Auditory Imagery Contains More Than Audition

  • Timothy L. HubbardEmail author


Contributions of nonauditory information to auditory imagery are examined. The spontaneous appearance of visual imagery concurrent with intentionally formed auditory imagery, and the similarities of spatial-temporal properties, mnemonic properties, and perceptual properties of auditory imagery and of visual imagery, is considered. A hypothesized distinction between an “inner voice” (which contains kinesthetic information related to speech articulation) and an “inner ear” (which does not) in auditory imagery is discussed, and evidence consistent (verbal transformation effect, judgments and comparisons of imaged content, clinical studies) and inconsistent (evidence against existence of a separate phonological loop, pre-articulatory auditory verbal imagery) with this distinction is considered. Possible relationships of auditory imagery to kinesthetic information from practice and performance of music and dance are considered, and the relationship of auditory imagery and synesthesia is briefly considered.


Auditory imagery Subvocalization Inner voice and inner ear Kinesthetic imagery Music and dance Synesthesia Visual imagery 



The author thanks Andrea Halpern and Caroline Palmer for helpful comments on a previous version of this chapter.


  1. Abramson M, Goldinger SD (1997) What the reader’s eye tells the mind’s ear: silent reading activates inner speech. Percept Psychophys 59:1059–1068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aleman A, Formisano E, Koppenhagen H, Hagoort P, de Hann EHF, Kahn RS (2005) The functional neuroanatomy of metrical stress evaluation of perceived and imaged spoken words. Cereb Cortex 15:221–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aleman A, van’t Wout M (2004) Subvocalization in auditory-verbal imagery: just a form of motor imagery? Cognitive Processes 5:228–231Google Scholar
  4. Alexander JD, Nygaard LC (2008) Reading voices and hearing text: talker-specific auditory imagery in reading. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 34:446–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Amedi A, Malach R, Pascual-Leone A (2005) Negative BOLD differentiates visual imagery and perception. Neuron 48:859–872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aziz-Zadeh L, Cattaneo L, Rochat M, Rizzolatti G (2005) Covert speech arrest induced by rTMS over both motor and nonmotor left hemisphere frontal site. J Cogn Neurosci 17:928–938PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Azulay H, Striem E, Amedi A (2009) Negative BOLD in sensory cortices during verbal memory: a component in generating internal representations? Brain Topogr 21:221–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baddeley AD (1986) Working Memory. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Baddeley AD (2000) The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends Cogn Sci 4:417–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Baddeley AD, Lewis VJ, Vallar G (1984) Exploring the articulatory loop. Q J Exp Psychol 36:233–252Google Scholar
  11. Baddeley AD, Logie RH (1992) Auditory imagery and working memory. In: Reisberg D (ed) Auditory Imagery. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJGoogle Scholar
  12. Baker JM (2001) The keyboard as a basis for imagery of pitch relations. In: Godøy RI, Jørgensen H (eds) Musical Imagery. Taylor & Francis, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Baron-Cohen S, Harrison JE (eds) (1997) Synaesthesia: Classic and Contemporary Readings. MIT Press/Blackwell, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  14. Barsalou LW (2008) Grounded cognition. Annu Rev Psychol 59:617–645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Behne KE, Wöllner C (2011) Seeing or hearing the pianists? A synopsis of an early audiovisual perception experiment and a replication. Music Sci 15:324–342Google Scholar
  16. Berz WL (1995) Working memory in music: a theoretical model. Music Percept 12:353–364Google Scholar
  17. Bläsing B, Puttke M, Schack T (eds) (2010) The Neurocognition of Dance: Mind, Movement, and Motor Skills. Taylor & Francis/Psychology Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Bower GH (1970) Analysis of a mnemonic device. Am Sci 58:496–510Google Scholar
