The Connection Between Sleep Loss, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes

  • Silvana Pannain
  • Guglielmo Beccuti
  • Eve Van Cauter


In this review, evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that reduced sleep duration may be part of the behavioral modifications that played a role in the development of the current epidemic of obesity and diabetes. An important consideration when trying to explain the epidemiologic link between sleep loss and metabolic risk is that it is not clear whether the physiological effects of sleep restriction observed under laboratory conditions over a period of a few days can be translated to chronic sleep restriction as it occurs in free-living individuals. Also, when comparing different laboratory studies of sleep restriction, differences in the “dose” of sleep loss relative to the physiological need of the individual are often ignored. While the body of evidence suggestive of an interaction between sleep loss and the epidemics of obesity and diabetes continues to build at a rapid pace, much remains to be discovered as far as mechanisms and the transition from short-term laboratory conditions to chronic partial sleep deprivation in real life. Intervention studies extending sleep in habitual short sleepers and examining the impact on metabolic outcomes are needed to further address the direction of causality of the association between insufficient sleep, obesity, and diabetes and the potential clinical implications.


Obstructive Sleep Apnea Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Sleep Duration Apnea Hypopnea Index Ghrelin Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The preparation of this chapter was partly supported by NIH grants PO1 AG-11412, RO1 DK-071696, RO1 OH-009482, P50-HD057796, and P60-DK20595.


  1. 1.
    Keith SW, Redden DT, Katzmarzyk PT, et al. Putative contributors to the secular increase in obesity: exploring the roads less traveled. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30(11):1585–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kripke D, Simons R, Garfinkel L, Hammond E. Short and long sleep and sleeping pills. Is increased mortality associated? Arch Gen Psychiatr. 1979;36(1):103–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hublin C, Partinen M, Koskenvuo M, Kaprio J. Sleep and mortality: a population-based 22-year follow-up study. Sleep. 2007;30(10):1245–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    National Sleep Foundation. 2008 Sleep in America poll. 2008.
  5. 5.
    National Center Health Statistics. QuickStats: percentage of adults who reported an average of  ≤  6 hours of sleep per 24-hour period, by sex and age group - United States, 1985 and 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005;54:933.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Center for Disease Control. Perceived insufficient rest or sleep among adults - United States, 2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58(42):1175–9.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lauderdale DS, Knutson KL, Yan LL, et al. Objectively measured sleep characteristics among early-middle-aged adults: the CARDIA study. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;164(1):5–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pannain S, Van Cauter E. Modulation of endocrine function by sleep-wake homeostasis and circadian rhythmicity. Sleep Med Clin. 2007;2(2):147–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Center for Disease Control. Unhealthy sleep-related behaviors–12 States, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60(8):233–8.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jean-Louis G, von Gizycki H, Zizi F, Spielman A, Hauri P, Taub H. The actigraph data analysis software: I. A novel approach to scoring and interpreting sleep-wake activity. Percept Mot Skills. 1997;85:207–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lauderdale DS, Knutson KL, Yan LL, Liu K, Rathouz PJ. Self-reported and measured sleep duration: how similar are they? Epidemiology. 2008;19(6):838–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Finucane MM, Stevens GA, Cowan MJ, et al. National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9.1 million participants. Lancet. 2011;377(9765):557–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McAllister EJ, Dhurandhar NV, Keith SW, et al. Ten putative contributors to the obesity epidemic. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2009;49(10):868–913.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Morselli L, Leproult R, Balbo M, Spiegel K. Role of sleep duration in the regulation of glucose metabolism and appetite. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;24(5):687–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Knutson KL. Sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;24(5):731–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pannain S, Van Cauter E. Sleep loss, obesity and diabetes: prevalence, association and emerging evidence for causation. Obesity Metabol. 2008;4(1):28–41.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Patel SR, Hu FB. Short sleep duration and weight gain: a systematic review. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16(3):643–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Spiegel K, Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function. Lancet. 1999;354(9188):1435–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Taheri S, Lin L, Austin D, Young T, Mignot E. Short sleep duration is associated with reduced leptin, elevated ghrelin, and increased body mass index. PLoS Med. 2004;1(3):e62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Beccuti G, Pannain S. Sleep and obesity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011;14(4):402–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cappuccio FP, Taggart FM, Kandala NB, et al. Meta-analysis of short sleep duration and obesity in children and adults. Sleep. 2008;31(5):619–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gunderson EP, Rifas-Shiman SL, Oken E, et al. Association of fewer hours of sleep at 6 months postpartum with substantial weight retention at 1 year postpartum. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167(2):178–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chaput JP, Despres JP, Bouchard C, Tremblay A. The association between sleep duration and weight gain in adults: a 6-year prospective study from the Quebec Family Study. Sleep. 2008;31(4):517–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lopez-Garcia E, Faubel R, Leon-Munoz L, Zuluaga MC, Banegas JR, Rodriguez-Artalejo F. Sleep duration, general and abdominal obesity, and weight change among the older adult population of Spain. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(2):310–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chaput JP, Leblanc C, Perusse L, Despres JP, Bouchard C, Tremblay A. Risk factors for adult overweight and obesity in the Quebec Family Study: have we been barking up the wrong tree? Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17(10):1964–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lauderdale DS, Knutson KL, Rathouz PJ, Yan LL, Hulley SB, Liu K. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between objectively measured sleep duration and body mass index: the CARDIA Sleep Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170(7):805–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Watanabe M, Kikuchi H, Tanaka K, Takahashi M. Association of short sleep duration with weight gain and obesity at 1-year follow-up: a large-scale prospective study. Sleep. 2010;33(2):161–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nishiura C, Hashimoto H. A 4-year study of the association between short sleep duration and change in body mass index in Japanese male workers. J Epidemiol. 2010;20(5):385–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hairston KG, Bryer-Ash M, Norris JM, Haffner S, Bowden DW, Wagenknecht LE. Sleep duration and five-year abdominal fat accumulation in a minority cohort: the IRAS family study. Sleep. 2010;33(3):289–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bo S, Ciccone G, Durazzo M, et al. Contributors to the obesity and hyperglycemia epidemics. A prospective study in a population-based cohort. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011;35(11):1442–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chaput JP, Despres JP, Bouchard C, Tremblay A. Longer sleep duration associates with lower adiposity gain in adult short sleepers. International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 7 June 2011; doi:10.1038/ijo.2011.110.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    van den Berg JF, Knvistingh Neven A, Tulen JH, et al. Actigraphic sleep duration and fragmentation are related to obesity in the elderly: the Rotterdam study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32(7):1083–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vgontzas AN, Lin HM, Papaliaga M, et al. Short sleep duration and obesity: the role of emotional stress and sleep disturbances. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32(5):801–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hall MH, Muldoon MF, Jennings JR, Buysse DJ, Flory JD, Manuck SB. Self-reported sleep duration is associated with the metabolic syndrome in midlife adults. Sleep. 2008;31(5):635–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Choi KM, Lee JS, Park HS, Baik SH, Choi DS, Kim SM. Relationship between sleep duration and the metabolic syndrome: Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey 2001. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32(7):1091–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Park SE, Kim HM, Kim DH, Kim J, Cha BS, Kim DJ. The association between sleep duration and general and abdominal obesity in Koreans: data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001 and 2005. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17(4):767–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    St-Onge MP, Perumean-Chaney S, Desmond R, et al. Gender differences in the association between sleep duration and body composition: the Cardia study. Int J Endocrinol. 2010:726071.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Adamkova V, Hubacek JA, Lanska V, et al. Association between duration of the sleep and body weight. Physiol Res. 2009;58 Suppl 1:S27–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Di Milia L, Mummery K. The association between job related factors, short sleep and obesity. Ind Health. 2009;47(4):363–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Thomas A, Schussler MN, Fischer JE, Terris DD. Employees’ sleep duration and body mass index: potential confounders. Prev Med. 2009;48(5):467–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Watson NF, Buchwald D, Vitiello MV, Noonan C, Goldberg J. A twin study of sleep duration and body mass index. J Clin Sleep Med. 2010;6(1):11–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Buxton OM, Marcelli E. Short and long sleep are positively associated with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease among adults in the United States. Soc Sci Med. 2010;71(5):1027–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Magee CA, Iverson DC, Caputi P. Sleep duration and obesity in middle-aged Australian adults. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18(2):420–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Magee CA, Caputi P, Iverson DC. Is sleep duration associated with obesity in older Australian adults? J Aging Health. 