Considerations for the Neuropsychological Evaluation of Older Ethnic Minority Populations

  • Monica Rivera Mindt
  • Alyssa Arentoft
  • Kelly Coulehan
  • Desiree Byrd
Part of the Clinical Handbooks in Neuropsychology book series (CHNEURO)


The US population is rapidly becoming both older and more culturally diverse. These changes in the demographic profile of the US highlight the need for clinical neuropsychologists to be equipped to competently evaluate the growing population of older individuals from culturally diverse backgrounds. However, there is a relative dearth of empirically based, practical resources specifically targeted toward serving such individuals. The aim of this chapter is to identify some of the most salient challenges in the evaluation of culturally diverse ethnic minority older adults and provide some guidelines to help face these challenges. We will examine sociocultural issues germane to older ethnic minority patients referred for neuropsychological evaluation and discuss relevant assessment considerations. Although the focus of this chapter is on ethnic minority older adults, this discussion may also be germane to other nontraditional, older populations including those from rural and low socioeconomic backgrounds.


Racial/ethnic minorities Dementia Neuropsychological evaluation Assessment Diversity Cultural competence Neurocognitive impairment 



The authors wish to thank Ms. Franchesca Arias, MA for her assistance with this manuscript. Supported by grant K23MH079718 (to MRM) from the National Institutes of Health.


  1. 1.
    Heron MP, Hoyert DL, Xu J, Scott C, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: preliminary data for 2006. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2008;56(16):1–50.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    US Census Bureau News. (2010, May 20). Aging population: aging boomers will increase dependency ratio, census bureau projects. Retrieved from
  3. 3.
    US Census Bureau News. (2008, Aug. 14). Press releases: an older and more diverse nation by midcentury.
  4. 4.
    Robnett RH, Chop WC. Gerontology for the health care professional. Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett; 2010.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rivera Mindt M, Arentoft A, Kubo Germano K, D’Aquila E, Scheiner D, Pizzirusso M, Sandoval TC, Gollan T. Neuropsychological, cognitive, and theoretical considerations for the evaluation of bilingual individuals. Neuropsychol Rev. 2008;18(3):255–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bentacourt H, Lopez ER. The study of culture, ethnicity, and race in American psychology. Am Psychol. 1993;48:629–37.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Okazaki S, Sue S. Methodological issues in assessment research with ethnic minorities. Psychol Assess. 1995;7(3):367–75.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Phinney JS. When we talk about American ethnic groups, what do we mean? Am Psychol. 1996;51:918–27.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ardila A. Cultural values underlying psychometric cognitive testing. Neuropsychol Rev. 2005;15(4):185–95. doi: 10.1007/s11065-005-9180-y.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Byrd D, Miller S, Reilly J, Weber S, Wall ST, Heaton R. Early environmental factors, ethnicity, and adult cognitive test performance. Clin Neuropsychol. 2006;20:243–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dotson VM, Kitner-Triolo M, Evans MK, Zonderman AB. Effects of race and socioeconomic status on the relative influence of education and literacy on cognitive functioning. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2009;15:580–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Manly JJ. Critical issues in cultural neuropsychology: profit from diversity. Neuropsychol Rev. 2008;18:179–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rivera Mindt M, Byrd D, Saez P, Manly J. Increasing culturally competent neuropsychological services for ethnic minority populations: a call to action. Clin Neuropsychol. 2010;24:429–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schwartz BS, Glass TA, Bolla KI, Stewart WF, Glass G, Rasmussen M, Bressler J, Shi W, Bandeen-Roche K. Disparities in cognitive functioning by race/ethnicity in the Baltimore Memory Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112(3):314–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Minority Health and Health Disparities Research and Education Act of 2000. Public Law 106-525, S. 1880, 2000. p. 2498.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Richardson LD, Babcock Irvin C, Tamayo-Sarver JH. Racial and ethnic disparities in the clinical practice of emergency medicine. Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10:1184–8. doi: 10.1197/S1069-6563(03)00487-1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cargill VA, Stone VE. HIV/AIDS: a minority health issue. Med Clin N Am. 2005;89:895–912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fiscella K, Franks P, Gold MR, Clancy CM. Inequality in quality: addressing socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic disparities in health care. J Am Med Assoc. 2000;283:2579–84.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    US Census Bureau. Press release CB07-FF, Facts for features: (2007, July 16). Hispanic Heritage Month: Sep 15–Oct 15.
  20. 20.
    Centers for Disease Control. (2007, June 6). About minority health.
