Nitrogen in the Stratosphere of Titan from Cassini CIRS Infrared Spectroscopy

  • Conor A. Nixon
  • Nicholas A. Teanby
  • Carrie M. Anderson
  • Sandrine Vinatier
Conference paper
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings book series (ASSSP, volume 35)


In this chapter we describe the remote sensing measurement of nitrogen-bearing species in Titan’s atmosphere by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on the Cassini spacecraft. This instrument, which detects the thermal infrared spectrum from 10 to 1,500 cm− 1 (1,000–7 \(\mu\)m) is sensitive to vibrational and rotational emissions of gases and condensates in Titan’s stratosphere and lower mesosphere, permitting the measurement of ambient temperature and the abundances of gases and particulates. Three N-bearing species are firmly detected: HCN, HC3N and C2N2, and their vertical and latitudinal distributions have been mapped. In addition, ices of HC3N and possibly C4N2 are also seen in the far-infrared spectrum at high latitudes during the northern winter. The HC15N isotopologue has been measured, permitting the inference of the 14N/15N in this species, which differs markedly (lower) than in the bulk nitrogen reservoir (N2). We also describe the search in the CIRS spectrum, and inferred upper limits, for NH3 and CH3CN. CIRS is now observing seasonal transition on Titan and the gas abundance distributions are changing accordingly, acting as tracers of the changing atmospheric circulation. The prospects for further CIRS science in the remaining 5 years of the Cassini mission are discussed.


Polar Vortex Northern Winter Line List Photochemical Model Saturn Orbit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Niemann, H.B., Atreya, S.K., Demick, J.E., Gautier, D., Haberman, J.A., Harpold, D.N., Kasprzak, W.T., Lunine, J.I., Owen, T.C., Raulin, F.: Composition of Titan’s lower atmosphere and simple surface volatiles as measured by the Cassini-Huygens probe gas chromatograph mass spectrometer experiment. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 115, 12006–+ (2010). doi:10.1029/2010JE003659Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hanel, R., Conrath, B., Flasar, F.M., Kunde, V., Maguire, W., Pearl, J.C., Pirraglia, J., Samuelson, R., Herath, L., Allison, M., Cruikshank, D.P., Gautier, D., Gierasch, P.J., Horn, L., Koppany, R., Ponnamperuma, C.: Infrared observations of the Saturnian system from Voyager 1. Science 212, 192–200 (1981). doi:10.1126/science.212.4491.192ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kunde, V.G., Aikin, A.C., Hanel, R.A., Jennings, D.E., Maguire, W.C., Samuelson, R.E.: \(\mathrm{C}_{4}\mathrm{H}_{2}\), \(\mathrm{HC}_{3}\mathrm{N}\) and \(\mathrm{C}_{2}\mathrm{N}_{2}\) in Titan’s atmosphere. Nature 292, 686–688 (1981). doi:10.1038/ 292686a0ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Maguire, W.C., Hanel, R.A., Jennings, D.E., Kunde, V.G., Samuelson, R.E.: \(\mathrm{C}_{3}\mathrm{H}_{8}\) and \(\mathrm{C}_{3}\mathrm{H}_{4}\) in Titan’s atmosphere. Nature 292, 683–686 (1981). doi:10.1038/ 292683a0ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nixon, C.A., Achterberg, R.K., Teanby, N.A., Irwin, P.G.J., Flaud, J.M.,  Kleiner, I., Dehayem-Kamadjeu, A., Brown, L.R., Sams, R.L., Bézard, B., Coustenis, A., Ansty, T.M., Mamoutkine, A., Vinatier, S., Bjoraker, G.L., Jennings, D.E., Romani, P.N., Flasar, F.M.: Upper limits for undetected trace species in the stratosphere of Titan. Faraday Discuss. 