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Therapeutic Strategies to Treat Alcohol-Related Disorders Targeting Central Immune Signaling

  • Yue Wu
  • Mark R. Hutchinson
Chapter

Abstract

With its consumption believed to have begun more than 10,000 years ago, alcohol continues to feature prominently in many societies and cultures worldwide. Unfortunately among the two billion annual consumers, alcohol abuse poses a significant issue, with over 76 million people diagnosed with an alcohol abuse disorder [1]. Related to more than 60 types of disease and injury, alcohol consumption is the third biggest risk factor for disease burden in developed countries, such as the United States, Canada, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Japan, and is the largest risk factor in developing countries, such as China, the Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, Brazil, and Mexico [1]. As alcohol dependence and abuse remain continuing and important health problems, intervention strategies to overcome this drug addiction are urgently required to reduce the burden of their related diseases in society.

Keywords

Alcohol Dependence Microglial Activation TLR4 Signaling Alcohol Exposure Chronic Alcohol Exposure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

B2M

β-2-Microglobulin

BBB

Blood–brain barrier

CCL2

Chemokine (C–C motif) ligand receptor 2

CCR2

Chemokine (C–C) motif ligand 2

CNS

Central nervous system

COX-2

Cyclooxygenase-2

CTSF

Cathepsin F

CTSS

Cathepsin S

CXCL12

Chemokine (C–X–C motif) ligand 12

DAMP

Danger-associated molecular pattern

ERK

Extracellular regulated kinase

GABA

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

GDNF

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor

GFAP

Glial fibrillary acidic protein

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

IFN-γ

Interferon-γ

IL

Interleukin

IL-1Ra

Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

IRAK

Serine/threonine kinase interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4

IRF3

IFN regulatory factor 3

IκBα

NFκB inhibitor α

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinase

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MAL

Myelin and lymphocyte protein

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MCP-1

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

MD-2

Myeloid differentiation factor 2

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

MOR

μ-Opioid receptor

MyD88

Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88

NAc

Nucleus accumbens

NFκB

Nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

NMDA

Neuronal N-methyl-d-aspartate

NO

Nitric oxide

PAMP

Pathogen-associated molecular pattern

PI3K

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase

SN

Substantia nigra

TLR

Toll-like receptor

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

TRAM

TRIF-related adaptor molecule

TRIF

Toll/IL-1R domain containing adaptor inducing IFN-β

VTA

Ventral tegmental area

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Discipline of Pharmacology, School of Medical SciencesUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Discipline of Physiology, School of Medical SciencesUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

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