  21. 21.
    Fitten LJ, Ortiz F, Ponton M. Frequency of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias in a community outreach sample of Hispanics. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;10:1301–8.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    von Strauss E, Fratiglioni L, Viitanen M, Forsell Y, Winblad B. Morbidity and comorbidity in relation to functional status: a community-based study of the oldest old (90+ years). J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48(11):1462–9.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Husaini BA, Sherkat DE, Moonis M, Levine R, Holzer C, Cain VA. Racial differences in the diagnosis of dementia and in its effects on the use and costs of health care services. Psychiatr Serv. 2003;54(1):92–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kuller LH, Lopez OL, Jagust WJ, Becker JT, DeKosky ST, Lyketsos C, Kawas C, Breitner JC, Fitzpatrick A, Dulberg C. Determinants of vascular dementia in the Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study. Neurology. 2005;64(9):1548–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Livney MG, Clark CM, Karlawish JH, Cartmell S, Negrón M, Nuñez J, Xie SX, Entenza-Cabrera F, Vega IE, Arnold SE. Ethnoracial differences in the clinical characteristics of alzheimer’s disease at initial presentation at an urban alzheimer’s disease center. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011;19(5):430–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Clark CM, DeCarli C, Mungas D, Chui HI, Higdon R, Nuñez J, Fernandez H, Negrón M, Manly J, Ferris S, Perez A, Torres M, Ewbank D, Glosser G, van Belle G. Arch Neurol. 2005;62(5):774–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Froehlich TE, Bogardus ST, Inouye SK. Dementia and race: are there differences between African Americans and Caucasians? J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49:477–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Flaskerud JH. Dementia, ethnicity, and culture. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2009;30(8):522–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chiu HEK, Zhang M. Dementia Research in China. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2000;15:947–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    National Institutes of Health. (2010, Oct.). Fact Sheet—Health Disparities.
  31. 31.
    Dodani S. Excess coronary artery disease risk in South Asian immigrants: can dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein explain increased risk? J Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4:953–61.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gallant MP, Spitze G, Groove JG. Chronic illness delf-care and the family lives of older adults: a synthetic review across four ethnic groups. J Cross Cult Gerontol. 2010;25(1):21–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Office of Minority Health, US Department of Health and Human Services. (2007, Dec. 7). Minority health disparities at a glance.
  34. 34.
    Reitz C, Patel B, Tang M, Manly J, Mayeux R, Luchsinger JA. J Neurol Sci. 2007;257(1–2):194–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rilling LM, Lucas JA, Ivnik RJ, Smith GE, Willis FB, Ferman TJ, Petersen RC, Graff-Radford NR. Mayo’s older African American normative studies: norms for the mattis dementia rating scale. Clin Neuropsychol. 2005;19(2):229–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Evans JD, Miller SW, Byrd DA, Heaton RK. Cross-cultural applications of the Halstead-Reitan batteries. In: Fletcher-Janzen E, Strickland TL, Reynolds CR, editors. Handbook of cross-cultural neuropsychology. New York: Springer; 2000. p. 287–303.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Arnold BR, Montgomery GT, Castaneda I, Longoria R. Acculturation and performance of Hispanics on selected Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological tests. Assessment. 1994;1:239–48.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gladsjo JA, Evans JD, Schuman CC, Peavy GM, Miller SW, Heaton RK. Norms for letter and category fluency: demographic corrections for age, education, and ethnicity. Assessment. 1999;6:147–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Heaton RK, Taylor M, Manly J. Demographic effects and demographically corrected norms with the WAIS-III and WMS-III. In: Tulsky DS, Saklofske DH, Chelune GJ, Heaton RK, Ivnik RJ, Bornstein R, Prifitera A, Ledbetter M, editors. Clinical interpretation of the WAIS-III and WMS-III. San Diego: Academic; 2003. p. 181–210.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jacobs DM, Sano M, Albert S, Schofield P, Dooneief G, Stern Y. Cross-cultural neuropsychological assessment: a comparison of randomly selected, demographically matched cohorts of English- and Spanish-speaking older adults. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1997;19:331–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Longobardi P, Cummings J, Anderson-Hanley C. Multicultural perspectives on the neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric assessment and treatment of the elderly. In: Fletcher-Janzen E, Strickland TL, Reynolds CR, editors. Handbook of cross-cultural neuropsychology. New York: Springer; 2000. p. 123–42.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lowenstein DA, Duara R, Arguelles T, Arguelles S. Use of the fuld object-memory evaluation in the detection of mild dementia among Spanish- and English-speaking groups. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1995;3:300–7.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Manly JJ, Jacobs DM, Sano M, Bell K, Merchant CA, Small SA, Stern Y. Neurocognitive test performance among non-demented elderly African Americans and Whites. Neurology. 1998;50:1238–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stricks L, Pittman J, Jacobs D, Sano M, Stern Y. Normative data for a brief neuropsychological battery administered to English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling elders. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 1998;4:311–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Adams RL, Boake C, Crain C. Bias in a neuropsychological test classification related to education, age, and ethnicity. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1982;50:143–5. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.50.1.143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Diehr MC, Cherner M, Wolfson TJ, Miller SW, Grant I, Heaton RK. The 50 and 100-item short forms of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT): demographically corrected norms and comparisons with the full PASAT in normal and clinical samples. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2003;25:571–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Taylor MJ, Heaton RK. Sensitivity and specificity of WAIS-III/WMS-III demographically corrected factor scores in neuropsychological assessment. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2001;7:867–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Klusman LE, Moulton JM, Hornbostel LK, Picano JJ, Beattie MT. Neuropsychological abnormalities in asymptomatic HIV seropositive military personnel. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1992;3:422–8.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Manly JJ, Jacobs DM, Sano M, Bell K, Merchant CA, Small SA, et al. Cross-cultural comparison of neuropsychological test performance and diagnosis of dementia. Neurology. 1998;50:91.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Norman MA, Evans JD, Miller WS, Heaton RK. Demographically corrected norms for the california verbal learning test. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2000;22:80–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bohnstedt M, Fox PJ, Kohatsu ND. Correlates of mini-mental status examination scores among elderly demented patients: the influence of race-ethnicity. J Clin Epidemiol. 1994;47:1381–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gurland BJ, Wilder DE, Cross P, Teresi J, Barrett VW. Screening scales for dementia: toward reconciliation of conflicting cross-cultural findings. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1992;7:105–13.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mungas D, Marshall SC, Weldon M, Haan M, Reed BR. Age and education correction of mini-mental state examination for English and Spanish-speaking elderly. Neurology. 1996;46:700–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Patton D, Duff K, Schoenberg M, Mold J, Scott J, Adams R. Performance of cognitively normal African Americans on the RBANS in community dwelling older adults. Clin Neuropsychol. 2003;17:515–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Welsh KA, Fillenbaum G, Wilkinson W, Heyman A, Mohs RC, Stern Y, Harrell L, Edland SD, Beekly D. Neuropsychological test performance in African-American and white patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology. 1995;45:2207–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Whitfield KE, Weidner G, Clark R, Anderson NB. Sociodemographic diversity and behavioral medicine. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002;70(3):463–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Manly JJ, Jacobs DM, Touradji P, Small SA, Stern Y. Reading level attenuates differences in neuropsychological test performance between African American and white elders. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2002;8:341–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Manly JJ, Touradji P, Tang MX, Stern Y. Literacy and memory decline among ethnically diverse elders. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2003;25:680–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rivera Mindt M, Byrd D, Ryan E, Robbins R, Monzones J, Arentoft A, Kubo Germano K, Henninger D, Morgello S, for the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank. Characterization and sociocultural predictors of neuropsychological test performance in HIV+ Hispanic individuals. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2008;14(4):315–25.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Manly JJ, Jacobs DM, Sano M, Bell K, Merchant CA, Small SA, Stern Y. African American acculturation and neuropsychological test performance among nondemented community elders. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 1998;4:77.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Harris JG, Tulsky DS, Schultheis MT. Assessment of the non-native English speaker: assimilating history and research findings to guide clinical practice. In: Tulsky DS, Saklofske DH, Chelune GJ, Heaton RK, Ivnik RJ, Bornstein R, Prifitera A, Ledbetter M, editors. Clinical interpretation of the WAIS-III and WMS-III. San Diego: Academic; 2003. p. 343–87.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kennepohl K, Douglas S, Nabors N, Hanks R. African American acculturation and neuropsychological test performance following traumatic brain injury. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2004;10:566–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bialystok E, Craik FIM. Bilingualism and naming: implications for cognitive assessment. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2007;13:209–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bialystok E, Craik FIM, Freedman M. Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia. Neuropsychologia. 2007;45:459–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bialystok E, Craik FIM, Ruocco AC. Dual-modality monitoring in a classification task: the effects of bilingualism and ageing. Q J Exp Psychol. 2006;26:1968–83.