Immune Resistance by Relapsing Fever Spirochetes

  • Monica E. Embers
  • Job E. Lopez


Relapsing fever spirochetosis is a neglected global disease primarily afflicting those in resource-poor countries (Fig. 9.1). Infection with the causative Borrelia spp. spirochetes can be either louse-borne (epidemic) or tick-borne (endemic). Signs and symptoms largely overlap, but vary between the two in important ways that affect their respective mortality. Where mortality with endemic RF is rare (<5 %), epidemic RF can reach up to 40 % mortality in an outbreak (Raoult and Roux 1999). The true global impact of this disease is masked by the non-specific symptoms caused by the spirochetal infection, such that it may be attributed to other pathogens that are prevalent in a population. For instance, in Sudan an outbreak of louse-borne relapsing fever affected 20,000 villagers with a 10 % mortality rate, yet was originally diagnosed as being caused by a hemorrhagic fever virus (Piesman and Schwan 2010). Further complicating our understanding of the potential significance of this disease is the geographical overlap of RF spirochetes with additional febrile episode-inducing illnesses (Fig. 9.1), with one study reporting that 18.2 % of RF borreliosis cases were misdiagnosed as malaria (Nordstrand et al. 2007).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monica E. Embers
    • 1
  • Job E. Lopez
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Bacteriology and Parasitology, Tulane National Primate Research CenterTulane University Health SciencesCovingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesLee BoulevardUSA

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