878–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Wroblewski BM, Siney PD, Fleming PA. Charnley low-frictional torque arthroplasty in patients under the age of 51 years. Follow-up to 33 years. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2002;84(4):540–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Kluytmans J, Van Belkum A, Verbrugh H. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology, underlying mechanisms, and associated risks. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1997;10(3):505–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Shuter J, Hatcher VB, Lowy FD. Staphylococcus aureus binding to human nasal mucin. Infect Immun. 1996;64(1):310–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Paule SM, Pasquariello AC, Hacek DM, et al. Direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus from adult and neonate nasal swab specimens using real-time polymerase chain reaction. J Mol Diagn. 2004;6(3):191–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Perl TM, Cullen JJ, Wenzel RP, et al. Intranasal mupirocin to prevent postoperative Staphylococcus aureus infections. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(24):1871–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Van Rijen M, Bonten M, Wenzel R, et al. Mupirocin ointment for preventing Staphylococcus aureus infections in nasal carriers. The Cochrane Library. Wiley. Accessed 8 March 2012.
  193. 193.
    Trautmann M, Stecher J, Hemmer W, Luz K, Panknin HT. Intranasal mupirocin prophylaxis in elective surgery. A review of published studies. Chemotherapy. 2008;54(1):9–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Rao N, Cannella BA, Crossett LS, et al. Preoperative screening/decolonization for Staphylococcus aureus to prevent orthopedic surgical site infection: prospective cohort study with 2-year follow-up. J Arthroplasty. 2011;26(8):1501–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Bozic KJ, Maselli J, Pekow PS, et al. The influence of procedure volumes and standardization of care on quality and efficiency in total joint replacement surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92(16):2643–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Katz JN, Losina E, Barrett J, et al. Association between hospital and surgeon procedure volume and outcomes of total hip replacement in the united states medicare population*. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001;83(11):1622–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Kreder HJ, Deyo RA, Koepsell T, Swiontkowski MF, Kreuter W. Relationship between the volume of total hip replacements performed by providers and the rates of postoperative complications in the state of Washington. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1997;79(4):485–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Lau RL, Perruccio AV, Gandhi R, Mahomed NN. The role of surgeon volume on patient outcome in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review of the literature. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Småbrekke A, Espehaug B, Havelin LI, Furnes O. Operating time and survival of primary total hip replacements: an analysis of 31,745 primary cemented and uncemented total hip replacements from local hospitals reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register 1987-2001. Acta Orthop Scand. 2004;75(5):524–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Urquhart DM, Hanna FS, Brennan SL, et al. Incidence and risk factors for deep surgical site infection after primary total hip arthroplasty: a systematic review. J Arthroplasty. 2010;25(8):1216–1222.e1-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Hervey SL, Purves HR, Guller U, et al. Provider volume of total knee arthroplasties and patient outcomes in the HCUP-nationwide inpatient sample. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85-A(9):1775–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Bengtson S, Knutson K. The infected knee arthroplasty. A 6-year follow-up of 357 cases. Acta Orthop Scand. 1991;62(4):301–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Furnes O, Espehaug B, Lie SA, et al. Failure mechanisms after unicompartmental and tricompartmental primary knee replacement with cement. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(3):519–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Poss R, Thornhill TS, Ewald FC, et al. Factors influencing the incidence and outcome of infection following total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1984;182:117–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Blom AW, Brown J, Taylor AH, et al. Infection after total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2004;86(5):688–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Ahnfelt L, Herberts P, Malchau H, Andersson GB. Prognosis of total hip replacement. A Swedish multicenter study of 4,664 revisions. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl. 1990;238:1–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Huotari K, Agthe N, Lyytikäinen O. Validation of surgical site infection surveillance in orthopedic procedures. Am J Infect Control. 2007;35(4):216–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Leong G, Wilson J, Charlett A. Duration of operation as a risk factor for surgical site infection: comparison of English and US data. J Hosp Infect. 2006;63(3):255–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Namdari S, Voleti PB, Baldwin KD, Lee G-C. Primary total joint arthroplasty performed in operating rooms following cases of known infection. Orthopedics. 2011;34(9):e541–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Sessler DI. Long-term consequences of anesthetic management. Anesthesiology. 2009;111(1):1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Mauermann WJ, Nemergut EC. The anesthesiologist’s role in the prevention of surgical site infections. Anesthesiology. 2006;105(2):413–21; quiz 439–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Hunt TK, Hopf HW. Wound healing and wound infection. What surgeons and anesthesiologists can do. Surg Clin North Am. 1997;77(3):587–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Turina M, Fry DE, Polk Jr HC. Acute hyperglycemia and the innate immune system: clinical, cellular, and molecular aspects. Crit Care Med. 2005;33(7):1624–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Higuera CA, Elsharkawy K, Klika AK, Brocone M, Barsoum WK. 2010 Mid-America Orthopaedic Association Physician in Training Award: predictors of early adverse outcomes after knee and hip arthroplasty in geriatric patients. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469(5):1391–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Chang C-C, Lin H-C, Lin H-W, Lin H-C. Anesthetic management and surgical site infections in total hip or knee replacement: a population-based study. Anesthesiology. 2010;113(2):279–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Sessler DI. Neuraxial anesthesia and surgical site infection. Anesthesiology. 2010;113(2):265–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Saleh K, Olson M, Resig S, et al. Predictors of wound infection in hip and knee joint replacement: results from a 20 year surveillance program. J Orthop Res. 2002;20(3):506–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Dennis DA. Wound complications in total knee arthroplasty. Instr Course Lect. 1997;46:165–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Galat DD, McGovern SC, Larson DR, et al. Surgical treatment of early wound complications following primary total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009;91(1):48–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Murdoch DR, Roberts SA, Fowler Jr VG, et al. Infection of orthopedic prostheses after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32(4):647–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Sendi P, Banderet F, Graber P, Zimmerli W. Periprosthetic joint infection following Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. J Infect. 2011;63(1):17–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Zmistowski B, Fedorka CJ, Sheehan E, et al. Prosthetic joint infection caused by gram-negative organisms. J Arthroplasty. 2011. Accessed 12 July 2011.