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gollan T, Montoya R, Cera C, Sandoval T. More use almost always means a smaller frequency effect: aging, bilingualism, and the weaker links hypothesis. J Mem Lang. 2008;58:787–814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Steele CM, Aronson J. Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1995;69:797–811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Helms JE. Why is there no study of cultural equivalence in standardized cognitive ability testing? Am Psychol. 1992;47:1083–101.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Teresi JA, Holmes D, Ramírez M. Performance of cognitive tests among different racial/ethnic and education groups: findings of differential item functioning and possible item bias. J Ment Health Aging. 2001;7(1):79–89.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    American Psychological Association. Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Am Psychol. 2002;57:1060–73.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    American Psychological Association. Guidelines for multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. Am Psychol. 2003;58:377–402.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sue DW. Multidimensional facets of cultural competence. Counsel Psychol. 2001;29:790–821.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sue DW, Arredondo P, McDavis RJ. Multicultural competencies/standards: a pressing need. J Counsel Dev. l992;70:477–86.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sue DW, Carter RT, Casas JM, Fouad NA, Ivey AE, Jensen M, LaFromboise T, Manese JE, Ponterotto JG, Vasquez-Nuttall E. Multicultural counseling competencies: individual and organizational development. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 1998.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wong TM, Strickland TL, Fletcher-Janzen E, Ardila A, Reynolds CR. Theoretical and practical issues in the neuropsychological assessment and treatment of culturally dissimilar patients. In: Fletcher-Janzen E, Strickland TL, Reynolds CR, editors. The handbook of cross cultural neuropsychology. New York: Kluwer-Plenum; 2000. p. 3–18.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Artiola i Fortuny L, Mullaney HA. Assessing patients whose language you do not know: can the absurd be ethical? Clin Neuropsychol. 1998;12:113–26.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Artiola i Fortuny L, Garolera M, Hermosillo Romo D, Feldman E, Fernandez Barillas H, Keefe R, et al. Research with Spanish-speaking populations in the United States: lost in translation a commentary and a plea. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2005;27:555–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Judd T, Capetillo D, Carrión-Baralt J, Mármol LM, San Miguel-Montes L, Navarrete MG, Silver CH. Professional considerations for improving the neuropsychological evaluation of hispanics: A National Academy of Neuropsychology education paper. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2009;24(2):127–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    American Psychological Association. Guidelines for providers of psychological services to ethnic, linguistic, and culturally diverse populations. Am Psychol. 1993;48:45–8.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Brickman AM, Cabo R, Manly JJ. Ethical issues in cross-cultural neuropsychology. Appl Neuropsychol. 2006;13(2):91–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Llorente AM. Principles of neuropsychological assessment with Hispanics: theoretical foundations and clinical practice. New York: Springer; 2007.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Shiraev E, Levy DA. Cross-cultural psychology: critical thinking and contemporary applications. 4th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon; 2010.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sue DW, Sue D. Counseling the culturally different: theory and practice. New York: Wiley; 1990.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Schnall E. Multicultural counseling and the Orthodox Jew. J Counsel Dev. 2006;84:276–82.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jackson Y. Encyclopedia of multicultural psychology. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 2006.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Weiss M. Explanatory model interview catalogue (EMIC): framework for comparative study of illness. Transcult Psychiatry. 1997;34:235–63.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lewis-Fernandez R, Das AK, Alfonso C, Weissman MM, Olfson M. Depression in US Hispanics: diagnostic and management considerations in family practice. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2005;18:282–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gotlib IH, Hammen CL. Handbook of depression. New York: Guilford; 2002.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Dotson VM, Kitner-Triolo M, Evans MK, Zonderman AB. Literacy-based normative data for low socioeconomic status African American. Clin Neuropsychol. 2008;22:989–1017.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pontón M. Research and assessment issues with Hispanic populations. In: Pontón M, León-Carrión J, editors. Neuropsychology and the Hispanic patient: a clinical handbook. Mahwah: Erlbaum; 2001. p. 39–58.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Potter GG, Plassman BL, Burke JR, Kabeto MU, Langa KM, Llewellyn DJ, Rogers MA, Steffens DC. Cognitive performance and informant reports in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia in African Americans and whites. Alzheimers Dement. 2009;5(6):445–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    O’Bryant S. Exploring the relationship between culture and cognition. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2008;30(8):967–70.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Millet PE, Sullivan BF, Schwebel AI, Myers LJ. Black Americans’ and White Americans’ views of the etiology and treatment of mental health problems. Community Ment Health J. 1996;32:235–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Poreh A. Neuropsychological and psychological issues associated with cross-cultural and minority assessment. In: Ferraro RF, editor. Minority and cross-cultural aspects of neuropsychological assessment. Studies on neuropsychology, development, and cognition. Bristol: Swets & Zeitlinger; 2002. p. 329–43.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Echemendia RJ, Julian L. Neuropsychological assessment of Latino children. In: Ferraro FR, editor. Minority and cross-cultural aspects of neuropsychological assessment. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger; 2002. p. 182–203.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Perez-Arce P. The influence of culture on cognition. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 1999;14(7):581–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Storey JE, Rowand JTJ, Conforti DA, Dickson HG. The rowland universal dementia assessment scale (RUDAS): a multicultural cognitive assessment scale. Int Psychogeriatr. 2004;16:13–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wolfe N. Cross-cultural neuropsychology of aging and dementia: an update. In: Ferraro FR, editor. Minority and cross-cultural aspects of neuropsychological assessment. Bristol: Swets & Zeitlinger; 2002. p. 285–97.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Teng LE, Hasegawa K, Homma A, Imai Y, Larson E, Graves A, Sugimoto K, Yamaguchi T, Sasaki H, Chiu D, White LR. The cognitive abilities screening instrument (CASI): a practical test for cross-cultural epidemiological studies of dementia. Int J Psychogeriatr. 1994;6:45–58.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Glosser G, Wolfe N, Albert ML, Lavine L, Steele JC, Calne DB, Schoenberg BS. Cross-cultural cognitive examination: validation of a dementia screening instrument for neuroepidemiological research. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1993;41(9):931–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Taussig IM, Dick M, Teng E, Kempler D. The taussig cross-cultural memory test. Los Angeles: Available from Andrus Gerontology Center, University of Southern California; 1993.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Fuh J, Teng E, Lin K, Larson E, Wang S, Liu C, Chou P, Kuo BI, Liu H. The informant questionnaire on cognitive decline in the elderly (IQCODE) as a screening tool for dementia for a predominantly illiterate Chinese population. Neurology. 1995;45(1):92–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Heaton RK, Miller SW, Taylor MJ, Grant I. Revised comprehensive norms for an expanded Halstead-Reitan Battery: demographically adjusted neuropsychological norms for African American and Caucasian adults. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.; 2004.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Weiss LG, Saklofske DH, Coalson D, Raiford SE. WAIS-IV clinical use and interpretation scientist-practitioner perspectives. London: Academic; 2010.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kempler D, Teng EL, Dick M, Taussig IM, Davis DS. The effects of age, education, and ethnicity on verbal fluency. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 1998;4:531–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ostrosky-Solís F, Gomez-Perez M, Matute E, Rosselli M, Ardila A, Pineda D. Neuropsi attention and memory: a neuropsychological test battery in Spanish with norms by age and education level. Appl Neuropsychol. 2007;14:156–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Muñoz-Sandoval AF, Woodcock RW, McGrew KS, Mather N. Batería III Woodcock-Muñoz. Itasca: Riverside Publishing; 2005.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Woodcock RW, Munoz-Sandoval AF, Ruef ML, Alvarado CG. Woodcock-munoz language survey-revised. Itasca: Riverside Publishing; 2005.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Pontón MO, Satz P, Herrera L, Ortiz F, Urrutia CP, Young R, D’Elia LF, Furst CJ, Namerow N. Normative data stratified by age and education for the neuropsychological screening battery for latinos (NeSBHIS): initial report. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 1996;2:96–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Mungas D, Reed BR, Haan MN, Gonzalez H. Spanish and English neuropsychological assessment scales: relationship to demographics, language, cognition, and independent functioning. Neuropsy­chology. 2005;19:466–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Tuokko H, Chou P, Bowden S, Simard M, Ska B, Crossley M. Partial measurement equivalence of French and English versions of the canadian study of health and aging neuropsychology battery. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2009;15:416–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Mungas D, Reed BR, Crane PK, Haan MN, González H. Spanish and English neuropsychological assessment scales (SENAS): further development and psychometric characteristics. Psychol Assess. 2004;16:347–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Bowden SC, Cook MJ, Bardenhagen FJ, Shores EA, Carstairs JR. Measurement invariance of core cognitive abilities in heterogeneous neurological and community samples. Intelligence. 2004;33:363–89.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hsieh J, Tori C. Normative data on cross-cultural neuropsychological tests obtained from Mandarin-speaking adults across the life span. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2007;22:283–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kang YW, Kim JK. Korean-California verbal learning test (K-CVLT):a normative study. Kor J Clin Psychol. 1997;16:379–96.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Manly JJ, Schupf N, Tang MX, Stern Y. Cognitive decline and literacy among ethnically diverse elders. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2005;18(4):213–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Nell V. Cross-cultural neuropsychological assessment: theory and practice. Mahwah: Erlbaum; 2000.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Taussig M, Pontón MO. Issues in neuropsychological assessment of hispanic older adults: cultural and linguistic factors. In: Yeo G, Gallagher-Thompson D, editors. Ethnicity and the dementias. San Francisco: Taylor & Francis; 1996. p. 47–58.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Cuellar I, Arnold B, Maldonado R. Acculturation rating scale for Mexican Americans-II: a revision of the original ARSMA scale. Hispanic J Behav Sci. 1995;17:275–304.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Marin G, Gamba RJ. A new measurement of acculturation for Hispanics: the bidimensional acculturation scale for hispanics (BAS). Hispanic J Behav Sci. 1996;18:297–316.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Marin G, Sabogal F, Marin BV, Otero-Sabogal R, Perez-Stable EJ. Development of a short acculturation scale for Hispanics. Hispanic J Behav Sci. 1987;9:183–205.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Zea MC, Asner-Self KK, Birman D, Buki LP. The abbreviated multidimensional acculturation scale: empirical validation with two Latino/Latina samples. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2003;9(2):107–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Berry J. Conceptual approaches to acculturation. In: Chun KM, Organista PB, Marin G, editors. Acculturation: advances in theory, measurement, and applied research. Washington: American Psychological Association; 2003. p. 83–93.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Choi J, Madhavappallil T. Predictive factors of acculturation attitudes and social support among Asian immigrants in the USA. Int J Soc Welfare. 2009;18:76–84.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Boone K, Victor T, Wen J, Razani J, Ponton M. The association between neuropsychological scores and ethnicity, language, and acculturation variables in a large patient population. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2007;22(3):355–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Razani J, Burciaga J, Madore M, Wong J. Effects of acculturation on tests of attention and information processing in an ethnically diverse group. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2007;22:333–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Coffey DM, Marmol L, Schock L, Adams W. The effects of acculturation on the wisconsin card sorting test by Mexican Americans. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2005;20(6):795–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Nicoladis E, Giovanni S. The role of a child’s productive vocabulary in the language choice of a bilingual family. First Lang. 2000;20:3–28.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Martin-Rhee M, Bialystok E. The development of two types of inhibitory control in monolingual and bilingual children. Biling Lang Cognit. 2008;11(1):81–93.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Gollan TH, Montoya RI, Werner G. Semantic and letter fluency in Spanish–English bilinguals. Neuropsychology. 2002;16:562–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Rosselli M, Ardila A, Araujo K, Weekes VA, Caracciolo V, Padilla M, Ostrosky-Solis F. Verbal fluency and repetition skills in healthy older Spanish–English bilinguals. Appl Neuropsychol. 2000;7:17–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Bialystok E, Klein R, Craik FIM, Viswanathan M. Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: evidence from the simon task. Psychol Aging. 2004;19:290–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Milberg WP, Hebben N, Kaplan E. The boston process approach to neuropsychological assessment. In: Grant I, Adams K, editors. Neuro­psychological assessment of neuropsychiatric disorders. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 1996. p. 58–80.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    White R, Rose F. The boston process approach: a brief history and current practice. In: Goldstein G, Incagnoli TM, editors. Contemporary approaches to neuropsychological assessment: critical issues in neuropsychology. New York: Plenum; 1997. p. 171–211.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Manly JJ, Echemendia R. Race-specific norms: using the model of hypertension to understand issues of race, culture, and education in neuropsychology. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2007;22(3):319–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ardila A, Rodriguez-Menendez G, Rosselli M. Current issues in neuropsychological assessment with Hispanics/Latinos. In: Ferraro FR, editor. Minority and cross-cultural aspects of neuropsychological assessment. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger; 2002. p. 161–79.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Gass C, Brown M. Neuropsychological test feedback to patients with brain dysfunction. Psychol Assess. 1992;4(3):272–7.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Post and Armstrong (in preparation). Feedback that sticks: the art of effectively communicating neuropsychological assessment results. New York, NY: Oxford University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monica Rivera Mindt
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alyssa Arentoft
    • 1
  • Kelly Coulehan
    • 1
  • Desiree Byrd
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyFordham UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Pathology and PsychiatryThe Mount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations