Advertisement

Introduction to Environmental Archaeology

  • Elizabeth J. Reitz
  • Myra Shackley
Chapter
Part of the Manuals in Archaeological Method, Theory and Technique book series (MATT)

Abstract

The human past cannot be understood without integrating the full range of evidence contained within archaeological sites and recognizing that cultural systems are inextricably linked to their environments. This realization stimulates systematic applications of scientific methods to support broad interpretations of long-term changes in both human behaviors and the environments within which they occur. Insights into cultures and environments contribute to studies of the Holocene epoch (beginning ca. 10000 bp or 8000 bc) as well as to our present and future lives. Climate, weather, and geology are basic to soil fertility, vegetation, and the economic potential of landscapes. Studies of these and related phenomena emphasize different aspects of relationships among individuals, cultural institutions, and environments. Human behavior and archaeological sites must be interpreted within such broad contexts. In this chapter, some perspectives that inform models of environmental change and stasis and human–environmental relationships are presented, along with commonly used ecological concepts and a summary of environmental archaeology’s diverse research interests.

Keywords

Human Behavior Archaeological Site Archaeological Record Cultural Institution Human Remains 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Albarella, U. (Ed.). (2001). Environmental archaeology: Meaning and purpose. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  2. Andrus, C. F. T., Crowe, D. E., Sandweiss, D. H., Reitz, E. J., & Romanek, C. S. (2002). Otolith δ18O record of mid-Holocene sea surface temperatures in Peru. Science, 295, 1508–1511.Google Scholar
  3. Armelagos, G. J. (1994). You are what you eat. In (K. D. Sobolik (Ed.), Paleonutrition: The diet and health of prehistoric Americans (pp. 235–244). Center for Archaeological Investigations Occasional Paper 22. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.Google Scholar
  4. Atkinson, T. C., Briffa, K. R., Coope, G. R., Joachim, M. J., & Perry, D. W. (1986). Climatic calibration of coleopteran data. In B. E. Berglund (Ed.), Handbook of Holocene palaeoecology and palaeohydrology (pp. 851–858). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. Balée, W. (2006). The research program of historical ecology. Annual Review of Anthropology, 35, 75–98.Google Scholar
  6. Barker, G. (2001). Agendas for environmental archaeology. In U. Albarella (Ed.), Environmental archaeology: Meaning and purpose (pp. 305–313). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  7. Barton, C. M., Bernabeu, J., Aura, J. E., Garcia, O., Schmich, S., & Molina, L. (2004). Long-term socioecology and contingent landscapes. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 11, 253–295.Google Scholar
  8. Bates, D. G., & Lees, S. H. (Eds.). (1996). Case studies in human ecology. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  9. Binford, L. R. (1964). A consideration of archaeological research design. American Antiquity, 29, 425–441.Google Scholar
  10. Bloch, G., Francoy, T. M., Wachtel, I., Panitz-Cohen, N., Fuchs, S., & Mazar, A. (2010). Industrial apiculture in the Jordan Valley during Biblical times with Anatolian honeybees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 107, 11240–11244.Google Scholar
  11. Branch, N., Canti, M., Clark, P., & Turney, C. (2005). Environmental archaeology: Theoretical and practical approaches. London: Hodder Arnold.Google Scholar
  12. Brothwell, D. (1990). Environmental and experimental studies in the history of archaeology. In D. E. Robinson (Ed.), Experimentation and reconstruction in environmental archaeology (pp. 1–23). Oxford, UK: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  13. Brothwell, D. R., & Pollard, A. M. (Eds.). (2001). Handbook of archaeological sciences. Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  14. Brusca, R. C., & Brusca, G. J. (2003). Invertebrates (2nd ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
  15. Buckland, P. I., Eriksson, E., Linderholm, J., Viklund, K., Engelmark, R., Palm, F., et al. (2011). Integrating human dimensions of Arctic palaeoenvironmental science: SEAD-the strategic environmental archaeology database. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38, 345–351.Google Scholar
  16. Builth, H. (2006). Gunditjmara environmental management: The development of a fisher-gatherer-hunter society in temperate Australia. In C. Grier, J. Kim, & J. Uchiyama (Eds.), Beyond affluent foragers: Rethinking hunter-gatherer complexity (pp. 4–23). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  17. Büntgen, U., Tegel, W., Nicolussi, K., McCormick, M., Frank, D., Trouet, V., et al. (2011). 2500 years of European climate variability and human susceptibility. Science, 331, 578–582.Google Scholar
  18. Butzer, K. W. (1971). Environment and archeology: An ecological approach to prehistory. Chicago, IL: Aldine.Google Scholar
  19. Butzer, K. W. (1975). The ecological approach to archaeology: Are we really trying? American Antiquity, 40, 106–111.Google Scholar
  20. Butzer, K. W. (1982). Archaeology as human ecology: Method and theory for a contextual approach. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Butzer, K. W. (1990). A human ecosystem framework for archaeology. In E. F. Moran (Ed.), The ecosystem approach in anthropology: From concept to practice (pp. 91–130). Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  22. Butzer, K. W. (2009). Evolution of an interdisciplinary enterprise: The Journal of Archaeological Science at 35 years. Journal of Archaeological Science, 36, 1842–1846.Google Scholar
  23. Campbell, N. A., Reece, J. B., Urry, L. A., Cain, S. A., Wasserman, S. A., Minorsky, P. V., et al. (2008). Biology (8th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.Google Scholar
  24. Canti, M. G. (2001). What is geoarchaeology? Re-examining the relationship between archaeology and earth science. In U. Albarella (Ed.), Environmental archaeology: Meaning and purpose (pp. 103–112). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  25. Carrott, J., & Kenward, H. (2001). Species associations among insect remains from urban archaeological deposits and their significance in reconstructing past human environments. Journal of Archaeological Science, 28, 887–905.Google Scholar
  26. Charles, M., & Halstead, P. (2001). Biological resource exploitation: Problems of theory and method. In D. R. Brothwell & A. M. Pollard (Eds.), Handbook of archaeological sciences (pp. 365–378). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  27. Clark, J. G. D. (1972). Star Carr: A case study in bioarchaeology. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  28. Clarke, D. L. (1972). Models and paradigms in contemporary archaeology. In D. L. Clarke (Ed.), Models in archaeology (pp. 1–60). London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  29. Clason, A. T. (1972). Some remarks on the use and presentation of archaeozoological data. Helinium, 12(2), 139–153.Google Scholar
  30. Cleland, C. E. (1966). The prehistoric animal ecology and ethnozoology of the Upper Great Lakes region. Anthropological Papers 29. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology.Google Scholar
  31. Conolly, J., Colledge, S., Dobney, K., Vigne, J.-D., Peters, J., Stopp, B., et al. (2011). Meta-analysis of zooarchaeological data from SW Asia and SE Europe provides insight into the origins and spread of animal husbandry. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38, 535–545.Google Scholar
  32. Davidson, D. A., & Carter, S. P. (1998). Micromorphological evidence of past agricultural practices in cultivated soils: The impact of a traditional agricultural system on soils in Papa Stour, Shetland. Journal of Archaeological Science, 25, 827–838.Google Scholar
  33. Dennell, R. W. (1979). Prehistoric diet and nutrition: Some food for thought. World Archaeology, 11, 121–135.Google Scholar
  34. Derevenski, J. S. (2001). Is human osteoarchaeology environmental archaeology? In U. Albarella (Ed.), Environmental archaeology: Meaning and purpose (pp. 113–133). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  35. Dimbleby, G. W., & Evans, J. G. (1974). Pollen and land snail analysis of calcareous soils. Journal of Archaeological Science, 1, 117–133.Google Scholar
  36. Dincauze, D. F. (2000). Environmental archaeology: Principles and practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Ellen, R. (1982). Environment, subsistence and system. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Evans, J. G. (2003). Environmental archaeology and the social order. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Ewel, J. J. (1990). Introduction. In R. L. Myers & J. J. Ewel (Eds.), Ecosystems of Florida (pp. 3–10). Orlando: University of Central Florida Press.Google Scholar
  40. Faegri, K., Kaland, P. E., & Krzywinski, K. (1989). Textbook of pollen analysis (4th ed.). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  41. Farb, P., & Armelagos, G. (1980). Consuming passions: The anthropology of eating. New York: Washington Square Press.Google Scholar
  42. Ford, R. I. (1979). Paleoethnobotany in American archaeology. In M. B. Schiffer (Ed.), Advances in archaeological method and theory (Vol. 2, pp. 285–336). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  43. Forman, R. T. T., & Godron, M. (1986). Landscape ecology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  44. Fullagar, R., Field, J., Denham, T., & Lentfer, C. (2006). Early and mid Holocene tool-use and processing of taro (Colocasia esculenta), yam (Dioscorea sp.) and other plants at Kuk Swamp in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Journal of Archaeological Science, 33, 595–614.Google Scholar
  45. Goldberg, P., & Macphail, R. I. (2006). Practical and theoretical geoarchaeology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  46. Guilizzoni, P., Lami, A., Marchetto, A., Jones, V., Manca, M., & Bettinetti, R. (2002). Palaeoproductivity and environmental changes during the Holocene in central Italy as recorded in two crater lakes (Albano and Nemi). Quaternary International, 88, 57–68.Google Scholar
  47. Halstead, P., & O’Shea, J. (Eds.). (1989). Bad year economics: Cultural responses to risk and uncertainty. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Harris, D. R. (2007). Agriculture, cultivation and domestication: Exploring the conceptual framework of early food production. In T. Denham, J. Iriarte, & L. Vrydaghs (Eds.), Rethinking agriculture: Archaeological and ethnoarchaeological perspectives (pp. 16–35). Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  49. Harris, M. (1968). The rise of anthropological theory: A history of theories of culture. New York: Crowell.Google Scholar
  50. Harrison, M. E., Cheyne, S. M., Darma, F., Ribowo, D. A., Limin, S. H., & Struebig, M. J. (2011). Hunting of flying foxes and perception of disease risk in Indonesian Borneo. Biological Conservation, 144, 2441–2449.Google Scholar
  51. Herz, N., & Garrison, E. G. (1998). Geological methods in archaeology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Holdridge, L. R. (1967). Life zone ecology. San Jose, Costa Rica: Tropical Science Center.Google Scholar
  53. Hong, S., Candelone, J.-P., Patterson, C. C., & Boutron, C. F. (1994). Greenland ice evidence of hemispheric lead pollution two millennia ago by Greek and Roman civilizations. Science, 265, 1841–1843.Google Scholar
  54. Hong, S., Candelone, J.-P., Patterson, C. C., & Boutron, C. F. (1996). History of ancient copper smelting pollution during Roman and Medieval times recorded in Greenland ice. Science, 272, 246–249.Google Scholar
  55. Huffman, T. N. (2008). Climate change during the Iron Age in the Shashe-Limpopo Basin, Southern Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35, 2032–2047.Google Scholar
  56. Innes, J. B., & Blackford, J. J. (2003). The ecology of Late Mesolithic woodland disturbances: Modal testing with fungal spore assemblage data. Journal of Archaeological Science, 30, 185–194.Google Scholar
  57. Jochim, M. A. (1976). Hunter-gatherer subsistence and settlement: A predictive model. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  58. Jochim, M. A. (1981). Strategies for survival. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  59. Johnston, R. F. (2001). Synanthropic birds of North America. In J. M. Marzluff, R. Bowman, & R. Donnelly (Eds.), Avian ecology and conservation in an urbanizing world (pp. 49–67). Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  60. Kennett, D. J., Piperno, D. R., Jones, J. G., Neff, H., Voorhies, B., Walsh, M. K., et al. (2010). Pre-pottery farmers on the Pacific Coast of southern Mexico. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 37, 3401–3411.Google Scholar
  61. Kenward, H. (2006). The visibility of past trees and woodlands: Testing the value of insect remains. Journal of Archaeological Science, 33, 1368–1380.Google Scholar
  62. Kenward, H., & Hall, A. (1997). Enhancing bioarchaeological interpretation using indicator groups: Stable manure as a paradigm. Journal of Archaeological Science, 24, 663–673.Google Scholar
  63. Kenward, H. K. (1975). Pitfalls in the environmental interpretation of insect death assemblages. Journal of Archaeological Science, 2, 85–94.Google Scholar
  64. Kenward, H. K. (1976). Reconstructing ancient ecological conditions from insect remains; Some problems and an experimental approach. Ecological Entomology, 1, 7–17.Google Scholar
  65. Kipfer, B. A. (2000). Encyclopedic dictionary of archaeology. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
  66. Kormondy, E. J. (1984). Concepts of ecology (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  67. Kroeber, A. L. (1939). Cultural and natural areas of Native North America (Vol. 38: University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology). Berkeley, CA: University of California.Google Scholar
  68. Krogh, D. (2009). Biology: A guide to the natural world (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pearson, Benjamin Cummings.Google Scholar
  69. Kuijt, K., & Finlayson, B. (2009). Evidence for food storage and predomestication granaries 11,000 years ago in the Jordan Valley. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 106, 10966–10970.Google Scholar
  70. Kusaka, S., Nakano, T., Yumoto, T., & Nakatsukasa, M. (2011). Strontium isotope evidence of migration and diet in relation to ritual tooth ablation: A case study from the Inariyama Jomon site, Japan. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38, 166–174.Google Scholar
  71. Larsen, C. S. (1997). Bioarchaeology: Interpreting behavior from the human skeleton. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Lentz, D. L., Pohl, M. D., Alvarado, J. L., Tarighat, S., & Bye, R. (2008). Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a pre-Columbian domesticate in Mexico. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 6232–6237.Google Scholar
  73. Lindeman, R. L. (1942). The trophic dynamic aspect of ecology. Ecology, 23, 399–418.Google Scholar
  74. Marr, K. L., Xia, Y.-M., & Bhattarai, N. K. (2004). Allozyme, morphological and nutritional analysis bearing on the domestication of Momordica charantia L. (Cucubitaceae). Economic Botany, 58, 435–455.Google Scholar
  75. Marr, K. L., Xia, Y.-M., & Bhattarai, N. K. (2007). Allozymic, morphological, phenological, linguistic, plant use, and nutritional data of Benincasa hispida (Cucubitaceae). Economic Botany, 61, 44–59.Google Scholar
  76. Masseti, M., Albarella, U., & De Grossi Mazzorin, J. (2010). The crested porcupine, Hystrix cristata L., 1758, in Italy. Anthropozoologica, 45(2), 27–42.Google Scholar
  77. Miracle, P., & Milner, N. (Eds.). (2002). Consuming passions and patterns of consumption. Oxford, UK: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  78. Morey, D. F. (2006). Burying key evidence: The social bond between dogs and people. Journal of Archaeological Science, 33, 158–175.Google Scholar
  79. Morwood, M. J., Sutikna, T., Saptomo, E. W., Westaway, K. E., Jatmiko, Due, R. A., et al. (2008). Climate, people, and faunal succession on Java, Indonesia: Evidence from Song Gupuh. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35, 1776–1789.Google Scholar
  80. O’Connor, T., & Evans, J. (2005). Environmental archaeology: Principles and methods (2nd ed.). Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing.Google Scholar
  81. O’Day, S. J., Van Neer, W., & Ervynck, A. (Eds.). (2004). Behaviour behind bones: The zooarchaeology of ritual, religion, status and identity. Oxford, UK: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  82. Odum, E. P., & Barrett, G. W. (2005). Fundamentals of ecology (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  83. Odum, H. T. (1957). Trophic structure and productivity of Silver Springs, Florida. Ecological Monographs, 27, 55–112.Google Scholar
  84. Odum, H. T. (1994). Ecological and general systems: An introduction to systems ecology. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado.Google Scholar
  85. Ortner, D. J. (2001). Disease ecology. In D. R. Brothwell & A. M. Pollard (Eds.), Handbook of archaeological sciences (pp. 225–235). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  86. Orton, C. (2000). Sampling in archaeology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Peacock, E., & Seltzer, J. L. (2008). A comparison of multiple proxy data sets for paleoenvironmental conditions as derived from freshwater bivalve (Unionid) shell. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35, 2557–2565.Google Scholar
  88. Pearsall, D. M. (2000). Paleoethnobotany: A handbook of procedures (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  89. Plunkett, G., Whitehouse, N. J., Hall, V. A., Charman, D. J., Blaauw, M., Kelly, E., et al. (2009). A multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental investigation of the findspot of an Iron Age bog body from Oldcroghan, Co. Offaly, Ireland. Journal of Archaeological Science, 36, 265–277.Google Scholar
  90. Pollard, A. M., & Heron, C. (2008). Archaeological chemistry. Cambridge, UK: RSC Publishing.Google Scholar
  91. Popper, V. S., & Hastorf, C. A. (1988). Introduction. In C. A. Hastorf & V. S. Popper (Eds.), Current paleoethnobotany: Analytical methods and cultural interpretations of archaeological plant remains (pp. 1–16). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  92. Preece, R. C. (2001). Non-marine mollusca and archaeology. In D. R. Brothwell & A. M. Pollard (Eds.), Handbook of archaeological sciences (pp. 135–145). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  93. Rapp, G., & Hill, C. L. (1998). Geoarchaeology. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  94. Ratzel, F. (1896). The history of mankind (A. J. Butler, Trans.). London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  95. Reed, C. A. (1963). Osteoarchaeology. In D. Brothwell & E. S. Higgs (Eds.), Science in archaeology (1st ed., pp. 204–216). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  96. Reinhard, K. J., Chaves, S. M., Jones, J. J., & Iñiguez, A. M. (2008). Evaluating chloroplast DNA in prehistoric Texas coprolites: Medicinal, dietary, or ambient ancient DNA? Journal of Archaeological Science, 35, 1748–1755.Google Scholar
  97. Reinhard, K. J., Szuter, C., & Ambler, J. R. (2006). Hunter-gatherer use of small animal food resources. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 17, 416–428.Google Scholar
  98. Reitz, E. J., & Wing, E. S. (2008). Zooarchaeology (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Renberg, I., Persson, M. W., & Emteryd, O. (1994). Pre-industrial atmospheric lead contamination detected in Swedish lake sediments. Nature, 68(6469), 323–326.Google Scholar
  100. Robinson, M. (2001). Insects as palaeoenvironmental indicators. In D. R. Brothwell & A. M. Pollard (Eds.), Handbook of archaeological sciences (pp. 121–133). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  101. Sandor, J. A. (1992). Long-term effects of prehistoric agriculture on soils: Examples from New Mexico and Peru. In V. T. Holliday (Ed.), Soils in archaeology: Landscape evolution and human occupation (pp. 217–245). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  102. Schelvis, J. (1990). The reconstruction of local environments on the basis of remains of oribatid mites (Acari; Oribatida). Journal of Archaeological Science, 17, 559–571.Google Scholar
  103. Schutkowski, H. (2001). Human palaeobiology as human ecology. In D. R. Brothwell & A. M. Pollard (Eds.), Handbook of archaeological sciences (pp. 219–224). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  104. Shackley, M. (1985). Using environmental archaeology. London: B.T. Batsford.Google Scholar
  105. Sillasoo, Ü. (2009). Plants in late Medieval festivals and customs in written and pictorial sources from southern central Europe. Environmental Archaeology, 14, 76–89.Google Scholar
  106. Simoons, F. J. (1967). Eat not this flesh: Food avoidances in the Old World. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  107. Sobolik, K. (2008). Nutritional constraints and mobility patterns of hunter-gatherers in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. In E. J. Reitz, C. M. Scarry, & S. J. Scudder (Eds.), Case studies in environmental archaeology (2nd ed., pp. 211–233). London: Springer.Google Scholar
