Adiposity and Diabetes in Breast and Prostate Cancer

  • Linda Vona-DavisEmail author
  • David P. Rose


Obesity and type 2 diabetes are two of the most common potentially life-threatening diseases among men and women in the developed and developing countries of the world. Both diseases share common factors in the risk and prognosis of breast and prostate cancers. Adiposity, together with type 2 diabetes, promotes an aggressive and metastatic phenotype via endocrine and paracrine mechanisms of action by increasing the expression patterns of hormones and adipokines that are proposed to drive tumor grown. Understanding how the expansion of white adipose tissue, in addition to diabetes, alters the tumor microenvironment could provide links between obesity, metabolic diseases, and cancer progression. The purpose of this chapter is to examine the complex relationships between obesity and type 2 diabetes, and cancers of the breast and prostate, focusing on the biological mechanisms involved, and explaining how adipose tissue acts as a local source of steroid hormones, growth factors, and adipokines, which stimulate the growth cancer cells. Furthermore, the diametrically opposed effects of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes on premenopausal and postmenopausal carcinoma of the breast are discussed, as well as their potential influence on the development of the metastatic phenotype in both breast and prostate cancers.


Breast Cancer Prostate Cancer Breast Cancer Risk Prostate Cancer Risk Postmenopausal Breast Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures 2010. Atlanta: American Cancer Society. 12 Dec 2011 [cited 12 Dec 2011]. Available from
  2. 2.
    Hulka BS, Liu ET, Lininger RA. Steroid hormones and risk of breast cancer. Cancer. 1994;74(3 Suppl):1111–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nacusi LP, Tindall DJ. Targeting 5alpha-reductase for prostate cancer prevention and treatment. Nat Rev Urol. 2011;8(7):378–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bentzon N, During M, Rasmussen BB, Mouridsen H, Kroman N. Prognostic effect of estrogen receptor status across age in primary breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2008;122(5):1089–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Massard C, Fizazi K. Targeting continued androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17(12):3876–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Curtin LR. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2008. JAMA. 2010;303(3):235–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cowie CC, Rust KF, Byrd-Holt DD, Eberhardt MS, Flegal KM, Engelgau MM, et al. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in adults in the U.S. population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(6):1263–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rose DP, Vona-Davis L. Influence of obesity on breast cancer receptor status and prognosis. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2009;9(8):1091–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vona-Davis L, Rose DP. Type 2 diabetes and obesity metabolic interactions: common factors for breast cancer risk and novel approaches to prevention and therapy. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2012;8(2):116–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ursin G, Longnecker MP, Haile RW, Greenland S. A meta-analysis of body mass index and risk of premenopausal breast cancer. Epidemiology. 1995;6(2):137–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    van den Brandt PA, Spiegelman D, Yaun SS, Adami HO, Beeson L, Folsom AR, et al. Pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies on height, weight, and breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;152(6):514–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Peacock SL, White E, Daling JR, Voigt LF, Malone KE. Relation between obesity and breast cancer in young women. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149(4):339–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cecchini RS, Costantino JP, Cauley JA, Cronin WM, Wickerham DL, Land SR, et al. Body mass index and the risk for developing invasive breast cancer among high-risk women in NSABP P-1 and STAR breast cancer prevention trials. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012;5(4):583–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    McTiernan A. Associations between energy balance and body mass index and risk of breast carcinoma in women from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds in the U.S. Cancer. 2000;88(5 Suppl):1248–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stephenson GD, Rose DP. Breast cancer and obesity: an update. Nutr Cancer. 2003;45(1):1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harvie M, Hooper L, Howell AH. Central obesity and breast cancer risk: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2003;4(3):157–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lorincz AM, Sukumar S. Molecular links between obesity and breast cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2006;13(2):279–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lahmann PH, Hoffmann K, Allen N, van Gils CH, Khaw KT, Tehard B, et al. Body size and breast cancer risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Int J Cancer. 2004;111(5):762–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    John EM, Sangaramoorthy M, Phipps AI, Koo J, Horn-Ross PL. Adult body size, hormone receptor status, and premenopausal breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population: the San Francisco Bay Area breast cancer study. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;173(2):201–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Berstad P, Coates RJ, Bernstein L, Folger SG, Malone KE, Marchbanks PA, et al. A case-control study of body mass index and breast cancer risk in white and African-American women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19(6):1532–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ogundiran TO, Huo D, Adenipekun A, Campbell O, Oyesegun R, Akang E, et al. Case-control study of body size and breast cancer risk in Nigerian women. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172(6):682–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Boyd NF, Martin LJ, Sun L, Guo H, Chiarelli A, Hislop G, et al. Body size, mammographic density, and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(11):2086–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kaaks R, Rinaldi S, Key TJ, Berrino F, Peeters PH, Biessy C, et al. Postmenopausal serum androgens, oestrogens and breast cancer risk: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2005;12(4):1071–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Berclaz G, Li S, Price KN, Coates AS, Castiglione-Gertsch M, Rudenstam CM, et al. Body mass index as a prognostic feature in operable breast cancer: the International Breast Cancer Study Group experience. Ann Oncol. 2004;15(6):875–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chlebowski RT, Chen Z, Anderson GL, Rohan T, Aragaki A, Lane D, et al. Ethnicity and breast cancer: factors influencing differences in incidence and outcome. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97(6):439–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Chen WY, Holmes MD, Hankinson SE. Risk factors for breast cancer according to estrogen and progesterone receptor status. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96(3):218–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Suzuki R, Orsini N, Saji S, Key TJ, Wolk A. Body weight and incidence of breast cancer defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status–a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2009;124(3):698–712.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kyndi M, Sorensen FB, Knudsen H, Overgaard M, Nielsen HM, Overgaard J. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER-2, and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(9):1419–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Daling JR, Malone KE, Doody DR, Johnson LG, Gralow JR, Porter PL. Relation of body mass index to tumor markers and survival among young women with invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2001;92(4):720–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kerbel RS. Tumor angiogenesis. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(19):2039–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Liu CL, Chang YC, Cheng SP, Chern SR, Yang TL, Lee JJ, et al. The roles of serum leptin concentration and polymorphism in leptin receptor gene at codon 109 in breast cancer. Oncology. 2007;72(1–2):75–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Friedenreich CM. Review of anthropometric factors and breast cancer risk. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2001;10(1):15–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Connolly BS, Barnett C, Vogt KN, Li T, Stone J, Boyd NF. A meta-analysis of published literature on waist-to-hip ratio and risk of breast cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2002;44(2):127–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Onat A, Avci GS, Barlan MM, Uyarel H, Uzunlar B, Sansoy V. Measures of abdominal obesity assessed for visceral adiposity and relation to coronary risk. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28(8):1018–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Carr DB, Utzschneider KM, Hull RL, Kodama K, Retzlaff BM, Brunzell JD, et al. Intra-abdominal fat is a major determinant of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes. 2004;53(8):2087–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wolf I, Sadetzki S, Catane R, Karasik A, Kaufman B. Diabetes mellitus and breast cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2005;6(2):103–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schott S, Schneeweiss A, Sohn C. Breast cancer and diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2010;118(10):673–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Xue F, Michels KB. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and breast cancer: a review of the current evidence. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(3):s823–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rose DP, Haffner SM, Baillargeon J. Adiposity, the metabolic syndrome, and breast cancer in African-American and white American women. Endocr Rev. 2007;28(7):763–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vigneri P, Frasca F, Sciacca L, Pandini G, Vigneri R. Diabetes and cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009;16(4):1103–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Larsson SC, Mantzoros CS, Wolk A. Diabetes mellitus and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2007;121(4):856–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Michels KB, Solomon CG, Hu FB, Rosner BA, Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, et al. Type 2 diabetes and subsequent incidence of breast cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(6):1752–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Talamini R, Franceschi S, Favero A, Negri E, Parazzini F, La Vecchia C. Selected medical conditions and risk of breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 1997;75(11):1699–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mink PJ, Shahar E, Rosamond WD, Alberg AJ, Folsom AR. Serum insulin and glucose levels and breast cancer incidence: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156(4):349–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Franceschi S, La VC, Negri E, Parazzini F, Boyle P. Breast cancer risk and history of selected medical conditions linked with female hormones. Eur J Cancer. 1990;26(7):781–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rollison DE, Giuliano AR, Sellers TA, Laronga C, Sweeney C, Risendal B, et al. Population-based case-control study of diabetes and breast cancer risk in Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women living in US southwestern states. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167(4):447–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Barone BB, Yeh HC, Snyder CF, Peairs KS, Stein KB, Derr RL, et al. Long-term all-cause mortality in cancer patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2008;300(23):2754–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Peairs KS, Barone BB, Snyder CF, Yeh HC, Stein KB, Derr RL, et al. Diabetes mellitus and breast cancer outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(1):40–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Goodwin PJ, Ennis M, Pritchard KI, Trudeau ME, Koo J, Taylor SK, et al. Insulin- and obesity-related variables in early-stage breast cancer: correlations and time course of prognostic associations. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(2):164–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vona-Davis L, Howard-McNatt M, Rose DP. Adiposity, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome in breast cancer. Obes Rev. 2007;8(5):395–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Goodwin PJ, Ennis M, Pritchard KI, Trudeau ME, Koo J, Madarnas Y, et al. Fasting insulin and outcome in early-stage breast cancer: results of a prospective cohort study. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20(1):42–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Irwin ML, Duggan C, Wang CY, Smith AW, McTiernan A, Baumgartner RN, et al. Fasting C-peptide levels and death resulting from all causes and breast cancer: the health, eating, activity, and lifestyle study. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(1):47–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Baillargeon J, Rose DP. Obesity, adipokines, and prostate cancer (review). Int J Oncol. 2006;28(3):737–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jonsson F, Wolk A, Pedersen NL, Lichtenstein P, Terry P, Ahlbom A, et al. Obesity and hormone-dependent tumors: cohort and co-twin control studies based on the Swedish Twin Registry. Int J Cancer. 2003;106(4):594–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Height, body weight, and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997;6(8):557–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Amling CL, Kane CJ, Riffenburgh RH, Ward JF, Roberts JL, Lance RS, et al. Relationship between obesity and race in predicting adverse pathologic variables in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Urology. 2001;58(5):723–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Su LJ, Arab L, Steck SE, Fontham ET, Schroeder JC, Bensen JT, et al. Obesity and prostate cancer aggressiveness among African and Caucasian Americans in a population-based study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20(5):844–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bassett JK, Severi G, Baglietto L, Macinnis RJ, Hoang HN, Hopper JL, et al. Weight change and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Int J Cancer. 2012;131(7):1711–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    De Nunzio C, Albisinni S, Freedland SJ, Miano L, Cindolo L, Finazzi AE, et al. Abdominal obesity as risk factor for prostate cancer diagnosis and high grade disease: a prospective multicenter Italian cohort study. Urol Oncol. 2011.
  60. 60.
    De Nunzio C, Freedland SJ, Miano L, Finazzi AE, Banez L, Tubaro A. The uncertain relationship between obesity and prostate cancer: an Italian biopsy cohort analysis. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2011;37(12):1025–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Discacciati A, Orsini N, Wolk A. Body mass index and incidence of localized and advanced prostate cancer—a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(7):1665–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Andersson SO, Wolk A, Bergstrom R, Adami HO, Engholm G, Englund A, et al. Body size and prostate cancer: a 20-year follow-up study among 135006 Swedish construction workers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997;89(5):385–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wright ME, Chang SC, Schatzkin A, Albanes D, Kipnis V, Mouw T, et al. Prospective study of adiposity and weight change in relation to prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer. 2007;109(4):675–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rohrmann S, Roberts WW, Walsh PC, Platz EA. Family history of prostate cancer and obesity in relation to high-grade disease and extraprostatic extension in young men with prostate cancer. Prostate. 2003;55(2):140–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wallstrom P, Bjartell A, Gullberg B, Olsson H, Wirfalt E. A prospective Swedish study on body size, body composition, diabetes, and prostate cancer risk. Br J Cancer. 2009;100(11):1799–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bonovas S, Filioussi K, Tsantes A. Diabetes mellitus and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Diabetologia. 2004;47(6):1071–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kasper JS, Giovannucci E. A meta-analysis of diabetes mellitus and the risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(11):2056–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Colditz GA, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Hennekens CH, Arky RA, et al. Weight as a risk factor for clinical diabetes in women. Am J Epidemiol. 1990;132(3):501–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gong Z, Neuhouser ML, Goodman PJ, Albanes D, Chi C, Hsing AW, et al. Obesity, diabetes, and risk of prostate cancer: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(10):1977–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zhu K, Lee IM, Sesso HD, Buring JE, Levine RS, Gaziano JM. History of diabetes mellitus and risk of prostate cancer in physicians. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159(10):978–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Abdollah F, Briganti A, Suardi N, Gallina A, Capitanio U, Salonia A, et al. Does diabetes mellitus increase the risk of high-grade prostate cancer in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy? Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2011;14(1):74–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Moreira DM, Anderson T, Gerber L, Thomas JA, Banez LL, McKeever MG, et al. The association of diabetes mellitus and high-grade prostate cancer in a multiethnic biopsy series. Cancer Causes Control. 2011;22(7):977–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hong SK, Oh JJ, Byun SS, Hwang SI, Lee HJ, Choe G, et al. Impact of diabetes mellitus on the detection of prostate cancer via contemporary multi (>/= 12)-core prostate biopsy. Prostate. 2012;72(1):51–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Vona-Davis L, Rose DP. Adipokines as endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors in breast cancer risk and progression. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2007;14(2):189–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Shore RE, Koenig KL, Akhmedkhanov A, Afanasyeva Y, Kato I, et al. Postmenopausal levels of oestrogen, androgen, and SHBG and breast cancer: long-term results of a prospective study. Br J Cancer. 2004;90(1):153–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fischer S, Hanefeld M, Haffner SM, Fusch C, Schwanebeck U, Kohler C, et al. Insulin-resistant patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have higher serum leptin levels independently of body fat mass. Acta Diabetol. 2002;39(3):105–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Goktas S, Yilmaz MI, Caglar K, Sonmez A, Kilic S, Bedir S. Prostate cancer and adiponectin. Urology. 2005;65(6):1168–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Key T, Appleby P, Barnes I, Reeves G, Endogenous Hormones and Breast Cancer Collaborative Group. Endogenous sex hormones and breast cancer in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of nine prospective studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94(8):606–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ding EL, Song Y, Manson JE, Rifai N, Buring JE, Liu S. Plasma sex steroid hormones and risk of developing type 2 diabetes in women: a prospective study. Diabetologia. 2007;50(10):2076–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kalyani RR, Franco M, Dobs AS, Ouyang P, Vaidya D, Bertoni A, et al. The association of endogenous sex hormones, adiposity, and insulin resistance with incident diabetes in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(11):4127–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Platz EA, Giovannucci E. The epidemiology of sex steroid hormones and their signaling and metabolic pathways in the etiology of prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;92(4):237–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gann PH, Hennekens CH, Ma J, Longcope C, Stampfer MJ. Prospective study of sex hormone levels and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996;88(16):1118–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Goodwin PJ, Ennis M, Fantus IG, Pritchard KI, Trudeau ME, Koo J, et al. Is leptin a mediator of adverse prognostic effects of obesity in breast cancer? J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(25):6037–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Celis JE, Moreira JM, Cabezon T, Gromov P, Friis E, Rank F, et al. Identification of extracellular and intracellular signaling components of the mammary adipose tissue and its interstitial fluid in high risk breast cancer patients: toward dissecting the molecular circuitry of epithelial-adipocyte stromal cell interactions. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2005;4(4):492–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Frankenberry KA, Skinner H, Somasundar P, McFadden DW, Vona-Davis LC. Leptin receptor expression and cell signaling in breast cancer. Int J Oncol. 2006;28(4):985–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Utriainen T, Malmstrom R, Makimattila S, Yki-Jarvinen H. Supraphysiological hyperinsulinemia increases plasma leptin concentrations after 4 h in normal subjects. Diabetes. 1996;45(10):1364–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Zeigerer A, Rodeheffer MS, McGraw TE, Friedman JM. Insulin regulates leptin secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes by a PI 3 kinase independent mechanism. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314(11–12):2249–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Tworoger SS, Eliassen AH, Kelesidis T, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Mantzoros CS, et al. Plasma adiponectin concentrations and risk of incident breast cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(4):1510–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Weyer C, Funahashi T, Tanaka S, Hotta K, Matsuzawa Y, Pratley RE, et al. Hypoadiponectinemia in obesity and type 2 diabetes: close association with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(5):1930–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Baillargeon J, Platz EA, Rose DP, Pollock BH, Ankerst DP, Haffner S, et al. Obesity, adipokines, and prostate cancer in a prospective population-based study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(7):1331–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Li H, Stampfer MJ, Mucci L, Rifai N, Qiu W, Kurth T, et al. A 25-year prospective study of plasma adiponectin and leptin concentrations and prostate cancer risk and survival. Clin Chem. 2010;56(1):34–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Freedland SJ, Sokoll LJ, Mangold LA, Bruzek DJ, Mohr P, Yiu SK, et al. Serum leptin and pathological findings at the time of radical prostatectomy. J Urol. 2005;173(3):773–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Frankenberry KA, Somasundar P, McFadden DW, Vona-Davis LC. Leptin induces cell migration and the expression of growth factors in human prostate cancer cells. Am J Surg. 2004;188(5):560–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    van Roermund JG, Hinnen KA, Tolman CJ, Bol GH, Witjes JA, Bosch JL, et al. Periprostatic fat correlates with tumour aggressiveness in prostate cancer patients. BJU Int. 2011;107(11):1775–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Simpson ER, Davis SR. Minireview: aromatase and the regulation of estrogen biosynthesis–some new perspectives. Endocrinology. 2001;142(11):4589–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hsing AW, Chua Jr S, Gao YT, Gentzschein E, Chang L, Deng J, et al. Prostate cancer risk and serum levels of insulin and leptin: a population-based study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93(10):783–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kasper JS, Liu Y, Giovannucci E. Diabetes mellitus and risk of prostate cancer in the health professionals follow-up study. Int J Cancer. 2009;124(6):1398–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery and Breast Cancer Research ProgramMary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences CenterMorgantownUSA

Personalised recommendations