2010;22(8):1235–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Magee CA, Caputi P, Iverson DC. Short sleep mediates the association between long work hours and increased body mass index. J Behav Med. 2011;34:83–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Anic GM, Titus-Ernstoff L, Newcomb PA, Trentham-Dietz A, Egan KM. Sleep duration and obesity in a population-based study. Sleep Med. 2010;11(5):447–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Theorell-Haglow J, Berne C, Janson C, Sahlin C, Lindberg E. Associations between short sleep duration and central obesity in women. Sleep. 2010;33(5):593–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Knutson KL. Association between sleep duration and body size differs among three Hispanic groups. Am J Hum Biol. 2011;23(1):138–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Baron KG, Reid KJ, Kern AS, Zee PC. Role of sleep timing in caloric intake and BMI. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19(7):1374–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kim S, DeRoo LA, Sandler DP. Eating patterns and nutritional characteristics associated with sleep duration. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14(5):889–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Liu R, Liu X, Arguelles LM, et al. A population-based twin study on sleep duration and body composition. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;20:192–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wheaton AG, Perry GS, Chapman DP, McKnight-Eily LR, Presley-Cantrell LR, Croft JB. Relationship between body mass index and perceived insufficient sleep among U.S. adults: an analysis of 2008 BRFSS data. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cizza G, Marincola P, Mattingly M, et al. Treatment of obesity with extension of sleep duration: a randomized, prospective, controlled trial. Clin Trials. 2010;7(3):274–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Silva GE, Goodwin JL, Sherrill DL, et al. Relationship between reported and measured sleep times: the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS). J Clin Sleep Med. 2007;3(6):622–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Patel SR, Blackwell T, Redline S, et al. The association between sleep duration and obesity in older adults. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32(12):1825–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gangwisch JE, Malaspina D, Boden-Albala B, Heymsfield SB. Inadequate sleep as a risk factor for obesity: analyses of the NHANES I. Sleep. 2005;28(10):1289–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cappuccio FP, D’Elia L, Strazzlillo P, Miller MA. Quantity and quality of sleep and incidence of type 2 diabetes - a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(2):414–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Chaput JP, Despres JP, Bouchard C, Astrup A, Tremblay A. Sleep duration as a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance: analyses of the Quebec Family Study. Sleep Med. 2009;10(8):919–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chao CY, Wu JS, Yang YC, et al. Sleep duration is a potential risk factor for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2011;60(6):799–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Beihl DA, Liese AD, Haffner SM. Sleep duration as a risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes in a multiethnic cohort. Ann Epidemiol. 2009;19(5):351–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rafalson L, Donahue RP, Stranges S, et al. Short sleep duration is associated with the development of impaired fasting glucose: the Western New York Health Study. Ann Epidemiol. 2010;20(12):883–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Xu Q, Song Y, Hollenbeck A, Blair A, Schatzkin A, Chen H. Day napping and short night sleeping are associated with higher risk of diabetes in older adults. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(1):78–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Vgontzas AN, Liao D, Pejovic S, Calhoun S, Karataraki M, Bixler EO. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with type 2 diabetes: a population-based study. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(11):1980–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kim J, Kim HM, Kim KM, Kim DJ. The association of sleep duration and type 2 diabetes in Korean male adults with abdominal obesity: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009;86(2):e34–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Shankar A, Syamala S, Kalidindi S. Insufficient rest or sleep and its relation to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity in a national, multiethnic sample. PLoS One. 2010;5(11):e14189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Knutson KL, Van Cauter E, Zee P, Liu K, Lauderdale DS. Cross-sectional associations between measures of sleep and markers of glucose metabolism among subjects with and without diabetes: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Sleep Study. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(5):1171–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Qiu C, Enquobahrie D, Frederick IO, Abetew D, Williams MA. Glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes risk in relation to sleep duration and snoring during pregnancy: a pilot study. BMC Womens Health. 2010;10:17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Facco FL, Grobman WA, Kramer J, Ho KH, Zee PC. Self-reported short sleep duration and frequent snoring in pregnancy: impact on glucose metabolism. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;203(2):142 e141–5.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Reutrakul S, Zaidi N, Wroblewski K, et al. Sleep disturbances and their relationship to glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(11):2454–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Picarsic JL, Glynn NW, Taylor CA, et al. Self-reported napping and duration and quality of sleep in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56(9):1674–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Goldman SE, Hall M, Boudreau R, et al. Association between nighttime sleep and napping in older adults. Sleep. 