Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: Impact on Neuroendocrine–Neuroimmune Networks

  • Tamara Bodnar
  • Joanne Weinberg


Alcohol exposure in utero can have numerous adverse effects on a developing fetus. The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) refers to the broad spectrum of structural, neurocognitive, and behavioral abnormalities or deficits that can occur following prenatal alcohol (ethanol) exposure (PAE). At the most severe end of the spectrum is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which involves the complete phenotype of characteristic facial anomalies, growth retardation, and central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities. Alcohol exposure at levels that result in some but not all components of the facial, growth, and CNS deficits, and with evidence of neurobehavioral abnormalities, is termed partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS). In the absence of any facial anomalies or growth deficits, a range of effects can occur that may be primarily physical, termed alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD), or primarily neurological and/or neurobehavioral, termed alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) [1].


Alcohol Exposure Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Immune Competence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The research from our laboratory reported in this review is supported by grants NIH/NIAAA R37 AA007789 to JW and R21 AA AA016683 to JW (CoIs: S. Innis, A. Devlin); NIH/NIMH R24 MH081797 (Project 2) to JW (CoIs: M. Kobor, G.G. Meadows). TB is supported by a fellowship from the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC CGS-D) and a University Graduate Fellowship. Versions of some sections of this chapter have appeared previously in published work, as cited.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cellular and Physiological SciencesUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

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