Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Perceived Competence, and Self-Worth: Evidence and Implications for Students and Practitioners

  • Andrew J. Martin


Perceived competence and self-worth have received extensive attention in relation to “mainstream” students. Relatively less attention has been given to perceived competence and self-worth in relation to students with special needs. The present chapter does so with specific focus on students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), their functioning in the academic domain, and extensions of findings to students with learning disabilities more generally. The research focusing on students with ADHD identifies numerous factors underpinning their perceived academic competence and self-worth. These factors hold direct implications for strategies practitioners can use to develop more positive conceptions of self. Through genuinely addressing psycho-educational, interpersonal, and academic factors relevant to perceived competence and self-worth, there are clear intrapsychic and educational benefits to be gained by students with ADHD—and by practitioners seeking to improve their academic functioning. Addressing some, most, or all of these factors places the students with ADHD in a stronger position to achieve to their potential and feel more positive and optimistic about learning and about themselves.


ADHD Symptom Learn Disability Learn Disability Cognitive Training Applied Behavior Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Applied Behavior Analysis


Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder


Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect


Behavior Intervention Plan


Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Version 4


Learning Disability(ies)


Personal Best


Personal Best Index



The author would like to thank Harry Nejad for his assistance in the logistics of finalizing the manuscript.


  1. Abikoff, H., & Gittelman, R. (1985). Hyperactive children treated with stimulants: Is cognitive training a useful adjunct? Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 953–961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alston, C. Y., & Romney, D. M. (1992). A comparison of medicated and nonmedicated attention-deficit disordered hyperactive boys. Acta Paedopsychiatrica: International Journal of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 55, 65–70.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, revised (4th ed.). Washington: APA.Google Scholar
  4. Anastopoulos, A. D., DuPaul, G. J., Barkley, R. A. (1991). Stimulant medication and parent training therapies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24, 210–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Angold, A. E., Costello, J., Erkanli, A. (1999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 57–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1997). The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman & Company.Google Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. (2006). Adolescent development from an agentic perspective. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds). Self-efficacy beliefs. CO: Information Age Press.Google Scholar
  9. Barkley, R. A. (1985). The family interactions of hyperactive children: Precursors to aggressive behavior? In D. Routh & M. Woolraich (Eds.), Advances in behavioral pediatrics (pp. 117–150). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  10. Barkley, R. A. (1990). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  11. Barkley, R. A. (1997a). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, self-regulation, and time: Toward a more comprehensive theory. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 18, 271–279.Google Scholar
  12. Barkley, R. A. (1997b). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 65–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barkley, R. A. (1998). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  14. Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Edelbrock, C., Smallish, L. (1990). The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria: I. An 8-year prospective follow up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 546–557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barkley, R. A., Murphy, K., Kwasnik, D. (1996). Psychological adjustment and adaptive impairments in young adults with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 1, 41–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bennett, F. C., Brown, R. T., Craver, T., Anderson, D. (1999). Stimulant medication for the child with ADHD. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 46, 929–944.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bertot, P. (2002). A comparison of psychological distress profiles of college students with learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as compared to college students with no disabilities. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 62(9-A), 3012.Google Scholar
  18. Blackman, G. L., Ostrander, R., Herman, K. C. (2005). Children with ADHD and depression: A multisource, multimethod assessment of clinical, social, and academic functioning. Journal of Attention Disorders, 8, 195–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Breggin, P. R. (1998). Talking back to Ritalin: What doctors are not telling you about stimulants for children. Monroe: Common Courage Press.Google Scholar
  20. Breggin, P. R. (1999). Reclaiming our children: A healing plan for a nation in crisis. Cambridge: Perseus Books.Google Scholar
  21. Brunette, E. (1995). Management of ADHD in the school setting: A case study. Journal of School Nursing, 11, 33–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bussing, R., Zima, B. T., Perwien, A. R. (2000). Self-esteem in special education children with ADHD: Relationship to disorder characteristics and medication use. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 10, 1260–1269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cantwell, D. P. (1996). Attention deficit disorder: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 415–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cantwell, D. P., & Baker, L. (1988). Issues in the classification of child and adolescent psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 521–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cantwell, D. P., & Baker, L. (1991). Association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disorder. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24, 88–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carlson, C. L., Mann, M., Alexander, D. K. (2000). Effects of reward and response cost on the performance and motivation of children with ADHD. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24, 87–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carmichael, P., Adkins, Gaal, I., Hutchins, P., Levey, F., McCormack, J., Oberklaid, F., Pearson, C., Storm, V. (1997). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Australia: National Health and Medical Research Council.Google Scholar
  28. Chapman, J. W. (1988). Learning disabled children’s self-concepts. Review of Educational Research, 58, 347–371.Google Scholar
  29. Charles, C. M. (2005). Building classroom discipline. Boston: Allyn & Bacon/Pearson.Google Scholar
  30. Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (1995). Developmental psychopathology and disorders of affect. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Risk, disorder, and adaptation (pp. 369–420, Vol. 2). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  31. Cohen, N. J., & Thompson, L. (1982). Perceptions and attitudes of hyperactive children and their mothers regarding treatment with methylphenidate. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 27, 40–42.Google Scholar
  32. Colvin, C. R., Block, J., Funder, D. C. (1995). Overly positive self-evaluations and personality: Negative implications for mental health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 1152–1162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Conroy, M. A., Dunlap, G., Clarke, S., Alter, P. J. (2005). A descriptive analysis of positive behavioral intervention research with young children with challenging behavior. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 25, 157–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Coplin, J. W., & Morgan, S. B. (1988). Learning disabilities: A multidimensional perspective. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21, 614–623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Covington, M. V. (1992). Making the grade: A self-worth perspective on motivation and school reform. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Covington, M. V. (1997). A motivational analysis of academic life in college. In R. P. Perry & J. C. Smart (Eds.). Effective teaching in higher education: Research and practice. New York: Agathon Press. Republished from Covington, M. V. (1993). A motivational analysis of academic life in college. Higher education: Handbook of theory and research. New York: Agathon Press.Google Scholar
  37. Covington, M. V. (1998). The will to learn: A guide for motivating young people. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Covington, M. V., & Omelich, C. L. (1979). Effort: The double-edged sword in school achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 169–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Crystal, D. S., Ostrander, R., Chen, R. S., August, G. J. (2001). Multimethod assessment of psychopathology among DSM-IV subtypes of children and teacher reports. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 189–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1982). Toward a psychology of optimal experience. In L. Wheeler (Ed.), Review of personality & social psychology (pp. 13–36). Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1985). Reflections on enjoyment. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 28, 489–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  43. Damico, S. K., & Armstrong, M. B. (1996). Intervention strategies for students with ADHD: Creating a holistic approach. Seminars in Speech and Language, 17, 21–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The darker and brighter sides of human existence: Basic psychological needs as a unifying concept. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 319–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. DeGrandpre, R. (2000). Ritalin nation: Rapid-fire culture and the transformation of human consciousness. New York: Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  46. Diener, C. I., & Dweck, C. S. (1978). An analysis of learned helplessness: Continuous changes in performance, strategies, and achievement cognitions following failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 451–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Diller, L. (1998). Running on Ritalin: A physician reflects on children, society, and performance in a pill. New York: Bantam.Google Scholar
  48. Dooling-Litfin, J. K., & Rosen, L. A. (1997). Self-esteem in college students with a childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 11, 69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Douglas, V. I. (1983). Attention and cognitive problems. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Behavioral syndromes of brain dysfunction in childhood. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  50. Douglas, V. I. (1985). The response of ADD children to reinforcement: Theoretical and clinical implications. In L. Bloomingdale (Ed.), Attention deficit disorder: identification, course, and rationale. New York: Spectrum.Google Scholar
  51. Dumas, D., & Pelletier, L. (1999). Perception in hyperactive children. American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 24, 12–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. DuPaul, G. J., & Eckert, T. L. (1997). School-based interventions for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis. School Psychology Review, 26, 5–27.Google Scholar
