Endoscopic Techniques for Enteral Access

  • Samuel Ibrahim
  • Kevin El-Hayek
  • Bipan ChandEmail author


Tools and techniques for enteral access have changed dramatically in large part due to advancements in the fields of endoscopy, laparoscopy, and radiology. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement is now the standard of gastric feeding access since its development by Gauderer and Ponsky in 1980. The percutaneous endoscopic technique allows for safe and feasible access without the need for general anesthesia or laparotomy in the majority of patients. Using the principles of this initial innovation, minimally invasive methods to access the gastrointestinal tract have expanded tremendously. In this chapter, we outline the evolution of minimally invasive tools and techniques for enteral access.


Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Anterior Abdominal Wall Gastrostomy Tube Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Placement 
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Supplementary material

Video 11.1

Direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (DPEJ) (MP4 43634 kb)

Video 11.2

Laparoscopic J-tube (MP4 70840 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of General SurgeryCleveland Clinic FoundationClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Surgical Endoscopy, Department of Bariatric and Metabolic InstituteCleveland Clinic HospitalClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Minimally Invasive SurgeryLoyola UniversityMaywoodUSA

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