Physical Activity Across the Lifespan pp 235-265

Part of the Issues in Children's and Families' Lives book series (IICL, volume 12)

The Mandate for Movement: Schools as Agents of Change

Abstract

We present a compelling evolutionary and scientific rationale for why movement (physical activity) must be viewed as essential in promoting students’ physical and mental health, learning, and education. Because the human genome has encoded evolutionarily mandated cycling between periods of activity and rest, healthy gene expression and physiological function depend on regular movement. Yet our current culture, marked largely by sedentarism, has largely failed to heed the host of evidence that the mind and body require regular physical activity to function optimally. This disconcerting development has caused evolutionary cycles to stall, leading to metabolic derangement, epidemic chronic disease, and insidious patterns of mental disorders and addiction. Catalyzing change to combat this trend requires a global front in which every individual, community, and organization has a role. Schools, in particular, present a uniquely advantageous opportunity to acculturate future generations with the knowledge, skills, and behaviors needed for a lifetime of healthy activity.

References

  1. Aberg, M. A., Pedersenn, N. L., Tore’n, K., Svartengren, M., Backstrand, B., Johnsson, T., et al. (2009). Cardiovascular fitness is associated with cognition in young adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(49), 20906–20911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahamed, Y., MacDonald, H., Reed, K., Naylor, P. J., Liu-Ambrose, T., & McKay, H. (2007). School-based physical activity does not compromise children’s academic performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(2), 371–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, S. E., & Whitaker, R. C. (2009). Prevalence of obesity among US preschool children in different racial and ethnic groups. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 163(4), 344–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bak, E. E., Hellenius, M. L., & Ekblom, B. (2010). Are we facing a new paradigm of inactivity physiology? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(12), 834–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barros, R. M., Silver, E. J., & Stein, R. E. K. (2009). School recess and group classroom behavior. Pediatrics, 123, 431–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beaudet, A. L., Scriver, C. R., Sly, W. S., & Valle, D. (1995). Genetics, biochemistry, and molecular basis of variant human phenotypes. In C. R. Scriver, A. L. Beaudet, W. S. Sly, D. Valle, J. B. Stanbury, J. B. Wyngaarden, & D. S. Fredrickson (Eds.), The metabolic and molecular bases of inherited disease (7th ed., Vol. 1, p. 79). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  7. Booth, F. W., & Chakravarthy, M. V. (2002). Cost and consequences of sedentary living: New battleground for an old enemy. President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports: Research Digest, 3(16), 1–8.Google Scholar
  8. Booth, F. W., Chakravarthy, M. V., Gordon, S. E., & Spangenburg, E. E. (2002). Waging war on physical inactivity: using modern molecular ammunition against an ancient enemy. Journal of Applied Physiology, 93, 3–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Breithecker, D. (2010). Beware the sitting trap in learning and schooling. “Ergo-dynamic” concepts are decisive. Retrieved June 12, 2010, from http://www.designshare.com/index.php/articles/sitting-trap/.
  10. Bruel-Jungerman, E., Laroche, S., & Rampon, C. (2005). New neurons in the dentate gyrus are involved in the expression of enhanced long-term memory following environmental enrichment. European Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 513–521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buck, S. M., Hillman, C. H., & Castelli, D. M. (2008). The relation of aerobic fitness to Stroop Task performance in preadolescent children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40, 166–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Budde, H., Voelcker-Rehage, C., Pietrabyk-Kendziorra, S., Ribeiro, P., & Tidow, G. (2008). Acute coordinative exercise improves attentional performance in adolescents. Neuroscience Letters, 441(2), 219–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. California Department of Education (CDE). (2005, April). California physical fitness test: A study of the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement in California using 2004 test results. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education. Retrieved August 29, 2010, from www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/pf/documents/2004pftresults.doc.
  14. Carlson, S. A., Fulton, J. E., Lee, S. M., Maynard, M., Brown, D. R., Kohl, H. W., III, et al. (2008). Physical education and academic achievement in elementary school: Data from the early childhood longitudinal study. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 721–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Castelli, D. M., Hillman, C. H., Buck, S. M., & Erwin, H. E. (2007). Physical fitness and academic achievement in third- and fifth-grade students. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29, 239–252.Google Scholar
  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2007). US physical activity statistics. Retrieved June 12, 2010, from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/PASurveillance/StateSumResultV.asp?CI=&Year=2007&State=0#data.
