Raising Consciousness: Promoting Healthy Coping Among African American Boys at School

  • Keisha L. Bentley-EdwardsEmail author
  • Duane E. Thomas
  • Howard C. Stevenson


While African American boys make up only a small percentage of the overall primary and secondary school student populations, they account for a staggering proportion of students who experience significant and consistent negative outcomes at school. According to recent national estimates (U. S. Department of Education, 2010), African American males constituted less than 10 % of the public school population, yet accounted for approximately 26 % of students who were retained and 49 % and 17 % of those suspended or expelled, respectively. The last decade has witnessed a surge in discourse on comprehensive school-based mental health reform efforts to address these problems and promote more positive outcomes for African American males (Caldwell, Sewell, Parks, & Toldson, 2009; Gregory, Skiba, & Noguera, 2010; Noguera, 2003; Thomas & Stevenson, 2009). As part of these efforts, there has been a call for professionals providing mental health services in schools to help address the ecological risk and protective factors confronting African American males.


Racial Identity African American Male African American Student African American Youth Racial Socialization 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keisha L. Bentley-Edwards
    • 1
    Email author
  • Duane E. Thomas
    • 2
  • Howard C. Stevenson
    • 3
  1. 1.University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  2. 2.University of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  3. 3.University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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