Breastfeeding and Transmission of HIV-1: Epidemiology and Global Magnitude

  • Mary Glenn Fowler
  • Athena P. Kourtis
  • Jim Aizire
  • Carolyne Onyango-Makumbi
  • Marc Bulterys
Chapter

Abstract

Over the past two decades, major strides have been made in HIV-1 research and prevention. Among these advances, some of the most remarkable and sustained achievements have been in reducing the risk of transmission of HIV-1 from mothers to their infants. In resource-rich settings such as the USA and Europe, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 has successfully been reduced to less than 1–2% [1] with the goal of virtual elimination of new cases. This success in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1 has been achieved by widespread implementation of effective PMTCT antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens, and obstetrical interventions as well as avoidance of breastfeeding through the use of infant formula.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary Glenn Fowler
    • 1
    • 2
  • Athena P. Kourtis
    • 3
  • Jim Aizire
    • 4
  • Carolyne Onyango-Makumbi
    • 4
  • Marc Bulterys
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of PathologyJohns Hopkins Medical InstitutesBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Onsite Makerere University–Johns Hopkins University Research CollaborationKampalaUganda
  3. 3.Division of Reproductive HealthNCCDPHP, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Makerere University–Johns Hopkins University Research CollaborationKampalaUganda
  5. 5.Division of Global HIV/AIDS (DGHA)Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)AtlantaUSA
  6. 6.CDC Global AIDS ProgramBeijingChina
  7. 7.UCLA School of Public HealthLos AngelesUSA

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