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2009). Diabetes—Successes and opportunities for population-based prevention and control: At a glance. Retrieved June 12, 2010, from http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/AAG/ddt.htm.
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2010). Healthy youth. Childhood obesity. Retrieved June 12, 2010, from http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/obesity/.
  19. Chakravarthy, M. V., & Booth, F. W. (2004). Eating, exercise, and “thrifty” genotypes: connecting the dots toward an evolutionary understanding of modern chronic diseases. J. App. Physiol. 96, 3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Charleston Progressive Academy. (2008). Direct Correspondence.Google Scholar
  21. Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act. (2004, June 30). Local wellness policy (Section 204 of Public Law 108-265). Retrieved August 29, 2010, from http://www.fns.usda.gov/tn/healthy/108-265.pdf.
  22. Chomitz, V. R., Slining, M. M., & McGowan, R. J. (2009). Is there a relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement? Positive results from public school children in the northeastern United States. Journal of School Health, 79(1), 30–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Coe, D. P., Pivarnik, J. M., Womack, C. J., Reeves, M. J., & Malina, R. M. (2006). Effect of physical education and activity levels on academic achievement in children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38, 1515–1519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cordain, L. O., Gotshall, R. W., & Eaton, S. B. (1997). Evolutionary aspects of exercise. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, 81, 49–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cordain, L. O., Gotshall, R. W., Eaton, S. B., & Eaton, S. B. I. I. I. (1998). Physical activity, energy expenditure and fitness: an evolutionary perspective. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 19, 328–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Council for Research Excellence (CRE). (2009). Video consumer mapping study. Muncie: Ball State University, Center for Media Design, Sequent Partners. Retrieved August 29, 2010 from http://www.researchexcellence.com/VCMFINALREPORT_4_28_09.pdf.Google Scholar
  27. Davis, C. L., Tomporowski, P. D., Boyle, C. A., Waller, J. L., Miller, P. H., & Naglieri, J. A. (2007, December). Effects of aerobic exercise on overweight children’s cognitive functioning: a randomized controlled trial. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 78(5), 510–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. De Vany, A. (2009). Essay on evolutionary fitness. Retrieved June 12, 2010, from http://www.arthurdevany.com/categories/20091026.
  29. Diamond, J. (2003). The double puzzle of diabetes. Nature, 423, 599–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dietrich, A., & McDaniel, W. F. (2004). Endocannabinoids and exercise. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38, 536–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dishman, R. K., Renner, K. J., White-Welkley, J. E., Burke, K. A., & Bunnell, B. N. (2000). Treadmill exercise training augments brain norepinephrine response to familiar and novel stress. Brain Research Bulletin, 52, 337–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dwyer, T., Coonan, W. E., Leitch, D. R., Hetzel, B. S., & Baghurst, P. A. (1983). An investigation of the effects of daily physical activity on the health of primary school students in South Australia. International Journal of Epidemiology, 12, 308–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dwyer, T., Sallis, J. F., Blizzard, L., Lazarus, R., & Dean, K. (2001). Relation of academic performance to PA and fitness in children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 13, 225–237.Google Scholar
  34. Eaton, S. B., Konner, M., & Shostak, M. (1988). Stone agers in the fast lane, chronic degenerative disease in evolutionary perspective. American Journal of Medicine, 84, 736–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Eaton, S. B., Konner, M., & Shostak, M. (2002). Evolutionary health promotion, consideration of common counterarguments. Preventive Medicine, 34, 119–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ekeland, E., Heian, F., Hagen, K. B., & Coren, E. (2005). Can exercise improve self esteem in children and young people? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials * Commentary. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(11), 792–798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Field, Y., Diego, M., & Sanders, C. E. (2001). Exercise is positively related to adolescents’ relationships and academics. Adolescence, 36, 105–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Franks, P. W., Hanson, R. L., Knowler, W. C., Sievers, M. L., Bennett, P. H., & Looker, H. C. (2010). Childhood obesity, other cardiovascular risk factors, and premature death. The New England Journal of Medicine, 362(6), 485–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Furger, R. (2001). The new PE curriculum: An innovative approach to teaching physical fitness. Edutopia. Retrieved June 12, 2010, from http://www.edutopia.org/new-p-e-curriculum.
  40. Greenwood, B. N., Foley, T. E., Burhans, D., Maier, S. F., & Fleshner, M. (2005). The consequences of uncontrollable stress are sensitive to duration of prior wheel running. Brain Research, 1033, 164–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hamer, M., Stamatakis, E., & Mishra, G. (2009). Psychological distress, TV viewing, and physical activity in children aged 4-12 years. Pediatrics, 123(5), 1263–1268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hamilton, M. T., Hamilton, D. G., & Zderic, T. W. (2007). Role of low energy expenditure and sitting in obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes, November, 56(11), 2655–2667.Google Scholar
  43. Heath, G. W., Gavin, J. R., III, Hinderliter, J. M., Hagberg, J. M., Bloomfield, S. A., & Holloszy, J. O. (1983). Effects of exercise and lack of exercise on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Journal of Applied Physiology, 55, 512–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hillman, C. H., Buck, S. M., Themanson, J. R., Pontifex, M. B., & Castelli, D. M. (2009). Aerobic fitness and cognitive development: Event-related brain potential and task performance indices of executive control in preadolescent children. Developmental Psychology, 45(1), 114–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hillman, C. H., Castelli, D., & Buck, S. M. (2005). Aerobic fitness and neurocognitive function in healthy preadolescent children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37, 1967–1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hillman, C. H., Erickson, K. I., & Kramer, A. F. (2008). Be smart, exercise your heart: Exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 9, 58–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hillman, C. H., Pontifex, M. B., Raine, L. B., Castelli, D. M., Hall, E. E., & Kramer, A. F. (2009). The effect of acute treadmill walking on cognitive control and academic achievement in preadolescent children. Neuroscience, 159, 1044–1054.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jensen, E. (1994). The learning brain. Del Mar: Turning Point Publishing.Google Scholar
  49. Johannes, S. (2009). Copenhagen Denmark. Direct Correspondence.Google Scholar
  50. Kilbourne, J. (2009). Sharpening the mind through movement: Using exercise balls in a university lecture class. The Chronicle of Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, 20(1), 10–15. Retrieved August 29, 2010, from http://www.balldynamics.com/research/a1237990661.pdf.Google Scholar
  51. Koffler, M., & Kisch, E. S. (1996). Starvation diet and very-low-calorie diets may induce insulin resistance and overt diabetes mellitus. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 10, 109–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kramer, A. F., Stanley, J., Colcombe, L. B., Dong, W., & Greenough, W. T. (2004). Environmental influences on cognitive and brain plasticity during aging. Journal of Gerontology Medical Sciences, 59A, 940–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kriemler, S., Zahner, L., Schindler, C., Meyer, U., Hartmann, T., Hebestreit, H., et al. (2010). Effect of school based physical activity programme (KISS) on fitness and adiposity in primary schoolchildren: cluster randomized controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 340, c785.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lawler, P. (2007, May 10). Using school wellness plans to help fight childhood obesity. Testimony before House Sub-Committee on Healthy Families and Community (p. 1). Washington, D.C.: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved August 29, 2010, from http://edlabor.house.gov/testimony/051007PhilLawlertestimony.pdf.
