Advertisement

Development, Anatomy, and Physiology of the Pharynx

  • Peter C. BelafskyEmail author
  • Catherine Rees Lintzenich
Chapter

Abstract

The pharynx plays an essential role in deglutition. It is a highly complex common cavity for swallowing and respiration and serves a vital function in the fundamental separation of food passage and air exchange. A thorough understanding of pharyngeal anatomy and physiology is essential to understand swallowing.

Keywords

Pharynx Nasopharynx Oropharynx Hypopharynx Anatomy Physiology Embryology 

References

  1. 1.
    Mu L, Sanders I. Neuromuscular specializations within human pharyngeal constrictor muscles. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2007;116(8):604–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Martin-Harris B, Brodsky MB, Price CC, Michel Y, Walters B. Temporal coordination of pharyngeal and laryngeal dynamics with breathing during swallowing: single liquid swallows. J Appl Physiol. 2003;94(5):1735–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Martin-Harris B, Brodsky MB, Michel Y, Ford CL, Walters B, Heffner J. Breathing and swallowing dynamics across the adult lifespan. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;131:762–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Perlman AL, Ettema SL, Barkmeier J. Respiratory and acoustic signals associated with bolus passage during swallowing. Dysphagia. 2000;15(2):89–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hårdemark Cedborg AI, Bodén K, Witt Hedström H, Kuylenstierna R, Ekberg O, Eriksson LI, Sundman E. Breathing and swallowing in normal man--effects of changes in body position, bolus types, and respira­tory drive. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22(11):1201–8. e316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ekberg O, Sigurjónsson SV. Movement of the epiglottis during deglutition. A cineradiographic study. Gastrointest Radiol. 1982;7(2):101–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McConnel FMS, Cerenko D, Mendelsohn MS. Manofluorographic analysis of swallowing. Oto Clin North Am. 1988;21:625–35.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dodds WJ, Stewart ET, Logemann JA. Physiology and radiology of the normal oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1990;154(5):953–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dodds WJ. The physiology of swallowing. Dysphagia. 1989;3:171–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter C. Belafsky
    • 1
    Email author
  • Catherine Rees Lintzenich
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of California, Davis Medical CenterSacramentoUSA
  2. 2.Department of OtolaryngologyWake Forest School of MedicineWinston SalemUSA

Personalised recommendations