Advertisement

Severe Mental Illnesses in Asian Americans: Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

Chapter

Abstract

Cultural beliefs, medical traditions, and language are just some of the characteristics that distinguish the uniqueness and distinctness of mental illness within Asian American community compared to other U.S. populations. The assessment, diagnosis, and treatment for ethnic Asian patients affected by mental illness requires culturally appropriate and flexible approaches for effective service delivery. Working with the families of schizophrenia and bipolar patients, as well as addressing the stigma associated with mental illness is especially important for Asian American patients, even more than mainstream and other American ethnic groups.. Of note, there is a limited number of studies on schizophrenia and no research on bipolar disorders among Asian Americans. Recommendations for better service delivery include specific guidelines for assessment and treatment of Asian American clients, particularly noting some of the particular needs of an individual subgroup (language, for example) within the general minority community.

Keywords

Mental Health Mental Illness Bipolar Disorder Antipsychotic Medication Severe Mental Illness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-IV-TR Fourth Edition (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press Incorporated.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2004). Practice guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, Incorporated. Retrieved April 25, 2011, from http://www.psychiatryonline.com/content.aspx?aID=46733.
  3. Asian American Center for Disparities Research (AACDR) at University of California, Davis. (2007). Retrieved June 5, 2011, from http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/aacdr.
  4. Bae, S. W., & Brekke, J. S. (2002). Characteristics of Korean-Americans with schizophrenia: A cross-ethnic comparison with African-Americans, Latinos, and Euro-Americans. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 28(4), 703–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bae, S. W., & Kung, W. W. M. (2000). Family intervention for Asian Americans with a schizophrenic patient in the family. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(4), 532–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beck-Sander, A., Birchwood, M., & Chadwick, P. (1979). Acting on command hallucinations: A cognitive approach. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 139–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhugra, D., Corridan, B., Rudge, S., Leff, J., & Mallett, R. (1999). Early manifestations, personality traits and pathways into care for Asian and white first-onset case of schizophrenia. Social Psychiatry, 34, 595–599.Google Scholar
  8. Chang, N., Newman, J., D’Antonio, E., McKelvey, J., & Serper, M. (2011). Ethnicity and symptom expression in patients with acute schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 185(3), 453–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eon, S., & Durham, J. (2009). Schizophrenia: A review of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments. US Pharmacist, 34(11), 1–5.Google Scholar
  10. Galanti, G. A. (2004). Caring for patients from different cultures (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  11. Gee, K., & Ishii, M. (1997). Assessment and treatment of schizophrenia among Asian Americans. In E. Lee (Ed.), Working with Asian Americans: A guide for clinicians (pp. 227–252). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  12. Gilmer, T. P., Ojeda, V. D., Concepcion-Barrio, C., Dahlia, F., Piedad, G., Nicole, M. L., & Kelly, C. L.(2009). Adherence to antipsychotics among Latinos and Asians with schizophrenia and limited English proficiency. Psychological Services, 60(2), 175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goldner, E. M., Hsu, L., Waraich, P., & Somers, J. M. (2002). Prevalence and incidence studies of schizophrenic disorders: A systematic review of the literature. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 47(9), 833–843.Google Scholar
  14. Haddock, G., Morrison, A., Hopkins, R., Lewis, S., & Tarrier, N. (1998). Individual cognitive-behavioural interventions in early psychosis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 172(Suppl. 33), 101–106.Google Scholar
  15. Hwang, S. H. J., Childers, M. E., Wang, P. W., Nam, J. Y., Keller, K. L., Hill, S. J., et al. (2010). Higher prevalence of bipolar I disorder among Asian and Latino compared to Caucasian patients receiving treatment. Asia-Pacific Psychiatry, 2(2010), 156–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Isaacs, M. R., Huang, L. N., Hernandez, M., & Echo-Hawk, H. (2005). The road to evidence: The intersection of evidence-based practices and cultural competence in children’s mental health. Washington, DC: The National Alliance of Multi-Ethnic Behavioral Health Associations.Google Scholar
  17. Jenkins, J. H. (1998). Diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders: Integration and suppression of cultural evidence in DSM-IV. Transcultural Psychiatry, 35, 357–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kaplan, H. I., Sadock, B. J., & Grebb, J. A. (1994). Kaplan and Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences, clinical psychiatry (7th ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  19. Kilborne, A. M., Bauer, M. S., & Pincus, H. (2005). Clinical, psychosocial, and treatment differences in minority patients with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 7, 89–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kleinman, A., Eisenberg, L., & Good, B. (1978). Culture, illness, and care: Clinical lessons from anthropologic and cross-cultural research. Annals of Internal Medicine, 88(2), 251–258.Google Scholar
  21. Landrine, H., & Klonoff, E. A. (1994). Cultural diversity in causal attribution for illness; the role of the supernatural. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 17, 181–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lee, T. M. Y., Chong, S. A., Huat, Y., & Sathyadevan, G. (2004). Command hallucinations among Asian patients with schizophrenia. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(12), 838–842.Google Scholar
  23. Lim, R. F. (2006). Clinical manual of cultural psychiatry. Arlington, VA: APPI.Google Scholar
  24. Mayo Clinic. (2011). Bipolar disorder: Treatment and drugs. Retrieved May 1, 2011, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bipolar-disorder/DS00356/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs.
  25. Medilexicon. (2011a). Latuda (lurasidone). Retrieved May 1, 2011, from http://www.medilexicon.com/drugs/latuda.php.
  26. Medilexicon. (2011b). Saphris (Asenapine). Retrieved May 1, 2011, from http://www.medilexicon.com/drugs/saphris.php.
  27. Merikangas, K. R., Jin, R., He, J. P., Dahlia, F., Piedad, G., Nicole, M. L., & Kelly, C. L. (2011). Prevalence and correlates of bipolar spectrum disorder in the world mental health survey initiative. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(3), 241–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Salimbene, S. (2000). What language does your patient hurt in? A practical guide to culturally competent patient care (2nd ed.). Amherst, MA: Diversity Resources.Google Scholar
  29. Shin, S. K., & Lukens, E. P. (2002). Effects of psychoeducation for Korean Americans with chronic mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 53(9), 1125–1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stompe, T., Karakula, H., Rudalevičiene, P., Okribelashvili, N., Chaudhry, H. R., Idemudia, E. E., & Gscheider, S. (2006). The pathoplastic effect of culture on psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. World Cultural Psychiatry Research Review, 1(3/4), 157–163. July/October.Google Scholar
  31. Sue, S., & McKinney, H. (1975). Asian Americans in the community mental health care system. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 45(1), 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tateyama, M., Asai, M., Hashimoto, M., Bartels, M., & Kasperm, S. (1998). Transcultural study of schizophrenic delusions: Tokyo versus Vienna and Tübingen (Germany). Psychopathology, 31, 59–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tseng, W. S., & Strelzer, J. (1997). Culture and psychopathology. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  34. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). (1999). Mental health: A report of the surgeon general. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved March 19, 2011, from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/home.html.
  35. USDHHS. (2001). Mental health: Culture, race and ethnicity: A supplement to mental health: A report to the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/cre/
  36. Zhang, A. Y., & Snowden, L. R. (1999). Ethnic characteristics of mental disorders in five U.S. Communities. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 5(2), 134–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaSacramentoUSA

Personalised recommendations