  19. Bregman AS (1990) Auditory Scene Analysis: The Perceptual Organization of Sound. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  20. Brodsky W, Henik A, Rubenstein BS, Zorman M (2003) Auditory imagery from musical notation in expert musicians. Percept Psychophys 65:602–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brodsky W, Kessler Y, Rubenstein BS, Ginsborg J, Henik A (2008) The mental representation of music notation: notational audiation. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 34:427–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bunzeck N, Wuestenberg T, Lutz K, Heinze HJ, Jancke L (2005) Scanning silence: mental imagery of complex sounds. Neuroimage 26:1119–1127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cahn D (2008) The effects of varying ratios of physical and mental practice, and task difficulty on performance of a tonal pattern. Psychol Music 36:179–191Google Scholar
  24. Callan DE, Tsytsarev V, Hanakawa T, Callan AM, Katsuhara M, Fukuyama H, Turner R (2006) Song and speech: brain regions involved with perception and covert production. Neuroimage 31:1327–1342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chambers D, Reisberg D (1985) Can mental images be ambiguous? J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 11:317–328Google Scholar
  26. Cohen-Kadosh R, Sagiv N, Linden DEJ, Robertson LC, Elinger G, Henik A (2005) When blue is larger than red: colors influence numerical cognition in synesthesia. J Cogn Neurosci 17:1766–1773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Collier WG, Hubbard TL (2001) Musical scales and evaluations of happiness and awkwardness: effects of pitch, direction, and scale mode. Am J Psychol 114:355–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Costa A, Roelstraete B, Hartsuiker RJ (2006) The lexical bias effect in bilingual speech production: evidence for feedback between lexical and sublexical levels across languages. Psychon Bull Rev 13:972–977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Craver-Lemley C, Reeves A (1992) How visual imagery interferes with vision. Psychol Rev 99:633–649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Crowder RG (1989) Imagery for musical timbre. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 15:472–478Google Scholar
  31. Cupchik GC, Phillips K, Hill DS (2001) Shared processes in spatial rotation and musical permutation. Brain Cogn 46:373–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cytowic RE (1989) Synesthesia: A Union of the Senses. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  33. Daselaar SM, Porat Y, Huijbers W, Pennartz CMA (2010) Modality-specific and modality-independent components of the human imagery system. Neuroimage 52:677–685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dogantan-Dack M (2006) The body behind music: precedents and prospects. Psychol Music 34:449–464Google Scholar
  35. Douglas KM, Bilkey DK (2007) Amusia is associated with deficits in spatial processing. Nat Neurosci 10:915–921PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Deutsch D (1987) The tritone paradox: effects of spectral variables. Percept Psychophys 41:563–575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Eardley AF, Pring L (2006) Remembering the past and imagining the future: a role for nonvisual imagery in the everyday cognition of blind and sighted people. Memory 14:925–936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Eitan Z, Granot RY (2006) How music moves: musical parameters and listeners’ images of motion. Music Percept 23:221–247Google Scholar
  39. Elkin J, Leuthold H (2011) The representation of pitch in auditory imagery: evidence from S-R compatibility and distance effects. Eur J Cogn Psychol 23:76–91Google Scholar
  40. Evans CL, McGuire PK, David AS (2000) Is auditory imagery defective in patients with auditory hallucinations? Psychol Med 30:137–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Farah MJ (1985) Psychophysical evidence for a shared representational medium for mental images and percepts. J Exp Psychol Gen 114:93–103Google Scholar
  42. Finke RA (1980) Levels of equivalence in imagery and perception. Psychol Rev 87:113–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Finke RA (1985) Theories relating mental imagery to perception. Psychol Bull 98:236–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Finke RA (1986) Some consequences of visualization in pattern identification and detection. Am J Psychol 99:257–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fraisse P (1982) Rhythm and tempo. In: Deutsch D (ed) The Psychology of Music, 1st edn. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Friberg A, Sundberg J (1999) Does music performance allude to locomotion? A model of final ritardandi derived from measurements of stopping runners. J Acoust Soc Am 105:1469–1484Google Scholar
  47. Gagnon L, Peretz I (2003) Mode and tempo relative contributions to “happy-sad” judgments in equitone melodies. Cogn Emot 17:25–40Google Scholar
  48. Gathercole SE, Baddeley AD (1993) Working Memory and Language. Erlbaum, Hove, UKGoogle Scholar
  49. Gibbs RW (2006) Embodiment and Cognitive Science. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. Godøy RI (2001) Imagined action, excitation, and resonance. In: Godøy RI, Jørgensen H (eds) Musical Imagery. Taylor & Francis, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. Halpern AR (1988a) Mental scanning in auditory imagery for songs. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 14:434–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Halpern AR (1988b) Perceived and imaged tempos of familiar songs. Music Percept 6:193–202Google Scholar
  53. Halpern AR (1989) Memory for the absolute pitch of familiar songs. Mem Cognit 17:572–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Halpern AR, Zatorre RJ (1999) When that tune runs through your head: a PET investigation of auditory imagery for familiar melodies. Cereb Cortex 9:697–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Halpern AR, Zatorre RJ, Bouffard M, Johnson JA (2004) Behavioral and neural correlates of perceived and imagined musical timbre. Neuropsychologia 42:1281–1292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Heinen JRK, Cobb L, Pollard JW (1976) Word imagery modalities and learning in the deaf and hearing. J Psychol 93:191–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Highben Z, Palmer C (2004) Effects of auditory and motor mental practice in memorized piano performance. Bull Counc Res Music Educ 159:58–65Google Scholar
  58. Hommel B, Müsseler J, Aschersleben G, Prinz W (2001) The theory of event coding (TEC): a framework for perception and action planning. Behav Brain Sci 24:849–937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hubbard TL (2010) Auditory imagery: empirical findings. Psychol Bull 136:302–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hubbard TL, Ruppel SE (in press) A Fröhlich effect and representational gravity in memory for auditory pitch. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept PerformGoogle Scholar
  61. Hubbard TL, Stoeckig K (1988) Musical imagery: generation of tones and chords. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 14:656–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Huijbers W, Pennartz CMA, Rubin DC, Daselaar SM (2011) Imagery and retrieval of auditory and visual information: neural correlates of successful and unsuccessful performance. Neuropsychologia 49:1730–1740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Intons-Peterson MJ (1980) The role of loudness in auditory imagery. Mem Cognit 8:385–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Intons-Peterson MJ (1992) Components of auditory imagery. In: Reisberg D (ed) Auditory Imagery. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJGoogle Scholar
  65. Johns LC, Rossell S, Frith C, Ahmad F, Hemsley D, Kuipers E, McGuire PK (2001) Verbal self-monitoring and auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Psychol Med 31:705–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Jones DM (1993) Objects, streams and threads of auditory attention. In: Baddeley AD, Weiskrantz L (eds) Attention: Selection, Awareness and Control. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  67. Jones DM, Macken WJ (1993) Irrelevant tones produce an irrelevant speech effect: implications for phonological coding in working memory. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 19:369–381Google Scholar
  68. Juchniewicz J (2008) The influence of physical movement on the perception of musical performance. Psychol Music 36:417–427Google Scholar
  69. Juslin PN, Sloboda JA (eds) (2001) Music and Emotion: Theory and Research. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  70. Juslin PN, Västfjäll D (2008) Emotional responses to music: the need to consider underlying mechanisms. Behav Brain Sci 31:559–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kadosh RC, Kadosh KC, Henik A (2007) The neuronal correlate of bidirectional synesthesia: a combined event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Cogn Neurosci 19:2050–2059Google Scholar
  72. Keller PE, Appel M (2010) Individual differences, auditory imagery, and the coordination of body movements and sounds in musical ensembles. Music Percep 28:27–46Google Scholar
  73. Keller TA, Cowan N, Saults JS (1995) Can auditory memory for tone pitch be rehearsed? J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 21:635–645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Keller PE, Dalla Bella S, Koch I (2010) Auditory imagery shapes movement timing and kinematics: evidence from a musical task. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 36:508–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Keller PE, Koch I (2006) The planning and execution of short auditory sequences. Psychon Bull Rev 13:711–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Keller PE, Koch I (2008) Action planning in sequential skills: relations to music performance. Q J Exp Psychol 61:275–291Google Scholar
  77. Knoblich G, Sebanz N (2006) The social nature of perception and action. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 15:99–104Google Scholar
  78. Kosslyn SM (1980) Image and Mind. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  79. Kosslyn SM (1994) Image and Brain. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  80. Kosslyn SM, Ganis G, Thompson WL (2001) Neural foundations of imagery. Nat Rev Neurosci 2:635–642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Kosslyn SM, Pascual-Leone A, Felician O, Camposano S, Keenan JP, Thompson WL, Ganis G, Sukel KE, Alpert NM (1999) The role of area 17 in visual imagery: convergent evidence from PET and rTMS. Science 284:167–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kosslyn SM, Seger C, Pani JR, Hillger LA (1990) When is imagery used in everyday life? A diary study. J Ment Imagery 14:131–152Google Scholar
  83. Krasnow DH, Chatfield SJ, Barr S, Jensen JL, Dufek JS (1997) Imagery and conditioning practices for dancers. Dance Res J 29:43–64Google Scholar
  84. Kroll NE, Schepeler EM, Angin KT (1986) Bizarre imagery: the misremembered mnemonic. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 12:42–53Google Scholar
  85. Krumhansl CL, Schenck DL (1997) Can dance reflect the structural and expressive qualities of music? A perceptual experiment on Balachine’s choreography of Mozart’s Divertimento No. 15. Musicae Scientiae 1:63–85Google Scholar
  86. Langheim FJP, Callicott JH, Mattay VS, Duyn JH, Weinberger DR (2002) Cortical systems associated with covert music rehearsal. Neuroimage 16:901–908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Lim S, Lippman LG (1991) Mental practice and memorization of piano music. J Gen Psychol 118:21–30Google Scholar
  88. Linden DEJ, Thornton K, Kuswanto CN, Johnston SJ, van de Ven V, Jackson MC (2011) The brain’s voices: comparing nonclinical auditory hallucinations and imagery. Cereb Cortex 21:330–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Lotze M, Scheler G, Tan HRM, Braun C, Birbaumer N (2003) The musician’s brain: functional imaging of amateurs and professionals during performance and imagery. Neuroimage 20:1817–1829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Lucas BJ, Schubert E, Halpern AR (2010) Perception of emotion in sounded and imagined music. Music Percept 27:399–412Google Scholar
  91. Lukatela G, Turvey MT (1990) Phonemic similarity effect and prelexical phonology. Mem Cognit 18:128–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Macken WJ, Jones DM (1995) Functional characteristics of the inner voice and the inner ear: ­single or double agency? J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 21:436–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Marks LE (1975) On colored-hearing synesthesia: cross-modal translations of sensory dimensions. Psychol Bull 82:303–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Marks LE (1978) The Unity of the Senses: Interrelations among the Modalities. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  95. MacKay DG (1992) Constraints on theories of inner speech. In: Reisberg D (ed) Auditory Imagery Hillsdale. Erlbaum, NJGoogle Scholar
  96. McCusker LX, Hillinger ML, Bias RG (1981) Phonological recoding and reading. Psychol Bull 89:217–245Google Scholar
  97. McCutchen D, Perfetti C (1982) The visual tongue-twister effect: phonological activation in silent reading. J Verb Learn Verb Be 21:672–687Google Scholar
  98. McGuire PK, Silbersweig DA, Murray RM, David AS, Frackowiak RS, Frith CD (1996) Functional anatomy of inner speech and auditory verbal imagery. Psychol Med 26:29–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. McGuire PK, Silbersweig DA, Wright I, Murray RM, David AS, Frackowiak RSJ, Frith CD (1995) Abnormal monitoring of inner speech: a physiological basis for auditory hallucinations. Lancet 346:596–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Meister IG, Krings T, Foltys H, Boroojerdi B, Müller M, Töpper R, Thron A (2004) Playing piano in the mind—an fMRI study on music imagery and performance in pianists. Cogn Brain Res 19:219–228Google Scholar
  101. Mikumo M (1994) Motor encoding strategy for pitches of melodies. Music Percept 12:175–197Google Scholar
  102. Mills CB, Howell-Boteler E, Oliver GK (1999) Digit synaesthesia: a case study using a stroop-type task. Cogn Neuropsychol 16:181–191Google Scholar
  103. Mitchell RW, Gallaher MC (2001) Embodying music: matching music and dance in memory. Music Percept 19:65–85Google Scholar
  104. Murphy SM, Nordin SM, Cumming J (2008) Imagery in sport, exercise and dance. In: Horn T (ed) Advances in Sport Psychology, 3rd edn. Human Kinetics, Champaign, ILGoogle Scholar
  105. Nordin SM, Cumming J (2005) Professional dancers describe their imagery: where, when, what, why, and how. Sport Psychologist 19:395–416Google Scholar
  106. Nordin SM, Cumming J (2006) The development of imagery in dance. Part II: quantitative findings from a mixed sample of dancers. J Dance Med Sci 10:28–34Google Scholar
  107. Okada H, Matsuoka K (1992) Effects of auditory imagery on the detection of a pure tone in white noise: experimental evidence of the auditory Perky effect. Percept Mot Skills 74:443–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Oppenheim GM, Dell GS (2008) Inner speech slips exhibit lexical bias, but not the phonemic similarity effect. Cognition 106:528–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Oppenheim GM, Dell GS (2010) Motor movement matters: the flexible abstractness of inner speech. Mem Cognit 38:1147–1160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Paivio A (1971) Imagery and Verbal Processes. Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  111. Paivio A (1986) Mental Representations: A Dual Coding Approach. Oxford University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  112. Palmiero M, Olivetti Belardinelli M, Nardo D, Sestieri C, Di Matteo R, D’Ausilio A, Romani GL (2009) Mental imagery generation in different modalities activates sensory-motor areas. Cognit Processes 10(Suppl 2):S268–S271Google Scholar
  113. Pearce JMS (2007) Synaesthesia. Euro Neurol 57:120–124Google Scholar
  114. Pechmann T, Mohr G (1992) Interference in memory for tonal pitch: implications for a working-memory model. Mem Cognit 20:314–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Pecenka N, Keller PE (2009) Auditory pitch imagery and its relationship to musical synchronization. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1169:282–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Pitt MA, Crowder RG (1992) The role of spectral and dynamic cues in imagery for musical timbre. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 18:728–738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Proffitt DR (2006) Embodied perception and the economy of action. Perspect Psychol Sci 1:110–122Google Scholar
  118. Robertson LC, Sagiv N (eds) (2005) Synesthesia: Perspectives from Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  119. Reisberg D, Smith JD, Baxter DA, Sonenshine M (1989) “Enacted” auditory images are ambiguous; “pure” auditory images are not. Q J Exp Psychol 41A:619–641Google Scholar
  120. Repp BH (1997) Spectral envelope and context effects in the tritone paradox. Perception 26:645–665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Repp BH, Goehrke RM (2011) Music notation, but not action on a keyboard, influences pianists’ judgments of ambiguous melodies. Music Percept 28:315–320Google Scholar
  122. Rudner M, Rönnberg J, Hugdahl K (2005) Reversing spoken items - mind twisting not tongue twisting. Brain Lang 92:78–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Sabaté M, Llanos C, Rodriguez M (2008) Integration of auditory and kinesthetic information in motion: alterations in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychology 22:462–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Salamé P, Baddeley AD (1982) Disruption of short-term memory by unattended speech: implications for the structure of working memory. J Verb Learn Verb Be 21:150–164Google Scholar
  125. Sato M, Schwartz JL, Abry C, Cathiard MA, Loevenbruck H (2006) Multistable syllables as enacted perceptions: a source of an asymmetric bias in the verbal transformation effect. Percept Psychophys 68:458–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Satoh M, Takeda K, Nagata K, Hatazawa J, Kuzuhara S (2001) Activated brain regions in musicians during an ensemble: a PET study. Cogn Brain Res 12:101–108Google Scholar
  127. Schneider TR, Engel AK, Debener S (2008) Multisensory identification of natural objects in a two-way cross-modal priming paradigm. Exp Psychol 55:121–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Schubert E (2004) Modeling perceived emotion with continuous musical features. Music Percept 21:561–585Google Scholar
  129. Schubotz RI, Friederici AD, von Cramon DY (2000) Time perception and motor timing: a common cortical and subcortical basis revealed by fMRI. Neuroimage 11:1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Sedlmeier P, Weigelt O, Walther E (2011) Music is in the muscle: how embodied cognition may influence music preferences. Music Percept 28:297–305Google Scholar
  131. Segal SJ, Fusella V (1970) Influence of imaged pictures and sounds on detection of visual and auditory signals. J Exp Psychol 83:458–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Sharps MJ, Pollitt BK (1998) Category superiority effects and the processing of auditory images. J Gen Psychol 125:109–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Sharps MJ, Price JL (1992) Auditory imagery and free recall. J Gen Psychol 119:81–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Shaw G (2008) The multisensory image and emotion in poetry. Psychol Aesthetics Creativity Arts 2:175–178Google Scholar
  135. Shepard RN, Cooper LA (eds) (1982) Mental Images and Their Transformations. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  136. Shepard RN, Podgorny P (1978) Cognitive processes that resemble perceptual processes. In: Estes WK (ed) Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Processes, vol 5. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJGoogle Scholar
  137. Shergill SS, Bullmore E, Simmons A, Murray R, McGuire PK (2000) Functional anatomy of auditory verbal imagery in schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations. Am J Psychiatry 157:1691–1693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Simon O, Mangin JF, Cohen L, Le Bihan D, Dehaene S (2002) Topographical layout of hand, eye, calculation, and language-related areas in the human parietal lobe. Neuron 33:475–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Slotnick SD, Thompson WL, Kosslyn SM (2005) Visual mental imagery induces retinotopically organized activation of early visual areas. Cereb Cortex 15:1570–1583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Smith JD, Wilson M, Reisberg D (1995) The role of subvocalization in auditory memory. Neuropsychologia 33:1433–1454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Spence C (2011) Crossmodal correspondences: a tutorial review. Atten Percept Psychophys 73:971–995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Spiller MJ, Jansari AS (2008) Mental imagery and synaesthesia: is synaesthesia from internally-generated stimuli possible? Cognition 109:143–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Theiler AM, Lippman LG (1995) Effects of mental practice and modeling on guitar and vocal performance. J Gen Psychol 122:329–343Google Scholar
  144. Tinti C, Cornoldi C, Marschark M (1997) Modality-specific auditory imaging and the interactive imagery effect. Eur J Cogn Psychol 9:417–436Google Scholar
  145. Ward J, Simner J, Auyeung V (2005) A comparison of lexical-gustatory and grapheme-colour synesthesia. Cogn Neuropsychol 22:28–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Warren RM (1968) Verbal transformation effect and auditory perceptual mechanisms. Psychol Bull 70:261–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Weber RJ, Brown S (1986) Musical imagery. Music Percept 3:411–426Google Scholar
  148. Wilson M, Knoblich G (2005) The case for motor involvement in perceiving conspecifics. Psychol Bull 131:460–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Winnick WA, Brody N (1984) Auditory and visual imagery in free recall. J Psychol 118:17–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Zacks JM (2008) Neuroimaging studies of mental rotation: a meta-analysis and review. J Cogn Neurosci 20:1–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Zatorre RJ, Halpern AR (1993) Effect of unilateral temporal-lobe excision on perception and imagery of songs. Neuropsychologia 31:221–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Zatorre RJ, Halpern AR (2005) Mental concerts: musical imagery and the auditory cortex. Neuron 47:9–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Zatorre RJ, Halpern AR, Bouffard M (2010) Mental reversal of imagined melodies: a role for the posterior parietal cortex. J Cogn Neurosci 22:775–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Zatorre RJ, Halpern AR, Perry DW, Meyer E, Evans AC (1996) Hearing in the mind’s ear: a PET investigation of musical imagery and perception. J Cogn Neurosci 8:29–46Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyTexas Christian UniversityFort WorthUSA

Personalised recommendations