147, 65–+ (2010). doi:10.1039/c003771kGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Waite, J.H., Lewis, W.S., Kasprzak, W.T., Anicich, V.G., Block, B.P., Cravens, T.E., Fletcher, G.G., Ip, W.H., Luhmann, J.G., McNutt, R.L., Niemann, H.B., Parejko, J.K., Richards, J.E., Thorpe, R.L., Walter, E.M., Yelle, R.V.: The Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) Investigation. Space Sci. Rev. 114, 113–231 (2004). doi:10.1007/ s11214-004-1408-2ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vuitton, V., Yelle, R.V., McEwan, M.J.: Ion chemistry and N-containing molecules in Titan’s upper atmosphere. Icarus 191, 722–742 (2007). doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.06.023ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Flasar, F.M., Kunde, V.G., Abbas, M.M., Achterberg, R.K., Ade, P., Barucci, A., Bézard, B., Bjoraker, G.L., Brasunas, J.C., Calcutt, S., Carlson, R., Césarsky, C.J., Conrath, B.J., Coradini, A., Courtin, R., Coustenis, A., Edberg, S., Edgington, S., Ferrari, C., Fouchet, T., Gautier, D., Gierasch, P.J., Grossman, K., Irwin, P., Jennings, D.E., Lellouch, E., Mamoutkine, A.A., Marten, A., Meyer, J.P., Nixon, C.A., Orton, G.S., Owen, T.C., Pearl, J.C., Prangé, R., Raulin, F., Read, P.L., Romani, P.N., Samuelson, R.E., Segura, M.E., Showalter, M.R., Simon-Miller, A.A., Smith, M.D., Spencer, J.R., Spilker, L.J., Taylor, F.W.: Exploring The Saturn System In The Thermal Infrared: The Composite Infrared Spectrometer. Space Sci. Rev. 115, 169–297 (2004). doi:10.1007/s11214-004-1454-9ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lavvas, P., Coustenis, A., Vardavas, I.: Coupling photochemistry with haze formation in Titan’s atmosphere, part I: Model description. Planet. Space Sci. 56(1), 27–66 (2008). doi:10.1016/j.pss.2007.05.026. Surfaces and Atmospheres of the Outer Planets, their Satellites and Ring Systems: Part III, European Geosciences Union General Assembly – Sessions PS3.02 and PS3.03
  10. 10.
    Kunde, V.G., Ade, P.A., Barney, R.D., Bergman, D., Bonnal, J.F., Borelli, R., Boyd, D., Brasunas, J.C., Brown, G., Calcutt, S.B., Carroll, F., Courtin, R., Cretolle, J., Crooke, J.A., Davis, M.A., Edberg, S., Fettig, R., Flasar, M., Glenar, D.A., Graham, S., Hagopian, J.G., Hakun, C.F., Hayes, P.A., Herath, L., Horn, L., Jennings, D.E., Karpati, G., Kellebenz, C., Lakew, B., Lindsay, J., Lohr, J., Lyons, J.J., Martineau, R.J., Martino, A.J., Matsumura, M., McCloskey, J., Melak, T., Michel, G., Morell, A., Mosier, C., Pack, L., Plants, M., Robinson, D., Rodriguez, L., Romani, P., Schaefer, W.J., Schmidt, S., Trujillo, C., Vellacott, T., Wagner, K.,Yun, D.: Cassini infrared Fourier spectroscopic investigation. In: Horn L. (ed.) Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 2803, pp. 162–177, Denver, Colorado (1996)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brasunas, J.C., Lakew, B.: Long-term stability of the Cassini Fourier Transform spectrometer en route to Saturn. Recent Res. Dev. Opt. 4, 95–113 (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nixon, C.A., Teanby, N.A., Calcutt, S.B., Aslam, S., Jennings, D.E., Kunde, V.G., Flasar, F.M., Irwin, P.G., Taylor, F.W., Glenar, D.A., Smith, M.D.: Infrared limb sounding of Titan with the Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer: effects of the mid-IR detector spatial responses. Appl. Opt. 48, 1912–+ (2009). doi:10.1364/AO.48.001912Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nixon, C.A., Achterberg, R.K., Flasar, F.M.: Infrared Limb Sounding With Cassini CIRS: Optimal Viewing Strategy Using Horizon Nodes. IEEEAC 1174 (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nixon, C.A., Ansty, T.M., Flasar, F.M., Achterberg, R.K.: Designing infrared observations of Titan’s atmosphere with Cassini CIRS. IEEEAC 1633 (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anderson, C.M., Samuelson, R.E.: Titan’s aerosol and stratospheric ice opacities between 18 and 500 µm: Vertical and spectral characteristics from Cassini CIRS. Icarus 212, 762–778 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Teanby, N.A., Irwin, P.G.J., de Kok, R., Vinatier, S., Bézard, B., Nixon, C.A., Flasar, F.M., Calcutt, S.B., Bowles, N.E., Fletcher, L., Howett, C., Taylor, F.W.: Vertical profiles of HCN, \(\mathrm{HC}_{3}\mathrm{N}\), and \(\mathrm{C}_{2}\mathrm{H}_{2}\) in Titan’s atmosphere derived from Cassini/CIRS data. Icarus 186, 364–384 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vinatier, S., Bézard, B., Fouchet, T., Teanby, N.A., de Kok, R., Irwin, P.G.J., Conrath, B.J., Nixon, C.A., Romani, P.N., Flasar, F.M., Coustenis, A.: Vertical abundance profiles of hydrocarbons in Titan’s atmosphere at 15 ∘ S and 80 ∘ N retrieved from Cassini/CIRS spectra. Icarus 188, 120–138 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hidayat, T., Marten, A., Bézard, B., Gautier, D., Owen, T., Matthews, H., Paubert, G.: Millimeter and submillimeter heterodyne observations of Titan, retrieval of the vertical profile of HCN and the \({\mathrm{C}}^{12}/{\mathrm{C}}^{13}\) ratio. Icarus 126(1), 170–182 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marten, A., Hidayat, T., Biraud, Y., Moreno, R.: New millimeter heterodyne observations of Ttan: vertical distributions of nitriles HCN, \(\mathrm{HC}_{3}\mathrm{N}\), \(\mathrm{CH}_{3}\mathrm{CN}\), and the isotopic ratio 15N/14N in its atmosphere. Icarus 158, 532–544 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gurwell, M.A.: Submillimeter observations of Titan: global measures of stratospheric temperature, CO, HCN, \(\mathrm{HC}_{3}\mathrm{N}\), and the isotopic ratios 12C/13C and 14N/15N. Astrophys. J. 616, L7–L10 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Teanby, N.A., Irwin, P.G.J., de Kok, R., Jolly, A., Bézard, B., Nixon, C.A., Calcutt, S.B.: Titan’s stratospheric \(\mathrm{C}_{2}\mathrm{N}_{2}\), \(\mathrm{C}_{3}\mathrm{H}_{4}\), and \(\mathrm{C}_{4}\mathrm{H}_{2}\) abundances from Cassini/CIRS far-infrared spectra. Icarus 202, 620–631 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wilson, E.H., Atreya, S.K.: Current state of modeling the photochemistry of Titan’s mutually dependent atmosphere and ionosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 109, E06002 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lebonnois, S., Toublanc, D., Hourdin, F., Rannou, P.: Seasonal variations of Titan’s atmospheric composition. Icarus 152, 384–406 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Teanby, N.A., Irwin, P.G.J., de Kok, R., Nixon, C.A.: Dynamical implications of seasonal and spatial variations in Titan’s stratospheric composition. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 367, 697–711 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Flasar, F.M., Achterberg, R.K., Conrath, B.J., Gierasch, P.J., Kunde, V.G., Nixon, C.A., Bjoraker, G.L., Jennings, D.E., Romani, P.N., Simon-Miller, A.A., Bézard, B., Coustenis, A., Irwin, P.G.J., Teanby, N.A., Brasunas, J., Pearl, J.C., Segura, M.E., Carlson, R.C., Mamoutkine, A., Schinder, P.J., Barucci, A., Courtin, R., Fouchet, T., Gautier, D., Lellouch, E., Marten, A., Prange, R., Vinatier, S., Strobel, D.F., Calcutt, S.B., Read, P.L., Taylor, F.W., Bowles, N., Samuelson, R.E., Orton, G.S., Spilker, L.J., Owen, T.C., Spencer, J.R., Showalter, M.R., Ferrari, C., Abbas, M.M., Raulin, F., Edgington, S., Ade, P., Wishnow, E.H.: Titan’s atmospheric temperatures, winds, and composition. Science 308, 975–978 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Teanby, N.A., Irwin, P.G.J., de Kok, R., Nixon, C.A., Coustenis, A., Bézard, B., Calcutt, S.B., Bowles, N.E., Flasar, F.M., Fletcher, L., Howett, C., Taylor, F.W.: Latitudinal variations of HCN, \(\mathrm{HC}_{3}\mathrm{N}\), and \(\mathrm{C}_{2}\mathrm{N}_{2}\) in Titan’s stratosphere derived from Cassini CIRS data. Icarus 181, 243–255 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Coustenis, A., Achterberg, R.K., Conrath, B.J., Jennings, D.E., Marten, A., Gautier, D., Nixon, C.A., Flasar, F.M., Teanby, N.A., Bézard, B., Samuelson, R.E., Carlson, R.C., Lellouch, E., Bjoraker, G.L., Romani, P.N., Taylor, F.W., Irwin, P.G., Fouchet, T., Hubert, A., Orton, G.S., Kunde, V.G., Vinatier, S., Mondellini, J., Abbas, M.M., Courtin, R.: The composition of Titan’s stratosphere from Cassini/CIRS mid-infrared spectra. Icarus 189, 35–62 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Teanby, N.A., Irwin, P.G.J., de Kok, R., Nixon, C.A., Coustenis, A., Royer, E., Calcutt, S.B., Bowles, N.E., Fletcher, L., Howett, C., Taylor, F.W.: Global and temporal variations in hydrocarbons and nitriles in Titan’s stratosphere for northern winter observed by Cassini/CIRS. Icarus 193, 595–611 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Teanby, N.A., de Kok, R., Irwin, P.G.J., Osprey, S., Vinatier, S., Gierasch, P.J., Read, P.L., Flasar, F.M., Conrath, B.J., Achterberg, R.K., ezard, B., Nixon, C.A., Calcutt, S.B.: Titan’s winter polar vortex structure revealed by chemical tracers. J. Geophys. Res. 113, E12003 (2008)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Coustenis, A., Nixon, C., Achterberg, R., Lavvas, P., Vinatier, S., Teanby, N., Bjoraker, G., Carlson, R., Piani, L., Bampasidis, G., Flasar, F., Romani, P.: Titan trace gaseous composition from CIRS at the end of the Cassini-Huygens prime mission. Icarus 207, 461–476 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Teanby, N.A., Irwin, P.G.J., de Kok, R., Nixon, C.A.: Mapping Titan’s HCN in the far infrared: implications for photochemistry. Faraday Discuss. 147, 51–64 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Teanby, N.A., Irwin, P.G.J., de Kok, R., Nixon, C.A.: Seasonal changes in Titan’s polar trace gas abundance observed by Cassini. Astrophys. J. 724, L84–L89 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vinatier, S., Bézard, B., Nixon, C.A., Mamoutkine, A., Carlson, R.C., Jennings, D.E., Guandique, E.A., Teanby, N.A., Bjoraker, G.L., Flasar, F.M., Kunde, V.G.: Analysis of Cassini/CIRS limb spectra of Titan acquired during the nominal mission I. hydrocarbons, nitriles and CO2 vertical mixing ratio profiles. Icarus 205, 559–570 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Achterberg, R.K., Conrath, B.J., Gierasch, P.J., Flasar, F.M., Nixon, C.A.: Titan’s middle-atmospheric temperatures and dynamics observed by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer. Icarus 194, 263–277 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Porco, C.C., Baker, E., Barbara, J., Beurle, K., Brahic, A., Burns, J.A., Charnoz, S., Cooper, N., Dawson, D.D., Del Genio, A.D., Denk, T., Dones, L., Dyudina, U., Evans, M.W., Fussner, S., Giese, B., Grazier, K., Helfenstein, P., Ingersoll, A.P., Jacobson, R.A., Johnson, T.V., McEwen, A., Murray, C.D., Neukum, G., Owen, W.M., Perry, J., Roatsch, T., Spitale, J., Squyres, S., Thomas, P., Tiscareno, M., Turtle, E.P., Vasavada, A.R., Veverka, J., Wagner, R., West, R.: Imaging of Titan from the Cassini spacecraft. Nature 434, 159–168 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Teanby, N.A., Irwin, P.G.J., de Kok, R.: Small-scale composition and haze layering in titan’s polar vortex. Icarus 204, 645–657 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Orsolini, Y.J.: On the formation of ozone laminae at the edge of the Arctic polar vortex. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 121, 1923–1941 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    West, R., Lavvas, P., Anderson, C., Imanaka, H.: in Mueller-Wodarg, I., Griffith, C.A., Lellouch, E. & Cravens, T. (eds.) Titan: Surface, Atmosphere and Magnetosphere. Cambridge University Press/Cambridge Planetary Science Series (2013)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Moore, M.H., Ferrante, R.F., Moore, W.J., Hudson, R.: Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Nitrile Ices Relevant to Titan’s Atmosphere. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 191, 96–112 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Samuelson, R.E., Mayo, L.A., Knuckles, M.A., Khanna, R.J.: \(\mathrm{C}_{4}\mathrm{N}_{2}\) ice in Titan’s north polar stratosphere. Planet. Space Sci. 45, 941–948 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Anderson, C.M., Samuelson, R.E., Bjoraker, G.L., Achterberg, R.K.: Particle size and abundance of \(\mathrm{HC}_{3}\mathrm{N}\) ice in Titan’s lower stratosphere at high northern latitudes. Icarus 207, 914–922 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Masterson, C.M., Khanna, R.K.: Absorption intensities and complex refractive indices of crystalline HCN, \(\mathrm{HC}_{3}\mathrm{N}\), and \(\mathrm{C}_{4}\mathrm{N}_{2}\) in the infrared region. Icarus 83, 83–92 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    de Kok, R., Irwin, P.G.J., Teanby, N.A.: Condensation in Titan’s stratosphere during polar winter. Icarus 197, 572–578 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    de Kok, R., Irwin, P.G.J., Teanby, N.A., Nixon, C.A., Jennings, D.E., Fletcher, L., Howett, C., Calcutt, S.B., Bowles, N.E., Flasar, F.M., Taylor, F.W.: Characteristics of Titan’s stratospheric aerosols and condensate clouds from Cassini CIRS far-infrared spectra. Icarus 191, 223–235 (2007). doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.04.003ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Vinatier, S., Bézard, B., Nixon, C.A.: The Titan 14N/15N and 12C/13C isotopic ratios in HCN from Cassini/CIRS. Icarus 191, 712–721 (2007). doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.06.001ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Liang, M.C., Heays, A.N., Lewis, B.R., Gibson, S.T., Yung, Y.L.: Source of Nitrogen Isotope Anomaly in HCN in the Atmosphere of Titan. Astrophys. J. Lett. 664, L115–L118 (2007). doi:10.1086/520881ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Haverd, V.E., Lewis, B.R., Gibson, S.T., Stark, G.: Rotational effects in the band oscillator strengths and predissociation linewidths for the lowest \(^{1}\Pi _{\mathrm{u}}\)-\({\mathrm{X}}^{1}\sum _{\mathrm{g}}^{+}\) transitions of N2. J. Chem. Phys. 123, 214304 (2005). doi:10.1063/1.2134704ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lewis, B.R., Gibson, S.T., Zhang, W., Lefebvre-Brion, H., Robbe, J.M.: Predissociation mechanism for the lowest \(^{1}\Pi _{\mathrm{u}}\) states of N2. J. Chem. Phys. 122, 144302 (2005). doi:10.1063/1.1869986ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Stark, G., Huber, K.P., Yoshino, K., Smith, P.L., Ito, K.: Oscillator strength and linewidth measurements of dipole-allowed transitions in \(^{14}\mathrm{N}_{2}\) between 93.5 and 99.5 nm. J. Chem. Phys. 123, 214303 (2005). doi:10.1063/1.2134703Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sprengers, J.P., Ubachs, W., Baldwin, K.G.H., Lewis, B.R., Tchang-Brillet, W.Ü.L.: Extreme ultraviolet laser excitation of isotopic molecular nitrogen: The dipole-allowed spectrum of \(^{15}\mathrm{N}_{2}\) and 14N15N. J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3160–3173 (2003). doi:10.1063/1.1589478ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rothman, L.S., Gordon, I.E., Barbe, A., Benner, D.C., Bernath, P.F., Birk, M., Boudon, V., Brown, L.R., Campargue, A., Champion, J.P., Chance, K., Coudert, L.H., Dana, V., Devi, V.M., Fally, S., Flaud, J.M., Gamache, R.R., Goldman, A., Jacquemart, D., Kleiner, I., Lacome, N., Lafferty, W.J., Mandin, J.Y., Massie, S.T., Mikhailenko, S.N., Miller, C.E., Moazzen-Ahmadi, N., Naumenko, O.V., Nikitin, A.V., Orphal, J., Perevalov, V.I., Perrin, A., Predoi-Cross, A., Rinsland, C.P., Rotger, M.,Šimečková, M., Smith, M.A.H., Sung, K., Tashkun, S.A., Tennyson, J., Toth, R.A., Vandaele, A.C., Vander Auwera, J.: The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009). doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2009.02.013ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Conor A. Nixon
    • 1
  • Nicholas A. Teanby
    • 2
  • Carrie M. Anderson
    • 3
  • Sandrine Vinatier
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of AstronomyUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  2. 2.School of Earth SciencesUniversity of BristolBristolUK
  3. 3.Planetary Systems LaboratoryNASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  4. 4.LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRSMeudon CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations