Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

  • Ema OzakiEmail author
  • Matthew Campbell
  • Anna-Sophia Kiang
  • Marian Humphries
  • Sarah L. Doyle
  • Peter Humphries
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 801)


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of legal blindness in elderly individuals in the developed world, affecting 30–50 million people worldwide. AMD primarily affects the macular region of the retina that is responsible for the majority of central, color and daytime vision. The presence of drusen, extracellular protein aggregates that accumulate under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), is a major pathological hallmark in the early stages of the disease. The end stage ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ forms of the disease culminate in vision loss and are characterized by focal degeneration of the RPE and cone photoreceptors, and choroidal neovascularization (CNV), respectively. Being a multifactorial and genetically heterogeneous disease, the pathophysiology of AMD remains unclear, yet, there is ample evidence supporting immunological and inflammatory processes. Here, we review the recent literature implicating some of these immune processes in human AMD and in animal models.


Age-related macular degeneration Inflammation Drusen Immune cells Chemokine signaling 



Age-related macular degeneration


Retinal pigment epithelium


Choroidal neovascularization




Blood retinal barrier


Mouse serum albumin




Ccl2/Cx3cr1 double knockout


Crumbs-like 1


Danger-associated molecular patterns


Nod-like receptors


NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ema Ozaki
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Matthew Campbell
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Anna-Sophia Kiang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Marian Humphries
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sarah L. Doyle
    • 2
    • 2
    • 3
  • Peter Humphries
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Ocular Genetics Unit, Smurfit Institute of GeneticsTrinity College DublinDublinIreland
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Medicine, School of MedicineTrinity College DublinDublinIreland
  3. 3.National Childrens Research CentreOur Ladys Childrens HospitalDublin 12Ireland

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