  223. 223.
    Iorio R, Healy WL, Patch DA, Appleby D. The role of bladder catheterization in total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2000;380:80–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Wald HL, Ma A, Bratzler DW, Kramer AM. Indwelling urinary catheter use in the postoperative period: analysis of the National Surgical Infection Prevention Project Data. Arch Surg. 2008;143(6):551–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Michelson JD, Lotke PA, Steinberg ME. Urinary-bladder management after total joint-replacement surgery. N Engl J Med. 1988;319(6):321–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Oishi CS, Williams VJ, Hanson PB, et al. Perioperative bladder management after primary total hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 1995;10(6):732–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Hozack WJ, Carpiniello V, Booth Jr RE. The effect of early bladder catheterization on the incidence of urinary complications after total joint replacement. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1988;231:79–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Esperatti M, Ferrer M, Theessen A, et al. Nosocomial pneumonia in the intensive care unit acquired by mechanically ventilated versus nonventilated patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182(12):1533–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Leu H-S, Kaiser DL, Mori M, Woolson RF, Wenzel RP. Hospital-acquired pneumonia attributable mortality and morbidity. Am J Epidemiol. 1989;129(6):1258–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Torres A, Aznar R, Gatell JM, et al. Incidence, risk, and prognosis factors of nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1990;142(3):523–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Parvizi J, Mui A, Purtill JJ, et al. Total joint arthroplasty: when do fatal or near-fatal complications occur? J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(1):27–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Pulido L, Parvizi J, Macgibeny M, et al. In hospital complications after total joint arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2008;23(6 Suppl 1):139–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Ekkelenkamp MB, Van der Bruggen T, Van de Vijver DAMC, Wolfs TFW, Bonten MJM. Bacteremic complications of intravascular catheters colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46(1):114–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Lalani T, Chu VH, Grussemeyer CA, et al. Clinical outcomes and costs among patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and orthopedic device infections. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008;40(11–12):973–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Del Pozo JL, Patel R. Infection associated with prosthetic joints. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(8):787–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Raghavan M, Marik PE. Anemia, allogenic blood transfusion, and immunomodulation in the critically ill. Chest. 2005;127(1):295–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Vorhies JS, Wang Y, Herndon J, Maloney WJ, Huddleston JI. Readmission and length of stay after total hip arthroplasty in a national Medicare sample. J Arthroplasty. 2011;26(6 Suppl):119–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Zmistowski B, Hozack WJ, Parvizi J. Readmission rates after total hip arthroplasty. JAMA. 2011;306(8):825; author reply 825–6.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Zimmerli W, Sendi P. Antibiotics for prevention of periprosthetic joint infection following dentistry: time to focus on data. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(1):17–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Matar WY, Jafari SM, Restrepo C, et al. Preventing infection in total joint arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92 Suppl 2:36–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Anon. Antibiotic prophylaxis for dental patients with total joint replacements. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003;134(7):895–9.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Uçkay I, Pittet D, Bernard L, et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis before invasive dental procedures in patients with arthroplasties of the hip and knee. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2008;90(7):833–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Anon. Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacteremia in patients with joint replacements information—AAOS. Accessed 16 April 2012.
  244. 244.
    Berbari EF, Osmon DR, Carr A, et al. Dental procedures as risk factors for prosthetic hip or knee infection: a hospital-based prospective case-control study. Clin Infect Dis. 2009. Accessed 7 Dec 2009.
  245. 245.
    Waldman BJ, Mont MA, Hungerford DS. Total knee arthroplasty infections associated with dental procedures. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1997;343:164–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    LaPorte DM, Waldman BJ, Mont MA, Hungerford DS. Infections associated with dental procedures in total hip arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1999;81(1):56–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Lindqvist C, Slätis P. Dental bacteremia–a neglected cause of arthroplasty infections? Three hip cases. Acta Orthop Scand. 1985;56(6):506–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Kaar TK, Bogoch ER, Devlin HR. Acute metastatic infection of a revision total hip arthroplasty with oral bacteria after noninvasive dental treatment. J Arthroplasty. 2000;15(5):675–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Hu J, Liu Y, Lv Z, et al. Mortality and morbidity associated with simultaneous bilateral or staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2011;131(9):1291–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Hutchinson JRM, Parish EN, Cross MJ. A comparison of bilateral uncemented total knee arthroplasty: simultaneous or staged? J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2006;88(1):40–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Meehan JP, Danielsen B, Tancredi DJ, et al. A population-based comparison of the incidence of adverse outcomes after simultaneous-bilateral and staged-bilateral total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011;93(23):2203–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Restrepo C, Parvizi J, Dietrich T, Einhorn TA. Safety of simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty. A meta-analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(6):1220–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedics, Rothman Institute of OrthopaedicsThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedics SurgeryHospital Costa Del SolMarbella, MalagaSpain

Personalised recommendations