2008;31(5):733–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Asplund R. Daytime sleepiness and napping amongst the elderly in relation to somatic health and medical treatment. J Intern Med. 1996;239(3):261–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hicks RA, Lucero-Gorman K, Bautista J, Hicks GJ. Ethnicity, sleep duration, and sleep satisfaction. Percept Mot Skills. 1999;88(1):234–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Cowie CC, Rust KF, Ford ES, et al. Full accounting of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the U.S. population in 1988-1994 and 2005-2006. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(2):287–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Knutson KL, Ryden AM, Mander BA, Van Cauter E. Role of sleep duration and quality in the risk and severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(16):1768–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lee KA, Zaffke ME, McEnany G. Parity and sleep patterns during and after pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95(1):14–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sahota PK, Jain SS, Dhand R. Sleep disorders in pregnancy. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2003;9(6):477–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Van Cauter E, Polonsky KS, Scheen AJ. Roles of circadian rhythmicity and sleep in human glucose regulation. Endocr Rev. 1997;18(5):716–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Simon C, Gronfier C, Schlienger JL, Brandenberger G. Circadian and ultradian variations of leptin in normal man under continuous enteral nutrition: relationship to sleep and body temperature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83:1893–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mullington JM, Chan JL, Van Dongen HP, et al. Sleep loss reduces diurnal rhythm amplitude of leptin in healthy men. J Neuroendocrinol. 2003;15(9):851–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Dzaja A, Dalal MA, Himmerich H, Uhr M, Pollmacher T, Schuld A. Sleep enhances nocturnal plasma ghrelin levels in healthy subjects. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;286(6):E963–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Schmid SM, Hallschmid M, Jauch-Chara K, Bandorf N, Born J, Schultes B. Sleep loss alters basal metabolic hormone secretion and modulates the dynamic counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(8):3044–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Guilleminault C, Powell NB, Martinez S, et al. Preliminary observations on the effects of sleep time in a sleep restriction paradigm. Sleep Med. 2003;4(3):177–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Spiegel K, Leproult R, L’Hermite-Baleriaux M, Copinschi G, Penev PD, Van Cauter E. Leptin levels are dependent on sleep duration: relationships with sympathovagal balance, carbohydrate regulation, cortisol, and thyrotropin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(11):5762–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Spiegel K, Tasali E, Penev P, Van Cauter E. Brief communication: sleep curtailment in healthy young men is associated with decreased leptin levels, elevated ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(11):846–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Schmid SM, Hallschmid M, Jauch-Chara K, Born J, Schultes B. A single night of sleep deprivation increases ghrelin levels and feelings of hunger in normal-weight healthy men. J Sleep Res. 2008;17(3):331–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bosy-Westphal A, Hinrichs S, Jauch-Chara K, et al. Influence of partial sleep deprivation on energy balance and insulin sensitivity in healthy women. Obes Facts. 2008;1(5):266–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Schmid SM, Jauch-Chara K, Hallschmid M, Schultes B. Mild sleep restriction acutely reduces plasma glucagon levels in healthy men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(12):5169–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Schmid SM, Hallschmid M, Jauch-Chara K, et al. Short-term sleep loss decreases physical activity under free-living conditions but does not increase food intake under time-deprived laboratory conditions in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(6):1476–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Magee C, Huang X, Iverson D, Caputi P. Acute sleep restriction alters neuroendocrine hormones and appetite in healthy male adults. Sleep Biol Rhythms. 2009;7:125–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tasali E, Broussard J, Day A, Kilkus J, Van Cauter E. Sleep curtailment in healthy young adults is associated with increased ad lib food intake. Sleep. 2009;32(Suppl):A163.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Nedeltcheva AV, Kilkus JM, Imperial J, Kasza K, Schoeller DA, Penev PD. Sleep curtailment is accompanied by increased intake of calories from snacks. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(1):126–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Omisade A, Buxton OM, Rusak B. Impact of acute sleep restriction on cortisol and leptin levels in young women. Physiol Behav. 2010;99(5):651–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    van Leeuwen WM, Hublin C, Sallinen M, Harma M, Hirvonen A, Porkka-Heiskanen T. Prolonged sleep restriction affects glucose metabolism in healthy young men. Int J Endocrinol. 2010;2010:108641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Simpson NS, Banks S, Dinges DF. Sleep restriction is associated with increased morning plasma leptin concentrations, especially in women. Biol Res Nurs. 2010;12(1):47–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nedeltcheva AV, Kilkus JM, Imperial J, Schoeller DA, Penev PD. Insufficient sleep undermines dietary efforts to reduce adiposity. Ann Intern Med. 2010;153(7):435–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Brondel L, Romer MA, Nougues PM, Touyarou P, Davenne D. Acute partial sleep deprivation increases food intake in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(6):1550–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    St-Onge MP, Roberts AL, Chen J, et al. Short sleep duration increases energy intakes but does not change energy expenditure in normal-weight individuals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(2):410–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ahima RS, Saper CB, Flier JS, Elmquist JK. Leptin regulation of neuroendocrine systems. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2000;21(3):263–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kolaczynski JW, Considine RV, Ohannesian J, et al. Responses of leptin to short-term fasting and refeeding in humans: a link with ketogenesis but not ketones themselves. Diabetes. 1996;45(11):1511–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Chin-Chance C, Polonsky KS, Schoeller D. Twenty-four hour leptin levels respond to cumulative short-term energy imbalance and predict subsequent intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:2685–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Pejovic S, Vgontzas AN, Basta M, et al. Leptin and hunger levels in young healthy adults after one night of sleep loss. J Sleep Res. 2010;19(4):552–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Havel PJ. Peripheral signals conveying metabolic information to the brain: short-term and long-term regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Exp Biol Med. 2001;226(11):963–77.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Spiegel K, Tasali E, Leproult R, Scherberg N, Van Cauter E. Twenty-four-hour profiles of acylated and total ghrelin: relationship with glucose levels and impact of time of day and sleep. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;96(2):486–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Chin-Chance C, Polonsky KS, Schoeller DA. Twenty-four-hour leptin levels respond to cumulative short-term energy imbalance and predict subsequent intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol. 2000;85(8):2685–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Scheer FA, Hilton MF, Mantzoros CS, Shea SA. Adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of circadian misalignment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2009;106(11):4453–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hayes AL, Xu F, Babineau D, Patel SR. Sleep duration and circulating adipokine levels. Sleep. 2011;34(2):147–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Knutson KL, Galli G, Zhao X, Mattingly M, Cizza G. No association between leptin levels and sleep duration or quality in obese adults. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19(12):2433–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Rising R. Total daily energy expenditure. J Am Coll Nutr. 1994;13(4):309–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Weaver T, Laizner A, Evans L, et al. An instrument to measure functional status outcomes for disorders of excessive sleepiness. Sleep. 1997;20(10):835–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Briones B, Adams N, Strauss M, et al. Sleepiness and health: relationship between sleepiness and general health status. Sleep. 1996;19(7):583–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Dinges D, Pack F, Williams K, et al. Cumulative sleepiness, mood disturbance, and psychomotor vigilance performance decrements during a week of sleep restricted to 4-5 hours per night. Sleep. 1997;20:267–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Patel SR, Malhotra A, White DP, Gottlieb DJ, Hu FB. Association between reduced sleep and weight gain in women. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;164(10):947–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Resnick HE, Carter EA, Aloia M, Phillips B. Cross-sectional relationship of reported fatigue to obesity, diet, and physical activity: results from the third national health and nutrition examination survey. J Clin Sleep Med. 2006;2(2):163–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jung CM, Melanson EL, Frydendall EJ, Perreault L, Eckel RH, Wright KP. Energy expenditure during sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep following sleep deprivation in adult humans. J Physiol. 2011;589(Pt 1):235–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kuhn E, Brodan V, Brodanova M, Rysanek K. Metabolic effects of sleep deprivation. Activitas Nervosa Superior. 1969(11-3-1969):165–74.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Vondra K, Brodan V, Bass A, et al. Effects of sleep deprivation on the activity of selected metabolic enzymes in skeletal muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1981;47(1):41–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    VanHelder T, Symons JD, Radomski MW. Effects of sleep deprivation and exercise on glucose tolerance. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1993;64:487–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Bergman RN. Minimal model: perspective from 2005. Horm Res. 2005;64 Suppl 3:8–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Lyssenko V, Almgren P, Anevski D, et al. Predictors of and longitudinal changes in insulin sensitivity and secretion preceding onset of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2005;54(1):166–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Garcia G, Freeman R, Supiano M, Smith M, Galecki A, Halter J. Glucose metabolism in older adults: a study including subjects more than 80 years of age. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997;45:813–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Prigeon RL, Kahn SE, Porte Jr D. Changes in insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and B-cell function in regularly exercising subjects. Metabolism. 1995;44(10):1259–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Spiegel K, Knutson K, Leproult R, Tasali E, Van Cauter E. Sleep loss: a novel risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. J Appl Physiol. 2005;99(5):2008–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Buxton OM, Pavlova M, Reid EW, Wang W, Simonson DC, Adler GK. Sleep restriction for 1 week reduces insulin sensitivity in healthy men. Diabetes. 2010;59(9):2126–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Nedeltcheva AV, Kessler L, Imperial J, Penev PD. Exposure to recurrent sleep restriction in the setting of high caloric intake and physical inactivity results in increased insulin resistance and reduced glucose tolerance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(9):3242–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Donga E, van Dijk M, van Dijk JG, et al. A single night of partial sleep deprivation induces insulin resistance in multiple metabolic pathways in healthy subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(6):2963–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Saper CB, Scammell TE, Lu J. Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. Nature. 2005;437(7063):1257–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Nunez A, Rodrigo-Angulo ML, Andres ID, Garzon M. Hypocretin/orexin neuropeptides: participation in the control of sleep-wakefulness cycle and energy homeostasis. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2009;7(1):50–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Saper CB, Chou TC, Elmquist JK. The need to feed: homeostatic and hedonic control of eating. Neuron. 2002;36(2):199–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Sakurai T. Roles of orexin/hypocretin in regulation of sleep/wakefulness and energy homeostasis. Sleep Med Rev. 2005;9(4):231–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    de Lecea L, Sutcliffe JG. The hypocretins and sleep. FEBS J. 2005;272(22):5675–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Wu MF, John J, Maidment N, Lam HA, Siegel JM. Hypocretin release in normal and narcoleptic dogs after food and sleep deprivation, eating, and movement. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002;283(5):R1079–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Estabrooke IV, McCarthy MT, Ko E, et al. Fos expression in orexin neurons varies with behavioral state. J Neurosci. 2001;21(5):1656–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Zeitzer JM, Buckmaster CL, Lyons DM, Mignot E. Increasing length of wakefulness and modulation of hypocretin-1 in the wake-consolidated squirrel monkey. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293(4):R1736–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Adamantidis A, de Lecea L. The hypocretins as sensors for metabolism and arousal. J Physiol. 2009;587(Pt 1):33–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Harris GC, Aston-Jones G. Arousal and reward: a dichotomy in orexin function. Trends Neurosci. 2006;29(10):571–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Harris GC, Wimmer M, Aston-Jones G. A role for lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons in reward seeking. Nature. 2005;437(7058):556–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Yamanaka A, Beuckmann CT, Willie JT, et al. Hypothalamic orexin neurons regulate arousal according to energy balance in mice. Neuron. 2003;38(5):701–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Badman MK, Flier JS. The gut and energy balance: visceral allies in the obesity wars. Science. 2005;307(5717):1909–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Rosmond R, Dallman MF, Bjorntorp P. Stress-related cortisol secretion in men: relationships with abdominal obesity and endocrine, metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83(6):1853–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Bjorntorp P, Rosmond R. Obesity and cortisol. Nutrition. 2000;16(10):924–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Thomas M, Sing H, Belenky G, et al. Neural basis of alertness and cognitive performance impairments during sleepiness. I. Effects of 24 h of sleep deprivation on waking human regional brain activity. J Sleep Res. 2000;9(4):335–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Meier-Ewert HK, Ridker PM, Rifai N, et al. Effect of sleep loss on C-reactive protein, an inflammatory marker of cardiovascular risk. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43(4):678–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Vgontzas AN, Papanicolaou DA, Bixler EO, et al. Circadian interleukin-6 secretion and quantity and depth of sleep. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(8):2603–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Vgontzas AN, Zoumakis E, Bixler EO, et al. Adverse effects of modest sleep restriction on sleepiness, performance, and inflammatory cytokines. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(5):2119–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Shearer WT, Reuben JM, Mullington JM, et al. Soluble TNF-alpha receptor 1 and IL-6 plasma levels in humans subjected to the sleep deprivation model of spaceflight. [see comments]. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;107(1):165–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Chen K, Li F, Li J, et al. Induction of leptin resistance through direct interaction of C-reactive protein with leptin. Nat Med. 2006;12(4):425–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Silvana Pannain
    • 1
  • Guglielmo Beccuti
    • 1
  • Eve Van Cauter
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations