Advertisement

Parental Influences on Achievement Motivation and Student Engagement

  • Janine Bempechat
  • David J. Shernoff
Chapter

Abstract

Underachievement and school disengagement have serious consequences, both at individual and societal levels. In this chapter, we adopt a strength-based perspective to examine the multiple ways in which parents foster achievement motivation and student engagement. Our theoretical orientation is grounded in Bronfenbrenner’s (1977) ecological systems theory in which the child is situated at the center of increasingly distal and interconnected spheres of influence, from family and school to community and societal institutions. Given the increasingly diverse composition of our nation’s schools, we place a premium on understanding how varied ethnic and cultural models of learning and socialization, particularly among low-income families, differentially influence parents’ educational socialization strategies and how these come to affect children’s developing achievement-related beliefs and behaviors. We examine several theoretical models of engagement, motivation, and parental involvement and highlight some notable research efforts that seek to explain parents’ roles in fostering motivation and engagement. We then share several models of innovative programs that have experienced success in creating authentic partnerships between parents, children, schools, and communities toward the goal of stemming the tide of underachievement and disengagement.

Keywords

Social Capital Parental Involvement Parenting Style Student Engagement Achievement Motivation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Alliance for Excellent Education. (2009). Fact sheet: High school dropouts in America. Retrieved September 28, 2009, from http://www.all4ed.org/files/GraduationRates_FactSheet.pdf.
  2. Altonji, J. G., Elder, T. E., & Taber, C. R. (2005). Selection on observed and unobserved variables: Assessing the effectiveness of Catholic schools. The Journal of Political Economy, 113, 151–184.Google Scholar
  3. Ames, C. (1984). Goal structures and motivation. The Elementary School Journal, 85, 39–52.Google Scholar
  4. Ames, C. (1992a). Achievement goals and the classroom motivational climate. In D. H. Schunk (Ed.), Student perceptions in the classroom. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. Ames, C. (1992b). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261–271.Google Scholar
  6. Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., & Furlong, M. J. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45, 369–386.Google Scholar
  7. Bauch, P. A., & Goldring, E. B. (1995). Parent involvement and school responsiveness: Facilitating the home-school connection in schools of choice. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 17, 1–21.Google Scholar
  8. Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  9. Baumrind, D. (1989). Rearing competent children. In W. Damon (Ed.), Child development today and tomorrow. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  10. Bempechat, J. (1998). Against the odds: How ‘at risk’ students exceed expectations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  11. Bempechat, J. (2004). The motivational benefits of homework: A social-cognitive perspective. Theory Into Practice, 43, 189–196.Google Scholar
  12. Bempechat, J., & Boulay, B. (2001). Beyond dichotomous characterizations: New directions in achievement motivation research. In D. McInerney & S. V. Etten (Eds.), Research on sociocultural influences on motivation and learning (Vol. 1, pp. 15–36). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  13. Bempechat, J., Boulay, B. A., Piergross, S., & Wenk, K. (2008). Beyond the rhetoric: Understanding achievement and motivation in Catholic school students. Education and Urban Society, 40, 167–178.Google Scholar
  14. Bempechat, J., Li, J., Wenk, K., & Holloway, S. D. Achievement goals of low income students: A qualitative study of adolescent meaning making. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  15. Bempechat, J., Shernoff, D. J., Li, J., Holloway, S. D., & Arendtsz, A. L. (2010). Achievement beliefs and school engagement in low income adolescents: A mixed-methods study. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, Denver.Google Scholar
  16. Blumenfeld, P. C. (1992). Classroom learning and motivation: Clarifying and expanding goal theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 272–281.Google Scholar
  17. Bourdieu, P. (1985). The forms of capital. In J. G. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241–258). New York: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  18. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513–531.Google Scholar
  19. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Ceci, S. J. (1994). Nature-nurture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: A bioecological model. Psychological Review, 101, 568–586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brooks-Gunn, J., Linver, M. R., & Fauth, R. C. (2005). Children’s competence and socioeconomic status in the family and neighborhood. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 414–435). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  21. Brophy, J. E. (1983). Conceptualizing student motivation. Educational Psychologist, 18, 200–215.Google Scholar
  22. Brophy, J. E. (1987). Synthesis of research on strategies for motivating students to learn. Educational Leadership, 44, 40–48.Google Scholar
  23. Bryk, A., Lee, V., & Holland, P. (1993). Catholic schools and the common good. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Byrd-Blake, M., Afolayan, M., Hunt, J. W., Fabunmi, M., Pryor, B. W., & Lender, R. (2010). Morale of teachers in high poverty schools: A post-NCLB mixed methods analysis. Education and Urban Society, 42, 450–472.Google Scholar