  108. Steward, J. H. (1955). Theory of culture change: The methodology of multilinear evolution. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  109. Stinchcomb, G. E., Messner, T. C., Driese, S. G., Nordt, L. C., & Stewart, R. M. (2011). Pre-colonial (A.D. 1100–1600) Sedimentation related to prehistoric maize agriculture and climate change in eastern North America. Geology, 39, 363–366.Google Scholar
  110. Stoermer, E. F., & Smol, J. P. (Eds.). (1999). The diatoms: Applications for the environmental and earth sciences. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Summerhayes, G. R., Leavesley, M., Fairbairn, A., Mandui, H., Field, J., Ford, A., et al. (2010). Human adaptation and plant use in highland New Guinea 49,000 to 44,000 years ago. Science, 330, 78–81.Google Scholar
  112. Szeroczyńska, K. (2002). Human impact on lakes recorded in the remains of Cladocera (Crustacea). Quaternary International, 95–96, 165–174.Google Scholar
  113. Thain, M., & Hickman, M. (2004). The Penguin dictionary of biology (11th ed.). London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  114. Tipping, R., Davies, A., McCulloch, R., & Tisdall, E. (2008). Response to late Bronze Age climate change of farming communities in north east Scotland. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35, 2379–2386.Google Scholar
  115. Traverse, A. (2008). Paleopalynology (2nd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  116. Vrydaghs, L., & Denham, T. (2007). Rethinking agriculture: Introductory thoughts. In T. Denham, J. Iriarte, & L. Vrydaghs (Eds.), Rethinking agriculture: Archaeological and ethnoarchaeological perspectives (pp. 1–15). Walnut Creek CA: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  117. Waters, M. R. (1992). Principles of geoarchaeology: A North American perspective. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  118. Webb, S. C., Hedges, R. E. M., & Robinson, R. (1998). The seaweed fly Thoracochaeta zosterae (Hal.) (Diptera: Sphaerocidae) in inland archaeological contexts: δ13C and δ15N solves the puzzle. Journal of Archaeological Science, 25, 1253–1257.Google Scholar
  119. Weiner, S. (2010). Microarchaeology: Beyond the visible archaeological record. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  120. Whittaker, R. H. (1975). Communities and ecosystems (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  121. Wilkinson, K., & Stevens, C. (2003). Environmental archaeology: Approaches, techniques, and applications. Stroud, UK: Tempus.Google Scholar
  122. Wilkinson, T. J. (2005). Soil erosion and valley fills in the Yemen highlands and southern Turkey: Integrating settlement, geoarchaeology, and climate change. Geoarchaeology, An International Journal, 20, 169–192.Google Scholar
  123. Williams, J. (2006). Clam gardens: Aboriginal mariculture on Canada’s West Coast. Vancouver: New Star Books.Google Scholar
  124. Wilson, E. O., & Bossert, W. H. (1971). A primer of population biology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
  125. Winterhalder, B. P. (1994). Concepts in historical ecology: The view from evolutionary theory. In C. L. Crumley (Ed.), Historical ecology: Cultural knowledge and changing landscapes (pp. 17–41). Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.Google Scholar
  126. Winterhalder, B. P., & Smith, E. A. (1992). Evolutionary ecology and the social sciences. In E. A. Smith & B. P. Winterhalder (Eds.), Evolutionary ecology and human behavior (pp. 3–23). New York: Aldine.Google Scholar
  127. Yalden, E. W. (2001). Mammals as climatic indicators. In D. R. Brothwell & A. M. Pollard (Eds.), Handbook of archaeological sciences (pp. 147–154). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  128. Zheng, Y., Sun, G., Qin, L., Li, C., Wu, X., & Chen, X. (2009). Rice fields and modes of rice cultivation between 5000 and 2500 BC in east China. Journal of Archaeological Science, 36, 2609–2616.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth J. Reitz
    • 1
  • Myra Shackley
    • 2
  1. 1.Georgia Museum of Natural HistoryUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  2. 2.Nottingham Business SchoolNottingham Trent UniversityNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations