Olive Oil Oxidation

  • Maria T. Morales
  • Roman Przybylski


Lipid oxidation has been recognized as the major problem affecting edible oils, as it is the cause of important deteriorative changes in their chemical, sensory, and nutritional properties. Autoxidation and photooxygenation, which are due to the presence of oxygen in air, are virtually inevitable. As lipids oxidize, they may form hydroperoxides, which are susceptible to further oxidation or decomposition into secondary reaction products such as aldehydes, ketones, acids, and alcohols. In many cases, these compounds adversely affect flavor, aroma, taste, nutritional value, and overall quality. Many catalytic systems can oxidize lipids. Most of these reactions involve some type of free radical or oxygen species. The oxidation may be produced either in the dark or in the presence of light, which have differences in their oxidation pathway due to the action of external variables.

Virgin olive oil is considered to be resistant to oxidative degradation due to a low content of saturated fatty acids, a high monounsaturated-to-polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio, and the presence of natural antioxidant minor components such as α-tocopherol and phenolic compounds. Nevertheless, oxidative degradation in olive oil is the most important cause of an unfavorable sensory perception. This chapter revises the oxidative deterioration of olive oil considering enzymatic oxidative deterioration, autoxidation, and photosensitized oxidation. The role of primary and secondary oxidation products and the effect of minor components during oil oxidation are also discussed.

Deep-fat frying is one of the oldest and most popular food preparation methods. Complex reactions happen during deep-fat frying, generating the formation of pleasant or unfavorable flavors and affecting the color, texture, and nutritional value of the fried foods. A revision of this aspect is reported in the chapter, which also describes the different processes and components formed.

The chapter describes the different analytical methods developed to measure the extent of oxidation by means of the quantification of the products formed or involved in this deteriorating process. The chapter also reviews the changes in the chemical compounds responsible for virgin olive oil flavor and the formation of off-flavors produced through oxidative pathways and discusses the sensory characterization of the volatile compounds responsible for off-flavors. Finally, the analysis of oxidation secondary products in olive oil is carried out using different kinds of sensors, usually disposed as a sensor array, which are connected to a pattern recognition procedure to discriminate between high-quality and oxidized/rancid oils.


Volatile Compound Peroxide Value Photosensitize Oxidation Anisidine Value Thermooxidative Degradation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Allouche Y, Jimenez A, Gaforio JJ, Uceda M, Beltrán G (2007) How heating affects extra virgin olive oil quality indexes and chemical composition. J Agric Food Chem 55:9646–9654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alter M, Gutfinger T (1982) Phospholipids in several vegetable oils. Riv Ital Sost Grasse 59:14–18Google Scholar
  3. Andrikopoulos NK, Dedoussis GVZ, Falirea A, Kalogeropoulos N, Hatzinikola HS (2002) Deterioration of natural antioxidant species of vegetable edible oils during the domestic deep-frying and pan-frying of potatoes. Int J Food Sci Nutr 53:351–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angerosa F, di Giacinto L (1993) Oxidation of virgin olive oil by metals: Mn and Ni. Rev Fran Corps Gras 40:41–48Google Scholar
  5. Aparicio R, Morales MT (1998) Characterization of olives ripeness by green aroma compounds of virgin olive oil. J Agric Food Chem 46:1116–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aparicio R, Alonso V, Morales MT (1996a) Developments in olive oil authentication. In: Food authenticity: methods for the measurement of food authenticity and adulteration. Royal Society of Chemistry, Norwich, pp 84–122Google Scholar
  7. Aparicio R, Morales MT, Alonso MV (1996b) Relationship between volatile compounds and sensory attributes of olive oils by the sensory wheel. J Am Oil Chem Soc 73:1253–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aparicio R, Roda L, Albi MA, Gutiérrez F (1999) Effect of various compounds on virgin olive oil stability measured by Rancimat. J Agric Food Chem 47:4150–4155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aparicio R, Rocha SM, Delgadillo I, Morales MT (2000) Detection of rancid defect in virgin olive oil by the electronic nose. J Agric Food Chem 48:853–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bastida S, Sanchez-Muniz FJ (2001) Thermal oxidation of olive oil, sunflower oil and a mix of both oils during forty discontinuous domestic fryings of different foods. Food Sci Technol Int 7:15–21Google Scholar