  53. DuPaul, G. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., Kwasnik, D., Barkley, R. A., McMurray, M. B. (1996). Methylphenidate effects on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Self-report of symptoms, side-effects, and self-esteem. Journal of Attention Disorders, 1, 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Durrant, J. E., Cunningham, C. E., Voelker, S. (1990). Academic, social, and general self-concepts of behavioral sub-groups of learning disabled children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 657–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dweck, C. S. (1991). Self-theories and goals: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. In R. A. Dienstbier (Ed.), Perceptions on motivation: Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 38). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  56. Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Eccles, J. (1983). Expectancies, values, and academic behavior. In J. Spence (Ed.), Achievement and achievement motivation. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  58. Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Harold, R. D., Blumenfeld, P. (1993). Age and gender differences in children’s self- and task perceptions during elementary school. Child Development, 64, 830–847.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Edbom, T., Granlund, M., Lichtenstein, P., Larsson, J. O. (2008). ADHD symptoms related to profiles of self-esteem in a longitudinal study of twins. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 21, 228–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Edens, J. F. (1999). Aggressive children’s self-systems and the quality of their relationships with significant others. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 4, 151–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Emery, E. M., McDermott, R. J., Holcomb, D. R., Marty, P. J. (1993). The relationship between youth substance use and area-specific self-esteem. Journal of School Health, 63, 224–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ervin, R. A., Bankert, C. L, DuPaul, G. J. (1996). Treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In M. A. Reinecke & F. M. Dattilio (Eds.), Cognitive therapy with children and adolescents: A casebook for clinical practice (pp. 38–61). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  63. Fergusson, D., Lynskey, M., Horwood, L. (1996). Factors associated with continuity and changes in disruptive behavior patterns between childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 533–551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Fiore, T. A., Becker, E. A., Nero, R. C. (1993). Educational interventions for students with attention deficit disorder. Exceptional Children, 60, 163–173.Google Scholar
  65. Frame, K., Kelly, L., Bayley, E. (2003). Increasing perceptions of self-worth in preadolescents diagnosed with ADHD. Journal of Nursing Scholar, 35, 225–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Frankel, F., Cantwell, D., Myatt, B., Feinberg, D. (1996). ADHD children taking stimulants have higher self-esteem. 43rd Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  67. Frankel, F., Cantwell, D., Myatt, R., Feinberg, D. T. (1999). Do stimulants improve self-esteem in children with ADHD and peer problems? Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 9, 185–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gable, R. A., Quinn, M. M., Rutherford, R. B., Howell, K. W. (1998). Addressing problem behavior in schools: Functional behavioral assessment and behavioral intervention plans. Preventing School Failure, 42, 106–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Garmezy, N. (1981). Children under stress: Perspectives on antecedents and correlates of vulnerability and resistance to psychopathology. In A. I. Rabin, J. Aronoff, A. Barclay, & R. A. Zucker (Eds.), Further explorations in personality (pp. 196–269). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  70. Gaub, M., & Carlson, C. L. (1997). Gender differences in ADHD: A meta-analysis and critical review. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1036–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gordon, W. R., & Caltabiano, M. L. (1996). Urban-rural differences in adolescent self-esteem, leisure boredom, and sensation seeking as predictors of leisure time usage and satisfaction. Adolescent, 31, 883–901.Google Scholar
  72. Greenhill, L. L., & Osman, B. O. (1999). Ritalin: Theory and patient management (2nd ed.). New York: Mary Ann Liebert.Google Scholar
  73. Greenwald-Mayes, G. (2002). Relationship between current quality of life and family of origin dynamics for college students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Attention Disorders, 5, 211–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gresham, F. M., Lane, K. L., MacMillan, D. L., Bocian, K. M., Ward, S. L. (2000). Effects of positive and negative illusory biases: Comparisons across social and academic self-concept domains. Journal of School Psychology, 38, 151–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hallahan, D. P. (1989). Attention disorders: Specific learning disabilities. In T. Husen & T. N. Postlethwait (Eds.), The international encyclopaedia of education: Research and studies (pp. 98–99). New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  76. Harpin, V. A. (2005). The effect of ADHD on the life of an individual, their family, and community from preschool to adult life. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, 2–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Harter, S. (1982). The perceived competence scale for children. Child Development, 53, 87–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Harter, S. (1993). Causes and consequences of low self-esteem in children and adolescents. In R. F. Baumeister (Ed.), Self-esteem: The puzzle of low self-regard (pp. 87–116). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  79. Harter, S. (1999). The construction of the self: A developmental perspective. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  80. Harter, S., & Whitesell, N. R. (1989). Developmental changes in children’s understanding of single, multiple and blended emotion concepts. In C. Saarni & P. L. Harris (Eds.), Children’s understanding of emotion (pp. 81–116). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Harter, S., Whitesell, N. R., Junkin, L. J. (1998). Similarities and differences in domain specific and global self-evaluations of learning disabled, behaviorally disordered, and typically achieving adolescents. American Educational Research Journal, 35, 653–680.Google Scholar
