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Role of Serotonin in Angiogenesis in Diabetes

  • Masaaki Iwabayashi
  • Yoshiaki Taniyama
  • Junya Azuma
  • Fumihiro Sanada
  • Kazuma Iekushi
  • Hiromi Rakugi
  • Ryuichi MorishitaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Biochemistry in Health and Disease book series (ABHD, volume 6)

Abstract

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a monoaminergic neurotransmitter synthesized from tryptophan, which is one of the essential amino acids, by mostly enterochromaffin cells in the gut. 5-HT receptors (15 subtypes) are distributed in tissues throughout the body and have diverse effects and play a crucial role in central and peripheral functions. The cardiovascular system is no exception; most of the 5-HT receptor subtypes have been shown to exist and be involved in cardiovascular regulation in both physiological and pathological conditions. Particularly in the vasculature, 5-HT is known to regulate vascular tonus and vascular cell proliferation by the balance of smooth muscle and endothelial 5-HT receptors. Under pathological conditions like diabetes mellitus (DM) and peripheral artery disease (PAD), serum 5-HT level is known to increase and is the hallmark of both pathological conditions. In these conditions, contractile activity of smooth muscle 5-HT2A receptor is increased; thus, 5-HT-mediated vasodilation and endothelial proliferation are inhibited, leading to diminished angiogenesis and peripheral circulation. However, blockade of 5-HT2A by clinically available drugs in a diabetic state enhances angiogenesis and vasodilation. As selective 5-HT2A blocker is widely used to treat PAD patients in clinical practice, the enhancement of angiogenesis, in addition to inhibition of vasoconstriction, might provide a unique treatment combination for therapeutic angiogenesis under a diabetic condition.

Keywords

Serotonin 5-Hydroxytryptamine Angiogenesis Diabetes mellitus Peripheral artery disease 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masaaki Iwabayashi
    • 1
  • Yoshiaki Taniyama
    • 1
    • 2
  • Junya Azuma
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fumihiro Sanada
    • 1
  • Kazuma Iekushi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hiromi Rakugi
    • 2
  • Ryuichi Morishita
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Gene TherapyOsaka University Graduate School of MedicineSuitaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Geriatric Medicine and NephrologyOsaka University Graduate School of MedicineSuitaJapan

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