  11. Baur C, Grosch W, Wieser H, Jugel H (1977) Enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid: formation of bitter tasting fatty acids. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 164:171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bellus D (1978) Quenchers of singlet oxygen – a critical review. In: Ranby B, Rabek JF (eds) Singlet oxygen reactions with organic compounds and polymers. Wiley, New York, pp 61–110Google Scholar
  13. Beltrán G, Aguilera MP, del Rio C, Sánchez S, Martinez L (2005) Influence of fruit ripening on the natural antioxidant content of Hojiblanca virgin olive oils. Food Chem 89:207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fernández-Gutiùrrez A, Lercker G (2007) Phenolic molecules in virgin olive oils: a survey of their sensory properties, health effects, antioxidant activity and analytical methods. an overview of the last decade. Molecules 12:1679–1719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Biermann V, Wittmann A, Grosch W (1980) Occurrence of bitter hydroxy fatty acids in oat and wheat. Fette Seifen Anstrichm 82:236–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boskou D, Blekas G, Tsimidou M (2005) Phenolic compounds in olive oil and olives. Curr Top Nutraceut R 3:125–136Google Scholar
  17. Boskou G, Salta FN, Chiou A, Troullidou E, Andrikopoulos NK (2006) Content of trans, tans-2,4-decadienal in deep-fried and pan-fried potatoes. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 108:109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bradley DG, Min DB (1992) Singlet oxygen oxidation of foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 31:211–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brenes M, Garcia A, Dobarganes MC, Velasco J, Romero C (2002) Influence of thermal treatments simulating cooking processes on the polyphenol content in virgin olive oil. J Agric Food Chem 50:5962–5967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Buratti S, Benedetti S, Cosio MS (2005) An electronic nose to evaluate olive oil oxidation during storage. Ital J Food Sci 2:203–221Google Scholar
  21. Carlsson DJ, Suprunchuk W, Wiles DM (1976) Photooxidation of unsaturated oils: effects of singlet oxygen quenchers. J Am Oil Chem Soc 53:656–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Casal S, Malheiro R, Sendas A, Oliveira BPP, Pereira JA (2010) Olive oil stability under deep – frying conditions. Food Chem Toxicol 48:2972–2979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Choe E, Min DB (2006) Mechanisms and factors for edible oil oxidation. Compr Rev Food Sci F 5:169–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Choe E, Min DB (2009) Mechanisms of antioxidants in the oxidation of foods. Compr Rev Food Sci F 8:345–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Christopher JP, Pistorius EK, Regnier FE, Axelrod B (1972) Factors influencing the positional specificity of soybean lipoxygenase. Biochem Biophys Acta 289:82–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Christopoulou CN, Perkins EG (1989) Isolation and characterization of dimers formed in used soybean oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 66:1360–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chung J, Lee J, Choe E (2004) Oxidative stability of soybean and sesame oil mixture during frying of flour dough. J Food Sci 69:574–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Clark JP, Hunsicker JC, Megremis CJ (1990) Tocopherols: natures antioxidants. Food Austr 42:262–263Google Scholar
  29. Criado MN, Motilva MJ, Goñi M, Romero MP (2007) Comparative study of the maturation process of the olive fruit on the chlorophylls and carotenoid fractions of drupes and virgin oils from Arbequina and Farga cultivars. Food Chem 100:748–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cuvelier ME, Richard H, Berset C (1992) Comparison of the antioxidative activity of some acid-phenols: structure-activity relationship. Biosci Biotech Biochem 56:324–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Daniels DG, Martin HF (1961) Isolation of a new antioxidant from oat. Nature 191:1302–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. De Man JM, Tie F, De Man L (1987) Formation of short chain volatile organic acids in the automated AOM method. J Am Oil Chem Soc 64:993–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Del Carlo M, Cerretani L, Bendini A, Cichelli A, Compagnone D (2010) Changes of pigment composition of virgin olive during frying process. Riv Ital Sostanze Grasse 87:3–13Google Scholar
  34. Dobarganes MC, Márquez-Ruiz G, Velasco J (2000) Interactions between fat and food during deep-frying. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 102:521–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dobarganes MC, Perez-Camino MC (1988) Fatty acid composition: a useful tool for the determination of alteration level in heated fats. Rev Franç Corps Gras 35:67–70Google Scholar
  36. Dobarganes MC, Rios JJ, Pérez-Camino MC (1986) Relationship between the composition of vegetable oils and the volatile components produced in their thermoxidation. Grasas Aceites 37:61–67Google Scholar
  37. Dziedzic SZ, Hudson BJE (1984) Phenolic acids and related compounds as antioxidants for edible oils. Food Chem 14:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. EC (1995) Official Journal of the Commission of the European Communities, Regulation No. 656/95, L69, Mar 28Google Scholar
  39. EC (1997) Official Journal of the Commission of the European Communities, Regulation No. 2472/97, L341, Dec 11Google Scholar
  40. EC (2007) Official Journal of the Commission of the European Communities, Regulation No. 702/2007, L 161, June 21Google Scholar
  41. EC (2008) Official Journal of the Commission of the European Communities, Regulation No. 640/2008, L 178, July 4Google Scholar
  42. EC (2011) Official Journal of the European Union, Regulation No. 61/2011, L23, January 24Google Scholar
  43. El Riachy M, Priego-Capote F, León L, Rallo L, Luque de Castro MD (2011) Hydrophilic antioxidants of virgin olive oil. Part 1: hydrophilic phenols: a key factor for virgin olive oil quality. Eur J Lipid Sci Tech 113:678–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Endo Y, Usuki R, Keneda T (1984) Prooxidant activities of chlorophylls and their decomposition products on the photooxidation. J Am Oil Chem Soc 61:781–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Eriksson CE, Qvist JA, Vallentin K (1977) Conversion of aldehydes to alcohols in liquid foods by alcohol dehydrogenase. In: Ory RL, St. Angelo AJ (eds) Enzymes in food and beverage processing. American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign, pp 132–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Escuderos ME, Sánchez S, Jimé A (2010) Virgin olive oil sensory evaluation by an artificial olfactory system, based on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors. Sens Act B: Chemical 147:159–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Eskin NAM, Vaisey-Genser M (1989) Applications for genetically modified oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 66:1058–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Eskin NAM, Vaisey-Genser M, Durance–Tod S, Przybylski R (1989) Stability of low linolenic acid canola oil to frying temperatures. J Am Oil Chem Soc 66:1081–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Evans CD, Moser HA, List GR (1971) Odour and flavour responses to additives in edible oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 48:495–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Evans CD, List GR, Moser HA, Conan IC (1973) Long term storage of soybean and cottonseed salad oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 50:218–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Feussner I, Kuhn H, Wasternack C (2001) Lipoxygenase-dependent degradation of storage lipids. Trends Plant Sci 6:268–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Feussner I, Wasternack C (2002) The lipoxygenase pathway. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53:275–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Foote CS (1968) Mechanism of photosensitized oxidation. Science 162:963–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Foote CS (1976) Photosensitized oxidation and singlet oxygen: consequences in biological system. In: Pryor WA (ed) Free radicals in biology, vol 2. Academic, New York, pp 85–97Google Scholar
  55. Foote CS, Denny RW (1970) Chemistry of singlet oxygen. J Am Oil Chem Soc 92:5216–5218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Frankel EN (1962) Hydroperoxides. In: Schultz HW, Day EA, Sinnhuber RO (eds) Symposium on foods: lipids and their oxidation. AVI Publishing Co., Westport, pp 51–78Google Scholar
  57. Frankel EN (1983) Volatile lipid oxidation-products. Prog Lipid Res 22:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Frankel EN (1985) Chemistry of autoxidation: mechanism, products and flavor significance. In: Min DB, Smouse TH (eds) Flavor chemistry of fats and oils. AOCS, Champaign, pp 1–37Google Scholar
  59. Frankel EN (1989) The antioxidant and nutritional effects of tocopherols, ascorbic acid and β-carotene in relation to processing of edible oils. Bibl Nutr Dieta 43:297–312Google Scholar
  60. Frankel EN (1991) Recent advances in lipid oxidation. J Sci Food Agric 54:495–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Frankel EN (1993) In search of better methods to evaluate natural antioxidants and oxidative stability in food lipids. Trends Food Sci Technol 4:220–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Frankel EN (1996) Antioxidants in lipid foods and their impact on food quality. Food Chem 57:51–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Frankel EN (2005) Lipid oxidation, 2nd edn. Oily Press, BridgwaterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Frega N, Mozzon M, Lercker G (1999) Effects of free fatty acids on oxidative stability of vegetable oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 