  82. Hechtman, L., Weiss, G., Perlman, T. (1980). Hyperactives as young adults: Self-esteem and social skills. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 25, 478–483.Google Scholar
  83. Hechtman, L., Weiss, G., Perlman, T. (1984). Young adult outcome of hyperactive children who received long-term stimulant treatment. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 23, 261–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Heiligenstein, E., & Keeling, R. P. (1995). Presentation of unrecognized attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in college students. Journal of American College Health, 43, 226–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Heiligenstein, E., Guenther, G., Levy, A., Savino. F., Fulwiler, J. (1999). Psychological and academic functioning in college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of American College Health, 47, 181–185.Google Scholar
  86. Hinshaw, S. P. (1994). Attention deficits and hyperactivity in children. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  87. Hoagwood, K., Kelleher, K., Feil, M., Comer, D. (2000). Treatment services for Children with ADHD: A national perspective. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 198–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Holmes, J., Gathercole, S. E., Place, M., Dunning, D. L., Hilton, K. A., Elliott, J. G. (2009). Working memory deficits can be overcome: Impacts of training and medication on working memory in children with ADHD. Applied Cognitive Psychology. doi: 10.1002/acp. 1589.Google Scholar
  89. Hoza, B., Gerdes, A. C., Hinshaw, S. P., Arnold, L. E., Pelham, W. E., Molina, B. S. G., Abikoff, H. B., Epstein, J. N., Greenhill, L. L., Hechtman, L., Odbert, C., Swanson, J. M., Wigal, T. (2004). Self-perceptions of competence in children with ADHD and comparison children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 382–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hoza, B., Pelham, W. E., Dobbs, J., Owens, J. S., Pillow, D. R. (2002). Do boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have positive illusory self-concepts? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 268–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hoza, B., Pelham, W. E., Milich, R., Pillow, D., McBride, K. (1993). The self-perceptions and attributions of attention deficit hyperactivity disordered and nonreferred boys. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 271–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hunt, R., Hoehn, R., Stephens, K., Osten, C. (1994). Clinical patterns of ADHD: A treatment model based on brain functioning. Comprehensive Therapy, 20, 106–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Hynd, G. W., Hern, K. L., Voeller, K. K., Marshall, R. M. (1991). Neurobiological basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). School Psychology Review, 20, 174–186.Google Scholar
  94. Ialongo, N. S., Lopez, M., Horn, W. F., Pascoe, J. M., Greenberg, G. (1994). Effects of psychostimulant medication on self-perceptions of competence, control, and mood in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 161–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Jackson, S. A., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. C. (1999). Flow in sports: The keys to optimal experiences and performances. Champaign: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  96. Kelly, P. C., Cohen, M. L., Walker, W. O., Caskey, O. L., Atkinson, A. W. (1989). Self-esteem in children medically managed for attention deficit disorder. Pediatrics, 83, 211–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kendall, J. (2000). Outlasting disruption: The process of reinvestment in families with ADHD children. Qualitative Health Research, 8, 839–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kewley, G. D. (1999). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Recognition, reality and resolution. London: David Fulton Publishers.Google Scholar
  99. Klein, R. G., & Wender, P. (1995). The role of methylphenidate in psychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 429–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Krueger, M., & Kendall, J. (2001). Descriptions of self an exploratory study of adolescents with ADHD. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 14, 61–72. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Landau, S., Milich, R., Widiger, T. A. (1991). Conditional probabilities of child interview symptoms in the diagnosis of attention deficit disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 501–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Levine, M. (1990). Keeping a head in school. Cambridge: Educators Publishing Service.Google Scholar
  103. Lewinsohn, P. M., Rohde, P., Seeley, J. R. (1993). Psychosocial characteristics of adolescents with a history of suicide attempt. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 60–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lindstroem, B. (2001). The meaning of resilience. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 13, 7–12.Google Scholar
  105. Loeber, R., Green, S. M., Lahey, B. B., Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1991). Differences and similarities between children, mothers, and teachers as informants on disruptive child behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 19, 75–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lougy, R., DeRuvo, S., Rosenthal, D. (2007). Teaching young children with ADHD. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  107. Luthar, S. S. (2003) (Ed.) Resilience and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Luthar, S. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2000). The construct of resilience: Implications for interventions and social policies. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 857–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. MacLeod, D., & Prior, M. (1996). Attention deficits in adolescents with ADHD and other clinical groups. Child Neuropsychology, 2, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mannuzza, S., & Klein, R. G. (2000). Long-term prognosis in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrics Clinics of North America, 9, 711–726.Google Scholar