  55. Leatherdale, S. T., Wong, S. L., Manske, S. R., & Colditz, G. A. (2008). Susceptibility to smoking and its association with physical activity, BMI, and weight concerns among youth. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 10(3), 499–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lewis, M. H. (2004). Environmental complexity and central nervous system development and function. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 10, 91–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Li, Y., Dai, Q., Jackson, J. C., & Zhang, J. (2008). Overweight is associated with decreased cognitive functioning among school-age children and adolescents. Obesity, 16(8), 1809–1815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lipman, R. L., Raskin, P., Love, T., Triebwasser, J., Lecocq, F. R., & Schnure, J. J. (1972). Glucose intolerance during decreased physical activity in man. Diabetes, 21, 101–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Llinas, R. (2001). I of the vortex: From neurons to self (p. 302). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  60. Mahar, M. T., Murphy, S. K., & Rowe, D. A. (2006). Effects of a classroom-based program on physical activity and on-task behavior. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(12), 2086–2094.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Martinez-Gomez, D., Tucker, J., Heelan, K. A., Welk, G. J., & Eisenmann, J. C. (2009). Associations between sedentary behavior and blood pressure in young children. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 163(8), 724–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mattson, M. P. (2008). Hormesis defined. Ageing Research Reviews, 7(1), 1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mattson, M., Maudsley, S., & Martin, B. (2004). BDNF and 5HT: a dynamic duo in age-related neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative disorders. Trends in Neurosciences, 27(10), 589–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Miller, J., Kranzler, J., Liu, Y., Schmalfuss, I., Theriaque, D. W., Shuster, J. J., et al. (2006). Neurocognitive findings in Prader-Willi syndrome and early-onset morbid obesity. The Journal of Pediatrics, 149(2), 192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mora, F., Segovia, G., & del Arco, A. (2007). Aging, plasticity, and environmental enrichment: Structural changes and neurotransmitter dynamics in several areas of the brain. Brain Research Reviews, 55, 78–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Naperville Central Physical Education Program. (2008). Naperville Central Physical Education Department. Retrieved August 29, 2010, from http://www.ncusd203.org/central/html/what/physed/.
  67. National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE). (2004). Moving into the future: National standards for physical education (2nd ed.). Reston: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  68. National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE). (2010). General school health policies. Retrieved June 12, 2010, from http://nasbe.org/index.php/component/content/article/78-model-policies/118-general-school-health-policies.
  69. Neel, J. V. (1962). Diabetes mellitus: a “thrifty” genotype rendered detrimental by “progress”? American Journal of Human Genetics, 4, 353–362.Google Scholar
  70. Neel, J. V. (1999). The “thrifty genotype” in 1998. Nutrition Review, 57, S2–S9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nybo, L., & Secher, N. H. (2004). Cerebral perturbations provoked by prolonged exercise. Progress in Neurobiology, 72(4), 223–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ornish, D. (2008, May 27). A plan for overweight kids. Newsweek, 1. Retrieved August 29, 2010, from http://www.newsweek.com/2008/05/26/a-plan-for-overweight-kids.html.
  73. Owen, N., Bauman, A., & Brown, W. (2009). Too much sitting: a novel and important predictor of chronic disease risk? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43, 81–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Panksepp, J. (2007). Can PLAY diminish ADHD and facilitate the construction of the social brain? Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 16, 57–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Panksepp, J. (2008). Play, ADHD, and the construction of the social brain: Should the first class each day be recess? American Journal of Play, 1, 55–79.Google Scholar
  76. Panksepp, J., Burgdorf, J., Turner, C., & Gordon, N. (2003). Modeling ADHD-type arousal with unilateral frontal cortex damage in rats and beneficial effects of play therapy. Brain and Cognition, 52, 97–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Parfitt, G., & Eston, R. G. (2005). The relationship between children’s habitual activity level and psychological well-being. Acta Paediatrica, 94, 1791–1797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pascopella, A. (2001, October 1). TIMMS: Tired of criticism about your schools’ math and science test scores? Find out how these U.S. schools are boosting their results. The free library, District Administration (p. 1). Retrieved June 12, 2010, from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/TIMMS:+tired+of+criticism+about+­your+schools%27+math+and+science+test…-­a097117368.
  79. PE4life. (2007). Results. Retrieved June 12, 2010, from http://www.pe4life.org/sub/Results/index.cfm.
  80. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. (2008). Physical activity guidelines advisory committee report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  81. Pilegaard, H., Saltin, B., & Neufer, P. D. (2003). Effect of short-term fasting and refeeding on transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes in human skeletal muscle. Diabetes, 52, 657–662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pontifex, M. B., Hillman, C. H., Fernhall, B., Thompson, K. M., & Valentini, T. A. (2009). The effect of acute aerobic and resistance exercise on working memory. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41(4), 927–934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Puhl, R. M., & Latner, J. D. (2007). Stigma, obesity, and the health of the nation’s children. Psychological Bulletin, 133(4), 557–580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pytel, B. (2007, November 21). No more classroom chairs: Students are sitting on exercise balls. Student Health Issues, 1. Retrieved August 29, 2010, from http://student-health-issues.suite101.com/article.cfm/no_more_classroom_chairs.
  85. Raji, C. A., Ho, A. J., & Parikshak, N. N. (2010). Brain structure and obesity. Human Brain Mapping, 31, 353–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Ratey, J., & Hagerman, E. Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain Little Brown, January 2008.Google Scholar
  87. Rideout, V.J., Foehrm, U.G., & Roberts, D.F. (2010, January). Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8- to 18-year olds. Washington, D.C.: Kaiser Family Foundation Study (p. 1). Retrieved August 29, 2010, from http://www.kff.org/entmedia/entmedia012010nr.cfm.
  88. Sallis, J., McKensie, T. L., Kolody, B., Lewis, M., Marshall, S., Rosengard, P., et al. (1999). Effects of health related physical education on academic achievement: Project SPARK. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70, 127–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Saulny, S. (2009). Students stand when called upon, and when not. New York Times, A1. Retrieved February 25, 2009.Google Scholar
  90. Shaw, J. (2004, March–April). The deadliest sin. Harvard Magazine, 36–44.Google Scholar
  91. Shephard, R. J. (1997). Curricular physical activity and academic performance. Pediatric Exercise Science, 9, 113–126.Google Scholar
  92. Sibley, B. A., & Etnier, J. L. (2003). The relationship between physical activity and cognition in children: A meta-analysis. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15, 243–256.Google Scholar
  93. Sigfusdottir, I. D., Kristjansson, A., & Allegrante, J. P. (2007). Health behaviour and academic achievement in Icelandic school children. Health Education Research, 22, 70–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Strong, W. B., Malina, R. M., Blimkie, C. J. R., Daniels, S. R., Dishman, R. K., Gutin, B., et al. (2005). Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. Journal of Pediatrics, 146, 732–737.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Taras, H. (2005). Physical activity and student performance at school. Journal of School Health, 75, 214–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Texas Association of School Boards (TASB). (2010). The fundamental role of public schools. Retrieved June 12, 2010, from http://www.tasb.org/about/schools/role.aspx.
  97. Tkacz, J., Young-Hyman, D. Y., & Boyle, C. A. (2008, November). Aerobic exercise program reduces anger expression among overweight children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 20(4), 390–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Trudeau, F., & Shephard, R. J. (2008). Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5(10), 1–12.Google Scholar
  99. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). (January. (2010). The Surgeon General’s vision for a healthy and fit nation. Rockville: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General.Google Scholar
  100. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). (November. (2000). Healthy people 2010: With understanding and improving health and objectives for improving health (2nd ed.). Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  101. van der Heijden, G. J., Toffolo, G., Manesso, E., Sauer, P. J. J., & Sunehag, A. L. (2009). Aerobic exercise increases peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in sedentary adolescents. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 94(11), 4292–4299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Vaynman, S., & Gomez-Pinilla, F. (2006). Revenge of the “sit”: how lifestyle impacts neuronal and cognitive health through molecular systems that interface energy metabolism with neuronal plasticity. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 84(4), 699–715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Vaynman, S., Zhe, Y., & Fernando, G. P. (2004). Hippocampal BDNF mediates the efficacy of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition. European Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 2580–2590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Viadero, D. (2008). Exercise seen as priming the pump for students’ academic success. Education Week, 27, 14–15.Google Scholar
  105. Walther, C., Machalica, K., Muller, U., & Schuler, G. (2009, November 17). Students with a lower socioeconomic background benefit from daily school physical activity. American Heart Association, Abstract. Retrieved August 29, 2010, from http://www.newsroom.heart.org/index.php?item=859&s=43.
  106. Wechsler, H., McKenna, M.L., Lee, S.M., & Dietz, W.H. (2004, December 1–9). The role of schools in preventing childhood obesity. The State Education Standard. Retrieved August 8 29, 2010, from http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/physicalactivity/pdf/roleofschools_obesity.pdf.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Harvard Medical SchoolCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of EpidemiologyHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations