Techniques and Tips for Lower Endoscopy

  • Joanne Favuzza
  • Conor DelaneyEmail author


Colonoscopy has become the method of choice for visualization of the entire colonic mucosa and distal small bowel. The indications for colonoscopy include screening and surveillance as well as for the diagnosis and treatment of many colonic disorders. The majority of colonoscopies are performed for screening or surveillance of colorectal cancer, which occurs in approximately 140,000 cases per year in the USA. Screening endoscopy with polypectomy has lead to a decreased colorectal cancer incidence over the years along with decreased mortality.


Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Endoscopic Mucosal Resection Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery Hyperplastic Polyp Flexible Sigmoidoscopy 
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Supplementary material

Video 17.1

Colonoscopy insertion (M4V 24254 kb)

Video 17.2

Colonoscopy withdrawl (M4V 22584 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Colorectal SurgeryUniversity Hospitals Case Medical CenterClevelandUSA

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