  111. Mannuzza, S., Klein, R., Bonagura, N., Konig, P., Shenker, R. (1988). Hyperactive boys almost grown up: Status of subjects without a mental disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 13–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Mariani, M., & Barkley, R. A. (1997). Neuropsychological and academic functioning in preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Development and Neuropsychology, 13, 111–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Marks, D. (1999). Disability: Controversial debates and psychosocial perspectives. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  114. Marsh, H. W. (2007). Self-concept theory, measurement and research into practice: The role of self-concept in educational psychology. Leicester: British Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  115. Marsh, H. W., Cheng, J., Martin, A. J. (2008). How we judge ourselves from different perspectives: Contextual influences on self-concept formation. In M. Maehr, T. Urdan, & S. Karabenick (Eds.). Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 15). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  116. Marsh, H. W., Craven, R. G., Martin, A. J. (2006). What is the nature of self-esteem? Unidimensional and multidimensional perspectives. In M. Kernis (Ed). Self-esteem: Issues and Answers. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  117. Martin, A. J. (2001). The student motivation scale: A tool for measuring and enhancing motivation. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 11, 1–20.Google Scholar
  118. Martin, A. J. (2002a). Motivation and academic resilience: Developing a model of student enhancement. Australian Journal of Education, 46, 34–49.Google Scholar
  119. Martin, A. J. (2002b). The lethal cocktail: Low self-belief, low control, and high fear of failure. Australian Journal of Guidance Counseling, 12, 74–85.Google Scholar
  120. Martin, A. J. (2003). The student motivation scale: Further testing of an instrument that measures school students’ motivation. Australian Journal of Education, 47, 88–106.Google Scholar
  121. Martin, A. J. (2005). Exploring the effects of a youth enrichment program on academic motivation and engagement. Social Psychology of Education, 8, 179–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Martin, A. J. (2006a). Pastoral pedagogy: A great composition comprising the song, the singer, and the singing. Educational Resources Information Center Document (ED) 490483. US Department of Education.Google Scholar
  123. Martin, A. J. (2006b). Personal bests (PBs): A proposed multidimensional model and empirical analysis. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 803–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Martin, A. J. (2007). Examining a multidimensional model of student motivation and engagement using a construct validation approach. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 413–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Martin, A. J. (2008a). Enhancing student motivation and engagement: The effects of a multidimensional intervention. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 239–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Martin, A. J. (2008b). How domain specific are motivation and engagement across school, sport, and music? A substantive-methodological synergy assessing young sportspeople and musicians. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 785–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Martin, A. J. (2010). Building classroom success: Eliminating academic fear and failure. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  128. Martin, A. J. (2012a). Academic buoyancy, academic outcomes, and ADHD: Investigating at-risk students’ responses to academic setback and adversity. Submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  129. Martin, A. J. (2012b). The role of Personal Best (PB) goals in the achievement and behavioral engagement of students with ADHD and students without ADHD. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 37, 91–105.Google Scholar
  130. Martin, A. J. & Marsh, H. W. (2003). Fear of failure: Friend or foe? Australian Psychology, 38, 31–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Martin, A. J., & Marsh, H. W. (2006). Academic resilience and its psychological and educational correlates: A construct validity approach. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 267–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Martin, A. J., & Marsh, H. W. (2008a). Academic buoyancy: Towards an understanding of students’ everyday academic resilience. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 53–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Martin, A. J., & Marsh, H. W. (2008b). Workplace and academic buoyancy: Psychometric assessment and construct validity amongst school personnel and students. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 26, 168–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Martin, A. J., & Dowson, M. (2009). Interpersonal relationships, motivation, engagement, and achievement: Yields for theory, current issues, and practice. Review of Educational Research, 79, 327–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Martin, A. J., & Marsh, H. W. (2009). Academic resilience and academic buoyancy: Multidimensional and hierarchical conceptual framing of causes, correlates, and cognate constructs. Oxford Review of Education, 35, 353–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Martin, A. J., Nejad, H., Colmar, S., & Liem, G. A. D. (in press). Adaptability: Conceptual and empirical perspectives on responses to change, novelty and uncertainty. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling.Google Scholar
  137. Martin, A. J. Marsh, H. W., Debus, R. L. (2001a). A quadripolar need achievement representation of self-handicapping and defensive pessimism. American Educational Research Journal, 38, 583–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Martin, A. J. Marsh, H. W., Debus, R. L. (2001b). Self-handicapping and defensive pessimism: Exploring a model of predictors and outcomes from a self-protection perspective. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 87–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Martin, A. J. Marsh, H. W., Debus, R. L. (2003). Self-handicapping and defensive pessimism: A model of self-protection from a longitudinal perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 28, 1–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Martin, A. J., Marsh, H. W., McInerney, D. M., Green, J. (2009). Young people’s interpersonal relationships and academic and non-academic outcomes: The relative salience of teachers, parents, same-sex peers, and opposite-sex peers. Teachers College Record, March, Scholar
  141. Martin, A. J., Marsh, H. W., McInerney, D. M., Green, J., Dowson, M. (2007). Getting along with teachers and parents: The yields of good relationships for students’ achievement motivation and self-esteem. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 17, 109–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Martin, A. J., Marsh, H. W., Williamson, A., Debus, R. L. (2003). Self-handicapping, defensive pessimism, and goal orientation: A qualitative study of university students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 617–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56, 227–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Mayes, R., Bagwell, C., Erkulwater, J. (2009). Medicating children: ADHD and pediatric mental health. Harvard: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  145. McKinney, J. D., Montague, M., Hocutt, A. M. (1993). Educational assessment of students with attention deficit disorder. Exceptional Children, 60, 125–131.Google Scholar
  146. McNabb, T. (1991). From potential to performance: Motivational issues for gifted students. In N. Colangelo & G. A. Davis (Eds). Handbook of gifted education. London: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  147. Milich, R., & Greenwell, L. (1991). An examination of learned helplessness among attention-deficit hyperactivity disordered boys. In B. Hoza & W. E. Pelham (Chairs), Cognitive Biases as Mediators of Childhood Disorders: What do we know? Symposium presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, New York.Google Scholar
  148. Milich, R., & Okazaki, M. (1991). An examination of learned helplessness among attention deficit hyperactivity disordered boys. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 19, 607–623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Milich, R., Licht, B. G., Murphy, D. A., Pelham, W. E. (1989). Attention deficit hyperactivity disordered boys’ evaluations of and attributions for task performance on medication versus placebo. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 280–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Moore, S., Laflin, M. T., Weis, D. L. (1996). The role of cultural norms in the self-esteem and drug use relationship. Adolescent, 31, 523–542.Google Scholar
  151. Murphy, K., & Barkley, R. A. (1996). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: Comorbidities and adaptive impairments. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 37, 393–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Norvell, N., & Towle, P. O’B. (1986). Self-reported depression and observable conduct problems in children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 15, 228–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Ohan, J. L., & Johnston, C. (2002). Are the performance overestimates given by boys with ADHD self-protective? Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 31, 230–241.Google Scholar
  154. Ollendick, T. H., & King, N. J. (1994). Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of internalizing problems in children: The role of longitudinal data. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 918–927.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. O’Mara, A. J., Marsh, H. W., Craven, R. G., Debus, R. L. (2006). Do self-concept interventions make a difference? A synergistic blend of construct validation and Meta-Analysis. Educational Psychology, 41, 181–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Oosterlaan, J., & Sergeant, J. A. (1998). Effects of reward and response cost on response inhibition in AD/HD, disruptive, anxious, and normal children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 161–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Ostrander, R., Crystal, D. S., August, G. (2006). Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, depression, and self- and other-assessments of social competence: A developmental study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 773–787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Pelham, W. E., & Hoza, J. (1987). Behavioral assessment of psychostimulant effects on ADHD children in a summer day treatment program. In R. Prinz (Ed.), Advances in behavioral assessment of children and families (Vol. 3, pp. 3–33). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  159. Pelham, W. E., Murphy, D. A., Vannatta, K., Milich, R., Licht, B. G., Gnagy, E. M., Greenslade, K. E., Greiner, A. R., Vodde-Hamilton, M. (1992). Methylphenidate and attributions in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 282–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Pennington, B. F., & Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 51–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 667–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Pisecco, S., Baker, D. B., Silva, P. A., Brooke, M. (1996). Behavioral distinctions in children with reading disabilities and/or ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1477–1484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Pisecco, S., Wristers, K., Swank, P., Silva, P. A., Baker, D. B. (2001). The effect of academic self-Concept on ADHD and antisocial behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 450–461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Pisterman, S., McGrath, P., Firestone, P., Goodman, J. T. (1989). Outcome of parent mediated treatment of preschoolers with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 628–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Purdie, N., Hattie, J., Carroll, A. (2002). A review of the research on interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What works best? Review of Educational Research, 72, 61–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Rapport, M. D., Carlson, G. A., Kelly, K. L., Pataki, C. (1993). Methylphenidate and desipramine in hospitalized children: I. Separate and combined effects on cognitive function. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 333–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Reason, R. (1999). ADHD: A psychological response to an evolving concept (Report of the working party of the British Psychological Society). Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32, 85–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Richardson, A. J., & Montgomery, P. (2005). The Oxford-Durham Study: A randomized controlled trial of dietary supplementation with fatty acids in children with developmental coordination disorder. Pediatrics, 115, 1360–1366.Google Scholar
  169. Robin, A. (1999). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 46, 1027–1038.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Robins, P. M. (1992). A comparison of behavioral and attentional functioning in children diagnosed as hyperactive or learning disabled. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 20, 65–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Sagvolden, T., & Archer, T (Eds.) (1989). Attention deficit disorder: Clinical and basic research. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  172. Schunk, D. H., & Miller, S. D. (2002). Self-efficacy and adolescents’ motivation. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds). Academic motivation of adolescents. Connecticut: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  173. Shaw-Zirt, B., Popali-Lehane, L., Chaplin, W., Bergman, A. (2005). Adjustment, social skills, and self-esteem in college students with symptoms of ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 8, 109–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Sinn, N., & Bryan, J. (2007). Effect of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients on learning and behavior problems associated with child ADHD. Journal of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, 28, 82–91.Google Scholar
  175. Skinner, B. F. (1974). About behaviorism. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  176. Slomkowski, C., Klein, R. G., Mannuzza, S. (1995). Is self-esteem an important outcome in hyperactive children? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 303–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Stein, D. B. (1999). Ritalin is not the answer: A drug-free, practical program for children diagnosed with ADD or ADHD. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  178. Swanson, J. M., McBurnett, K., Wigal, T., Pfiffner, L. J., Lerner, M. A., Williams, L., Christian, D. L., Tamm, L., Willcutt, E., Crowley, K., Clevenger, W., Khouzam, N., Woo, C., Crinella, F. M., Fisher, T. D. (1993). Effect of stimulant medication on children with attention deficit disorder: A “review of reviews.” Exceptional Children, 60, 154–161.Google Scholar
  179. Swanson, J. M., McBurnett, K., Christian, D. L., Wigal, T. (1995). Stimulant medications and the treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Advances in Clinical Child Psychology, 17, 265–322.Google Scholar
  180. Tabassam, W., & Grainger, J. (2002). Self-Concept, attributional style and self-efficacy beliefs of students with learning disabilities with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Learning Disability Quality, 25, 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Taylor, S. E., & Brown, J. D. (1988). Illusion and well-being: A social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 193–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Thompson, T. (1994). Self-worth protection: Review and implications for the classroom. Education Review, 46, 259–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Treuting, J. J., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2001). Depression and self-esteem in boys with attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder: Associates with comorbid aggression and explanatory attributional mechanisms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 23–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  185. Wagner, B. (2000). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Current concepts and underlying mechanisms. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 13, 113–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Weiner, B. (1986). An attributional theory of motivation and emotion. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Weiner, B. (1994). Integrating social and personal theories of achievement striving. Review of Educational Research, 64, 557–573.Google Scholar
  188. Weiss, G., & Hechtman, L. T. (1986). Hyperactive children grown up. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  189. Werner, E. (2000). Protective factors and individual resilience. In J. P. Shonkoff & S. J. Meisels (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood intervention (2nd ed., pp.115–132). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Whalen, C. K., Henker, B., Dotemoto, S. (1981) Teacher responses to the methylphenidate (Ritalin) versus placebo status of hyperactive boys in the classroom. Child Development, 52, 1005–1014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Whalen, C. K., Henker, B., Hinshaw, S. P., Heller, T., Huber-Dressler, A. (1991). Messages of medication: Effects of actual versus informed medication status on hyperactive boys’ expectancies and self-evaluations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 602–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Wigfield, A. (1994). Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation: A developmental perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 6, 49–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Williams, C., Wright, B., Partridge, I. (1999). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A review. British Journal of General Practice, 49, 563–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Education and Social WorkUniversity of SydneyNSWAustralia

Personalised recommendations