76:325–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gallardo-Guerrero L, Gandul-Rojas B, Roca M, Mínguez-Mosquera MI (2005) Effect of storage on the original pigment profile of Spanish virgin olive oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 82:33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gallina-Toschi T, Cerretani L, Bendini A, Bonoli-Carbognin M, Lercker G (2005) Oxidative stability and phenolic content of virgin olive oil: An analytical approach by traditional and high resolution techniques. Journal of Separation Science 28:859–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gandul-Rojas B, Mínguez-Mosquera MI (1996) Chlorophyll and carotenoid composition in virgin olive oils from various Spanish olive varieties. J Sci Food Agric 72:31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gandul-Rojas B, Cepero MR, Mínguez-Mosquera MI (2000) Use of chlorophyll and carotenoid composition to determine authenticity of virgin olive oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 77:853–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. García-González DL, Aparicio R (2004) Classification of different quality virgin olive oils by metal-oxide sensors. Eur Food ResTechno 218:484–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. García-González DL, Aparicio R (2010) Coupling MOS sensors and gas chromatography to interpret the sensor responses to complex food aroma application to virgin olive oil. Food Chem 120:572–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. García-González DL, Barié N, Rapp M, Aparicio R (2004) Analysis of virgin olive oil volatiles by a novel electronic nose based on a miniaturized SAW sensor array coupled with SPME enhanced headspace enrichment. J Agric Food Chem 52:7475–7479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gardner HW (1987) Reactions of hydroperoxides-products of high molecular weight. In: Chan HW-S (ed) Autoxidation of unsaturated lipids. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  73. Gimeno E, Castellote AI, Lamuela-Raventós RM, de la Torre MC, López-Sabater MC (2002) The effects of harvest and extraction methods on the antioxidant content phenolics, α-tocopherol, and β-carotene in virgin olive oil. Food Chem 78:207–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Giuliani A, Cerretani L, Cichelli A (2011) Chlorophylls in olive and in olive oil: chemistry and occurrences. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 51:678–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gomez-Alonso S, Fregapane G, Salvador MD, Gordon MH (2003) Changes in phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of virgin olive oil during frying. J Agric Food Chem 51:667–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gordon MH, Magos P (1983) The effect of sterols on the oxidation of edible oils. Food Chem 10:141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Guichardant M, Lagarde M (2009) Analysis of biomarkers from lipid peroxidation: a comparative study. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 11:175–182Google Scholar
  78. Gutiérrez-Rosales F, Garrido-Fernández J, Gallardo-Guerrero L, Gandul-Rojas B, Mínguez-Mosquera MI (1992) Action of chlorophylls on the stability of virgin olive oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 69:866–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Haila K, Heinonen M (1994) Action of β-carotene on purified rapeseed oil during light storage. Lebensm Wiss Technol 27:573–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (2001) Free radicals in biology and medicine, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, New York, p 297Google Scholar
  81. Heath HB, Reineccius GA (1986) Flavor chemistry and technology. AVI Publishing, Westport, pp 112–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Henick AS, Benca MF, Mitchell JH (1954) Estimation of carbonyl compounds in rancid fats and foods. J Am Oil Chem Soc 31:881–883Google Scholar
  83. Hiatt R, Mill T, Irwin KC, Mayo TR, Gould CW, Castleman JK (1968) Homolytic decompositions of hydroperoxides. I. Summary and implications for autoxidation. J Org Chem 33:1416–1441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ho CT, Shahidi F (2005) Flavor components of fats and oils. In: Shahidi F (ed) Bailey’s industrial oil and fat products, 6th edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 387–411Google Scholar
  85. Hodgins D (1997) The electronic nose: sensor array-based instruments that emulate the human nose. In: Marsili R (ed) Techniques for analyzing food aroma. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 331–371Google Scholar
  86. Holm U (1972) Quality criteria for edible fats. SIK-Report, No 448. SIK Institute, Göteborg, Sweden, pp 79–88Google Scholar
  87. Houhoula DP, Oreopoulou V, Tzia C (2003) The effect of process time and temperature on the accumulation of polar compounds in cottonseed oil during deep-fat frying. J Sci Food Agric 83:314–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Huang SW, Frankel EN, German JB (1994) Antioxidant activity of α-and γ-tocopherols in bulk oils and in oil-in-water emulsions. J Agric Food Chem 42:2108–2114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hudson BJF, Ghovami M (1984) Phospholipids as antioxidant synergists for tocopherols in the autoxidation of edible oils. Lebensm Wiss Technol 17:191–194Google Scholar
  90. Husain SR, Terao J, Matsushita S (1986) Effect of browning reaction products of phospholipids on autoxidation of methyl linoleate. J Am Oil Chem Soc 63:1457–1460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ingold KU (1969) Peroxy radicals. Accounts Chem Res 2:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Interesse F, Ruggiero S, Vitagliano M (1971) Autoxidation of olive oil: influence of chlorophyll pigments. Ind Agric 9:318–323Google Scholar
  93. International Olive Oil Council (IOC) (1996a) Trade standard applying to olive oil and olive pomace oil. COI/T.15/Doc. nº 2/Rev. 5, Madrid, 20 NovGoogle Scholar
  94. International Olive Oil Council (IOC) (1996b) Organoleptic evaluation of virgin olive oil. COI/T.20/Doc. nº 15/Rev.1, Madrid, 20 NovGoogle Scholar
  95. Jawad IM, Kochhar SP, Hudson BJF (1984) The physical refining of edible oils. II. Effect on unsaponifiable components. Lebensm Wiss Technol 17:155–159Google Scholar
  96. Jung MY, Min DB (1991) α-, γ-, δ-Tocopherols effects on chlorophyll photosensitized oxidation of soybean oil. J Food Sci 56:807–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Jung MY, Yoon SH, Min DB (1989) Effects of processing steps on the contents of minor compounds and oxidation of soybean oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 66:118–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kasai H, Kawai K (2008) 4-oxo-2-hexenal, a mutagen formed by omega-3 fat peroxidation: occurrence, detection and adduct formation. Mutat Res-Rev Mutat 659:56–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Keceli T, Gordon MH (2002) Ferric ions reduce the antioxidant activity of the phenolic fraction of virgin olive oil. J Food Sci 67:943–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kim IH, Kim CJ, Kim DH. 1999. Physicochemical properties of methyl linoleate oxidized at various temperatures. Korean J Food Sci Technol 31:600–605Google Scholar
  101. Kiritsakis A (1990) Olive oil. American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign, pp 104–127Google Scholar
  102. Kiritsakis A, Dugan LR (1985) Studies in photooxidation of olive oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 62:892–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kiritsakis A, Tsipeli A (1992) Relationship of the acidity of olive oil to its resistance to oxidation. Riv Ital Sost Grasse 69:513–515Google Scholar
  104. Knothe G, Kenar JA, Gunstone FD (2007) Chemical properties. Chapter 8. In: Harwood JL, Gunstone FD, Dijkstra AJ (eds) The lipid handbook with CD-ROM, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca-Ratón, pp 535–589Google Scholar
  105. Kochhar SP (1993) Oxidative pathways to the formation of off-flavours. In: Saxby MJ (ed) Food taints and off-flavours. Blackie Academic & Professional, London, pp 150–201Google Scholar
  106. Kochhar SP (2000) Stable and healthful oils for the 21st century. Inform 11:642–647Google Scholar
  107. Kreiss-Rogers E (1997) Biosensors and electronic noses for practical applications. In: Kress-Rogers E (ed) Handbook of biosensors and electronic noses. CRC Press, Boca-Ratón, pp 3–39Google Scholar
  108. Labuza TP (1971) Kinetics of lipid oxidation in foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2:355–395Google Scholar
  109. Lavelli V, Bondesan L (2005) Secoiridoids, tocopherols, and antioxidant activity of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils extracted from destoned fruits. J Agric Food Chem 53:1102–1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lee SH, Kim DH (1992) Effects of β-carotene on the stability of soybean oil subject to autoxidation and photosensitized oxidation. Food Biotechnol 1:1–7Google Scholar
  111. Lee SH, Min DB (1990) Effects, quenching mechanism, and kinetics of carotenoids in chlorophyll-sensitized photooxidation of soybean oil. J Agric Food Chem 38:1630–1634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Leone AM, LaNotte E, Lamparelli F (1976) Analytical significance of sterol fraction of virgin olive oil. Riv Techol Alim Nutr 6:205–209Google Scholar
  113. Lerma-García MJ, Simó-Alfons EF, Bendini A, Cerretani L (2009) Metal oxide semiconductor sensors for monitoring of oxidative status evolution and sensory analysis of virgin olive oils with different phenolic content. Food Chem 117:608–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Luna G, Morales MT, Aparicio R (2006) Changes induced by UV radiation during virgin olive oil storage. J Agric Food Chem 54:4790–4794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Mariani CS, Venturini P, Fedeli E (1993) Determination of hydrocarbons and free and esterified minor components in olive oil of different classes. Riv Ital Sost Grasse 70:321–327Google Scholar
  116. Martín-Polvillo M, Albi T, Guinda A (1994) Determination of trace elements in edible vegetable oils by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. J Am Oil Chem Soc 71:347–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Matthaeus B (2010) Oxidation of edible oils. In: Foods and beverages and antioxidant applications, vol 2, Woodhead Publishing series in food science, technology and nutrition oxidation. Woodhead Publishing, Oxford/Philadelphia, pp 183–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. May WA, Peterson RJ, Chang SS (1983) Chemical-reactions involved in the deep-fat frying of foods. 9. Identification of the volatile decomposition products of triolein. J Am Oil Chem Soc 60:990–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. McEwan JA (1994) Consumer attitudes and olive oil acceptance: the potential consumer. Grasas Aceites 45:9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. McMullen LM, Hawrysh ZJ (1991) Ascorbyl palmitate efficacy in enhancing the accelerated storage stability of canola oil. J Food Sci 56:1651–1654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mehta U, Swinburn B (2001) A review of factors affecting fat absorption in hot chips. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 41:133–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Meijboom PW (1964) Relationship between molecular structure and flavour perceptibility of aliphatic aldehydes. J Am Oil Chem Soc 41:326–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Min DB, Boff JM (2002) Lipid oxidation of edible oil. In: Akoh CC, Min DB (eds) Food lipids. Marcel Dekker, New York, p 344Google Scholar
  124. Mistry BS, Min DB (1987) Effects of fatty acids on the oxidative stability of soybean oil. J Food Sci 52:831–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Miyashita K, Takagi T (1986) Study on the oxidative rate and prooxidant activity of free fatty acids. J Am Oil Chem Soc 63:1380–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Morales MT, Aparicio R, Aparicio-Ruiz R, García-González DL (2000) Detection of defects in virgin olive oil by the electronic nose. In: Flavour and Fragrance Chemistry. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp 151–161Google Scholar
  127. Morales MT, Aparicio R, Calvente JJ (1996) Influence of olive ripeness on the concentration of green aroma compounds in virgin olive oil. Flavour Fragr J 11:171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Morales MT, Rios JJ, Aparicio R (1997) Changes in the volatile composition of virgin olive oil during oxidation: flavors and off-flavors. J Agric Food Chem 45:2666–2673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Morales MT, Angerosa F, Aparicio R (1999) Effect of the extraction conditions of virgin olive oil on the lipoxygenase cascade: chemical and sensory implications. Grasas Aceites 50:114–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Morales MT, Luna G, Aparicio R (2005) Comparative study of virgin olive oil sensory defects. Food Chem 91:293–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Moreira RG, Sun X, Chen Y (1997) Factors affecting oil uptake in tortilla chips in deep-fat frying. J Food Eng 31:485–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Moreira RG, Castell-Perez ME, Barrufet MA (1999a) Oil absorption in fried foods. In: Deep-fat frying; fundamentals and applications. Chapman & Hall Food Science Book, Gaithersburg, pp 179–221Google Scholar
  133. Moreira RG, Castell-Perez ME, Barrufet MA (1999b) Frying oil characteristics. In: Deep-fat frying; fundamentals and applications. Chapman & Hall, Gaithersburg, pp 33–74Google Scholar
  134. Nawar WW (1969) Thermal degradation of lipids. A review. J Agric Food Chem 17:18–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Nawar WW (1985) Chemistry of thermal oxidation. In: Min DB, Smouse TH (eds) Flavor chemistry of fats and oils. American Oil Chemists Society, Champaign, pp 39–60Google Scholar
  136. Noor N, Augustin MA (1984) Effectiveness of antioxidants on the stability of banana chips. J Sci Food Agric 35:805–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Papadopoulos G, Boskou D (1991) Antioxidant effect of natural phenols on olive oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 68:669–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Perrin JL (1992) Minor constituents and natural antioxidants of olives and olive oil. Rev Franç Corps Gras 39:25–32Google Scholar
  139. Pokorny J (1990) Influence of lipid alteration on taste and flavour of foods. Nahrung 34:887–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Pokorny J (1991) Natural antioxidants for food use. Trends Food Sci Technol 2:223–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Przybylski R, Eskin NAM (1988) A comparative-study on the effectiveness of nitrogen or carbon-dioxide flushing in preventing oxidation during the heating of oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 65:629–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Przybylski R, Eskin NAM (1995) Methods to measure volatile compounds and the flavor significance of volatile compounds. In: Methods to assess quality and stability of oils and fat-containing foods. AOCS Press, Champaign, pp 107–133Google Scholar
  143. Przybylski R, Hougen FW (1989) Simple method for estimation of volatile carbonyl compounds in edible oils and fried potato chips. J Am Oil Chem Soc 66:1456–1458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Przybylski R, Malcolmson LJ, Eskin NAM, Durance-Tod S, Mickle J, Carr R (1993) Stability of low linolenic acid canola oil to accelerated storage at 60 °C. Lebensm Wiss Technol 26:205–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Rastrelli L, Passi S, Ippolito F, Vacca G, De Simone F (2002) Rate of degradation of alpha-tocopherol, squalene, phenolics, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in olive oil during different storage conditions. J Agric Food Chem 50:5566–5570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Rawls HR, Van Santen PJ (1970) A possible role for singlet oxygen in the initiation of fatty acid autoxidation. J Am Oil Chem Soc 47:121–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Robards K, Prenzler PD, Tucker G, Swatsitang P, Glover W (1999) Phenolic compounds and their role in oxidative processes in fruits. Food Chem 66:401–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Roca M, Mínguez-Mosquera MI (2001) Changes in the natural ratio between chlorophylls and carotenoids in olive fruit during processing for virgin olive oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 78:133–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Rontani JF, Jameson I, Christodoulou S, Volkman JK (2007) Free radical oxidation (autoxidation) of alkenones and other lipids in cells of Emiliania huxleyi. Phytochemistry 68:913–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Rossell JB (1987) Measurement of rancidity. In: Allen JC, Hamilton RJ (eds) Rancidity in foods. Applied Science Publishers, London, pp 21–45Google Scholar
  151. Rossell JB (2001) Factors affecting the quality of frying oils and fats. In: Rossell JB (ed) Frying. Improving quality. Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Cambridge, pp 116–164Google Scholar
  152. Rudzinska M, Przybylski R, Wasowicz E (2009) Products formed during thermo-oxidative degradation of phytosterols. J Am Oil Chem Soc 86:651–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Rudzinska M, Przybylski R, Zhao YY, Curtis JM (2010) Sitosterol thermo-oxidative degradation leads to the formation of dimers, trimers and oligomers: a study using combined size exclusion chromatography/mass spectrometry. Lipids 45:549–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Ruiz-Lopez M, Artacho R, Pineda MAF, Garcia HL, Martinez MCL (1995) Stability of α-tocopherol in virgin olive oil during microwave heating. Lebensm Wiss Technol 28:644–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Ryan E, McCarthy FO, Maguire AR, O’Brien NM (2009) Phytosterol oxidation products: their formation, occurrence, and biological effects. Food Rev Int 25:157–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Salta FN, Kalogeropoulos N, Karavanou N, Andrikopoulos NK (2008) Distribution and retention of phytosterols in frying oils and fried potatoes during repeated deep and pan frying. Eur Food Res Technol 227:391–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sanders TAB (1983) Nutritional significance of rancidity. In: Allen JC, Hamilton RJ (eds) Rancidity in foods. Applied Science Publishers, London, pp 59–66Google Scholar
  158. Sayago A, Marín MI, Aparicio R, Morales MT (2007) Vitamin E and vegetable oils. Grasas Aceites 58:74–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Schaich KM (1992) Metals and lipid oxidation. Contemporary issues. Lipids 27:209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Schieberle P, Grosch W (1981) Model experiments about the formation of volatile carbonyl compounds. J Am Oil Chem Soc 58:602–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Servili M, Selvaggini R, Esposto S, Taticchi A, Montedoro G, Morozzi G (2004) Health and sensory properties of virgin olive oil hydrophilic phenols: agronomic and technological aspects of production that affect their occurrence in the oil. J Chromatogr A 1054:113–127Google Scholar
  162. Shahidi F, Wanasundra PD (1992) Phenolic antioxidants. Crit Revs Food Sci Nutr 32:67–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Siedow JN (1991) Plant lipoxygenase – structure and function. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 42:145–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Simic MG, Jovanovic SV, Niki E (1992) Mechanisms of lipid oxidative process and their inhibition. In: St. Angelo AJ (ed) Lipid oxidation in food. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 33–54Google Scholar
