Advertisement

PRISMA

  • Simone D’Amico
  • Per Bodin
  • Michel Delpech
  • Ron Noteborn
Chapter
Part of the Space Technology Library book series (SPTL, volume 31)

Abstract

PRISMA is a precursor mission for formation-flying and on-orbit-servicing critical technologies. It consists of two spacecraft launched clamped together in low Earth orbit and separated in space after the commissioning phase in August 2010. The mission represents a unique in-orbit test-bed for guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) algorithms, novel relative navigation sensors (GPS, radio-frequency, vision-based), as well as new propulsion systems (high performance green propellant, micro-electro-mechanical). Originating from an initiative of the Swedish National Space Board, PRISMA is run by OHB Sweden with important contributions by the German Aerospace Center, the French Space Agency, and the Technical University of Denmark. After a brief overview of motivations, partners, and objectives, the chapter starts with a comprehensive description of the mission, including spacecraft platform, formation-flying and rendezvous sensors and actuators, as well as GNC key modes and algorithms. The discussion is followed by a summary of the main project phases, including overall schedule, verification process, and mission operations. Actual flight results from the basic PRISMA mission and its numerous GNC experiments are presented along with the achieved relative navigation and control accuracies over a broad range of autonomous operations between 30 km and nearly zero inter-spacecraft separation.

Keywords

Propulsion System Model Predictive Control Collision Avoidance Controller Area Network Precise Orbit Determination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Seguela D, Brigitte T, Feuillerac L (2011) DEFI TECHNOLOGIQUE, LE VOL EN FORMATION/Pushing the edge of technology, formation flying. Special report, CNES MAG, no 48, Jan 2011, pp 38–53Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Reintsema D, Thaeter J, Rathke A, Naumann W, Rank P, Sommer J (2010) DEOS – the German robotics approach to secure and de-orbit malfunctioned satellites from low earth orbits. In: Proceedings of the i-SAIRAS 2010, Sapporo, Japan, 29 Aug–1 Sep 2010Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bristow J, Folta D, Hartman K (2000) A formation flying technology vision. In: Proceedings of the AIAA space conference, Long Beach, CA. AIAA Paper No. 2000–5194Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berge S, Jakobsson B, Bodin P, Edfors A, Persson S (2005) Rendezvous and formation flying experiments within the PRISMA in-orbit testbed. In: Proceedings of the ESA GNCS, Louthraki, GreeceGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Persson S, Jacobsson B, Gill E (2005) Prisma - demonstration mission for advanced rendezvous, formation flying technologies and sensors. In: Proceedings of the 56th international astronautical congress, Fukuoka, Japan. IAC-05-B5.6.B.07, 17–21 Oct 2005Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Persson S, Veldman S, Bodin P (2009) PRISMA – a formation flying project in implementation phase. Acta Astronaut 65(9–10):1360–1374. doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2009.03.067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bodin P, Larsson R, Nilsson F, Chasset C, Noteborn R, Nylund M (2009) PRISMA: an in-orbit test bed for guidance, navigation, and control experiments. J Spacecr Rocket 46(3):615–623. doi: 10.2514/1.40161 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Montenbruck O, Markgraf M (2006) User’s manual for the phoenix GPS receiver. DLR/GSOC GTN-MAN-0120, version 1.7Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D’Amico S, Ardaens J-S, Montenbruck O (2009) Navigation of formation flying spacecraft using GPS: the PRISMA technology demonstration. In: Proceedings of the ION-GNSS-2009, Savannah, USA, 22–25 Sep 2009Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D’Amico S, De Florio S, Larsson R, Nylund M (2009) Autonomous formation keeping and reconfiguration for remote sensing spacecraft. In: Proceedings of the 21st ISSFD, Toulouse, France, 28 Sep–2 Oct 2009Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    De Florio S, D’Amico S (2009) The precise autonomous orbit keeping experiment on the PRISMA mission. J Astronaut Sci 56(4):477–494Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ardaens J-S, Montenbruck O, D’Amico S (2010) Functional and performance validation of the PRISMA precise orbit determination facility. In: Proceedings of the ION international technical meeting, San Diego, CA, 25–27 Jan 2010Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Harr J, Delpech M, Lestarquit L, Seguela D (2006) RF metrology validation and formation flying demonstration by small satellites – the CNES participation on the PRISMA mission. In: Proceedings of the 4S symposium small satellites, systems and services, ESA SP-625Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lestarquit L, Harr J, Grelier T, Peragin E, Wilhelm N, Mehlen C, Peyrotte C (2006) Autonomous formation flying RF sensor development for the PRISMA mission. In: Proceedings of the ION-GNSS-2006, Forth Worth, TX, 26–29 Sep 2006Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Harr J, Delpech M, Grelier T, Seguela D, Persson S (2008) The FFIORD experiment - CNES’ RF metrology validation and formation flying demonstration on PRISMA. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium on formation flying, missions and technology, ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 23–25 Apr 2008Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Benn M, Jørgensen JL (2008) Short range pose and position determination of spacecraft using a μ-advanced stellar compass. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium on formation flying, missions and technology, ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 23–25 Apr 2008Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Anflo K, Möllerberg R (2009) Flight demonstration of new thruster and green propellant technology on the PRISMA satellite. Acta Astronaut 65(9–10):1238–1249. doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2009.03.056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grönland T-A, Rangsten P, Nese M, Lang M (2007) Miniaturization of components and systems for space using MEMS-technology. Acta Astronaut 61(1–6):228–233. doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2007.01.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Capuano G, Severi M, Cacace F, Lirato R, Longobardi P, Pollio G, DeNino M, Ippolito M (2008) Video system for prisma formation flying mission. In: Proceedings of the IAA symposium on small satellite systems and services (4S), Rhodes, Greece, 26–30 May 2008Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brinkfeldt K, Enoksson P, Wieser M, Barabash S, Emanuelsson M (2011) Microshutters for MEMS-based time-of-flight measurements in space. In: Proceedings of the 24th international conference on micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS), doi:  10.1109/MEMSYS.2011.5734495
  21. 21.
    Gaisler J (2001) The LEON processor user’s manual, version 2.3.7Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    D’Amico S, Gill E, Garcia M, Montenbruck O (2006) GPS-based real-time navigation for the PRISMA formation flying mission. In: Proceedings of the 3rd ESA workshop on satellite navigation user equipment technologies, NAVITEC’2006, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 11–13 Dec 2006Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Delpech M, Guidotti P-Y, Djalal S, Grelier T, Harr J (2009) RF based navigation for PRISMA and other formation flying missions in earth orbit. In: Proceedings of the 21st ISSFD, Toulouse, France, 28 Sep–2 Oct 2009Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Denver T, Jørgensen JL, Michelsen R, Jørgensen PS (2006) MicroASC star tracker generic developments. In: Proceedings of the 4S Symposium, Sardinia, Italy, Sep 2006Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Benn M, Jørgensen JL (2009) Range management of a vision based rendezvous and docking navigation sensor. In: Proceedings of the international astronautical conference (IAC), IAC-09.C1.4.4, 2009Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Anflo K, Persson S, Thormählen P, Bergman G, Hasanof T, Grönland T-A, Möllerberg R (2006) Flight demonstration of an ADN-based propulsion system. In: Proceedings of the 57th IAC/IAF/IAA (International astronautical congress), Valencia, Spain, IAC-06-C4.1.08, 2–6 Oct 2006Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Larsson R, Berge S, Bodin P, Jönsson U (2006) Fuel efficient relative orbit control strategies for formation flying rendezvous within PRISMA. Adv Astronaut Sci, 125:25–40; also American Astronautical Society Paper 06–025, Feb 2006Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Larsson R, Mueller J, Thomas S, Jakobsson B, Bodin P (2008) Orbit constellation safety on the prisma in-orbit formation flying test bed. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium on formation flying, missions and technology, ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 23–25 Apr 2008Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stephen GN, Ariela S (1996) Linear and nonlinear programming. International editions, McGraw-Hill Series in Industrial Engineering and Management ScienceGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yamanaka K, Ankersen F (2002) New state transition matrix for relative motion on an arbitrary elliptical orbit. J Guid Control Dynam 25(1):60–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tillerson M, Inalhan G, How J (2002) Co-ordination and control of distributed spacecraft systems using convex optimization techniques. Int J Robust Nonlin Contr 12:207–242zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    D’Amico S, Montenbruck O (2006) Proximity operations of formation flying spacecraft using an eccentricity/inclination vector separation. J Guid Control Dynam 29(3):554–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    D’Amico S, Gill E, Montenbruck O (2006) Relative orbit control design for the PRISMA formation flying mission. In: Proceedings of the AIAA guidance, navigation, and control conference, Keystone, CO, 21–24 Aug 2006Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    De Florio S, D’Amico S (2009) Optimal autonomous orbit control of remote sensing spacecraft. In: Proceedings of the 19th AAS/AIAA space flight mechanics meeting, Savannah, USA, 8–12 Feb 2009Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Berges J-C, Cayeux P, Gaudel-Vacaresse A, Meyssignac B (2007) CNES approaching guidance experiment within FFIORD. In: Proceedings of the ISSFD 2007, Annapolis, USAGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cayeux P, Raballand F, Borde J, Berges J-C, Meyssignac B (2007) Anti-collision function design and performances of the CNES formation flying experiment on the PRISMA mission. In: Proceedings of the 20th international symposium on space flight dynamics, Annapolis, USA, 24–28 Sep 2007Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wermuth M, Montenbruck O, Helleputte van T (2010) GPS high precision orbit determination software tools (GHOST). In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on astrodynamics tools and techniques, Madrid, 3–6 May 2010Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Teunissen PJG (1995) The least-squares ambiguity decorrelation adjustment: a method for fast GPS integer ambiguity estimation. J Geod 70(1–2):65–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ardaens J-S, D'Amico S, Montenbruck O (2010) Flight results from the PRISMA GPS-based navigation. In: Proceedings of the NAVITEC’2010, 5th ESA workshop on satellite navigation technologies, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 8–10 Dec 2010Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bodin P, Noteborn R, Larsson R, Chasset C (2011) System test results from the GNC experiments on the PRISMA in-orbit test bed. Acta Astronaut 68(7–8):862–872. doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2010.08.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nylund M, Bodin P, Chasset C, Larsson R, Noteborn R (2011) SATSIM an advanced real-time multi satellite simulator handling GPS in closed-loop tests. In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on spacecraft formation flying missions & technologies, St-Hubert, Quebec, 18–20 May 2011Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Carlsson A (2007) A general control system for both sounding rockets and satellites. In: Proceedings of the 18th ESA symposium on European rockets an balloon programmes and related research, Visby, 3–7 June 2007Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    D’Amico S, De Florio S, Ardaens J-S, Yamamoto T (2008) Offline and hardware-in-the-loop validation of the GPS-based real-time navigation system for the PRISMA formation flying mission. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium on formation flying, missions and technology, ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, 23–25 Apr 2008Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    D’Amico S, Ardaens J-S, DeFlorio S (2010) Autonomous formation flying based on GPS – PRISMA flight results. In: Proceedings of the 6th international workshop on satellite constellation and formation flying, Taipei, Taiwan, 1–3 Nov 2010Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ardaens J-S, D’Amico S, Montenbruck O (2011) Final commissioning of the PRISMA GPS navigation system. In: Proceedings of the 22nd international symposium on spaceflight dynamics, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, 28 Feb–4 Mar 2011Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Grelier T, Guidotti P-Y, Delpech M, Harr J, Thevenet J-B, Leyre X (2010) Formation flying radio frequency instrument: first flight results from the PRISMA mission. In: Proceedings of the 5th ESA workshop on satellite navigation technologies and European workshop on GNSS signals and signal processing (Navitec 2010), 8–10 Dec 2010Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Noteborn R, Bodin P, Larsson R, Chasset C (2011) Flight results from the PRISMA optical line of sight based autonomous rendezvous experiment. In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on spacecraft formation flying missions & technologies, St-Hubert, Quebec, 18–20 May 2011Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Anflo K, Crowe B (2011) In-space demonstration of high performance green propulsion and its impact on small satellites. In: Proceedings of the 25th annual AIAA/USU conference on small satellites, Logan, UT, 8–11 Aug 2011Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Larsson R, Noteborn R, Bodin P, D’Amico S, Karlsson T, Carlsson A (2011) Autonomous formation flying in LEO seven months of routine formation flying with frequent reconfigurations. In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on spacecraft formation flying missions & technologies, St-Hubert, Quebec, 18–20 May 2011Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Larsson R, D’Amico S, Noteborn R, Bodin P (2011) GPS navigation based proximity operations by the PRISMA satellites - flight results. In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on spacecraft formation flying missions & technologies, St-Hubert, Quebec, 18–20 May 2011Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    D’Amico S, Ardaens J-S, Larsson R (2011) Spaceborne autonomous formation flying experiment on the PRISMA mission. In: Proceedings of the AIAA guidance, navigation, and control conference, Portland, USA, 8–11 Aug 2011Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Guidotti P-Y, Delpech M, Berges J-C, Djalal S, Grelier T, Seguela D, Harr J (2011) Flight results of the FFIORD formation flying experiment. In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on spacecraft formation flying missions & technologies, St-Hubert, Quebec, 18–20 May 2011Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Delpech M, Guidotti P-Y, Grelier T, Seguela D, Berges J-C, Djalal S, Harr J (2011) First formation flying experiment based on a radio frequency sensor: lessons learned and perspectives for future missions. In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on spacecraft formation flying missions & technologies, St-Hubert, Quebec, 18–20 May 2011Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simone D’Amico
    • 1
  • Per Bodin
    • 2
  • Michel Delpech
    • 3
  • Ron Noteborn
    • 2
  1. 1.German Aerospace Center (DLR), German Space Operations CenterWesslingGermany
  2. 2.OHB Sweden ABSolnaSweden
  3. 3.CNES, Toulouse Space CenterToulouseFrance

Personalised recommendations