  165. Snyder JM, Frankel EN, Selke E, Warner K (1988) Comparison of gas chromatographic methods for volatile lipid oxidation compounds in soybean oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 65:1617–1620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Solinas M, Angerosa F, Cucurachi A (1987) Connessione tra prodotti di neoformazione ossidativa delle sostanze grasse e insorgenza del difetto di rancidità all’ esame organolettico. Nota 2. Determinazione quantitativa. Riv Ital Sost Grasse 64:137–145Google Scholar
  167. Solinas M, Angerosa F, Camera L (1988) Evoluzione ossidativa di oli vegetali durante la frittura: determinazione dei componenti volatili mediante HRGC e HPLC. Riv Ital Sost Grasse 65:567–574Google Scholar
  168. St. Angelo A (1996) Lipid oxidation in foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 36:175–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Tena N (2010) Evolution of major and minor components of thermoxidised olive oils: implementation of spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Ph.D. thesis, University of SevilleGoogle Scholar
  170. Toschi TG, Costa A, Lercker G (1997) Gas chromatographic study on high-temperature thermal degradation products of methyl linoleate hydroperoxides. J Am Oil Chem Soc 74:387–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Tseng YC, Moreira RG, Sun X (1996) Total frying-use time effects on soybean-oil deterioration and on tortilla chip quality. Intl J Food Sci Technol 31:287–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Uriarte PS, Guillén MD (2010) Formation of toxic alkylbenzenes in edible oils submitted to frying temperature. Influence of oil composition in main components and heating time. Food Res Internat 43:2161–2170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Usuki R, Endo Y, Kaneda T (1984) Prooxidant activities of chlorophylls, and pheophytins on the photooxidation of edible oils. Agric Biol Chem 48:991–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Velasco J, Dobarganes C (2002) Oxidative stability of virgin olive oil. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 104:661–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Vercellotti JR, St. Angelo AJ, Spanier AM (1992) Lipid oxidation in food: an overview. In: St. Angelo AJ (ed) Lipid oxidation in foods. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Wang T, Hammond EG (2010) Lipoxygenase and lipid oxidation in foods. In: Decker EA, Elias RJ, McClements DJ (eds) Oxidation in foods and beverages and antioxidant applications, vol 1, Understanding mechanisms of oxidation and antioxidant activity. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, pp 105–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Warner K, Frankel EN (1987) Effect of β-carotene on light stability of soybean oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 64:213–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Warner K, Frankel EN, Moulton KJ (1988) Flavor evaluation of crude oil to predict the quality of soybean oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 65:386–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Warner K, Frankel EN, Mounts TL (1989) Flavor and oxidative stability of soybean, sunflower and low erucic rapeseed oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 66:558–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. White PJ, Armstrong LS (1986) Effect of selected oat sterols on the deterioration of heated soybean oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 63:525–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. WHO (2003) Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Technical report series 916. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  182. Wu CM, Chen SY (1992) Volatile compounds in oils after deep frying or stir frying and subsequent storage. J Am Oil Chem Soc 69:858–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Wu H, Weng X (2001) Antioxidant activity of natural tocopherol. Ziran Kexueban 7:142–146Google Scholar
  184. Yamaguchi R, Matsushita S (1977) Quenching effect of tocopherols on methyl linoleate photooxidation and their oxidation products. Agric Biol Chem 41:1425–1430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Yanishleva N, Schiller H (1984) Effect of sitosterol on autoxidation rate and product composition in a model lipid system. J Sci Food Agric 35:219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Yoon SH, Jung MY, Min DB (1988) Effects of thermally oxidized triglycerides on the oxidative stability of soybean oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 65:1652–1656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Zambiazi RC (1997) The role of endogenous lipid components on vegetable oil stability. Ph.D. thesis, University of Manitoba, CanadaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Analytical ChemistryUniversity of SevillaSevilleSpain
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of LethbridgeLethbridgeCanada

Personalised recommendations