  25. Carbonaro, W. J. (2003). Sector differences in student learning: Differences in achievement gains across school years and during the summer. Catholic Education: A Journal of Inquiry and Practice, 7, 219–245.Google Scholar
  26. Cauthen, N. K., & Fass, S. (2008). Measuring income and poverty in the United States. New York: National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health.Google Scholar
  27. Chang, L., McBride-Chang, C., Stewart, S. M., & Au, E. (2003). Life satisfaction, self-concept, and family relations in Chinese adolescents and children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, 82–189.Google Scholar
  28. Chen, J. J.-L. (2008). Grade-level differences: Relations of parental, teacher and peer support to academic engagement and achievement among Hong Kong students. School Psychology International, 29, 183–198.Google Scholar
  29. Christenson, S. L., & Sheridan, S. M. (2001). School and families: Creating essential connections for learning. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  30. Cole, M. (1996). Cultural psychology: A once and future discipline. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Coleman, J., Hoffer, T., & Kilgore, S. (1982). Cognitive outcomes in public and private schools. Sociology of Education, 55, 65–76.Google Scholar
  32. Comer, J. P. (2005). The rewards of parent participation. Educational Leadership, 62, 38–42.Google Scholar
  33. Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. G. (1991). Competence, autonomy, and relatedness: A motivational analysis of self-system processes. In M. R. Gunnar & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), Minnesota symposium on child psychology (Vol. 23). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  34. Cooper, H., Lindsay, J. J., Nye, B., & Greathouse, S. (1998). Relationships among attitudes about homework, amount of homework assigned and completed, and student achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 70–83.Google Scholar
  35. Covington, M. V. (2000). Intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation in schools: A reconciliation. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 22–25.Google Scholar
  36. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Play and intrinsic rewards. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 15(3), 41–63.Google Scholar
  37. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper Perennial.Google Scholar
  38. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding flow: The psychology of engagement with everyday life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  39. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, I. S. (Eds.). (1988). Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow in consciousness. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Larson, R. (1984). Being adolescent: Conflict and growth in the teenage years. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  41. DeCharms, R. (1968). Personal causation; the internal effective determinants of behavior. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  42. Deci, E. L. (1975). Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  43. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  44. Delgado-Gaitan, C. (1992). School matters in the Mexican-American home: Socializing children to education. American Educational Research Journal, 29, 495–513.Google Scholar
  45. Delgado-Gaitan, C. (1994). Consejos: The power of cultural narratives. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 25, 298–316.Google Scholar
  46. Dobbie, W., & Fryer, R. G. (2009). Are high-quality schools enough to close the achievement gap? Evidence from a bold social experiment in Harlem (No. 15473). Cambridge, MA: NBER.Google Scholar
  47. Dowson, M., & McInerney, D. M. (2001). Psychological parameters of students’ social and work avoidance goals: A qualitative investigation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 35–42.Google Scholar
  48. Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). Family poverty, welfare reform, and child development. Child Development, 71, 188–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2007). The impact of after-school programs that promote personal and social skills. Chicago: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL).Google Scholar
  50. Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  51. Dweck, C. S., & Bempechat, J. (1983). Children’s theories of intelligence: Consequences for learning. In S. G. Paris, G. M. Olson, & H. W. Stevenson (Eds.), Learning and motivation in the classroom (pp. 239–256). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  52. Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256–273.Google Scholar
  53. Dworkin, J. B., Larson, R., & Hansen, D. (2003). Adolescents’ accounts of growth experiences in youth activities. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 17–26.Google Scholar
  54. Eccles, J. S., & Gootman, J. A. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  55. Eccles, J. S., Roeser, R., Vida, M., Fredricks, J. A., & Wigfield, A. (2006). Motivational and achievement pathways through middle childhood. In L. Balter & C. S. Tamis-LeMonda (Eds.), Child psychology: A handbook of contemporary issues (2nd ed., pp. 325–355). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  56. Eide, E. R., Goldhaber, D. D., & Showalter, M. H. (2004). Does Catholic high school attendance lead to attendance at a more selective college? Social Science Quarterly, 85, 1335–1352.Google Scholar
  57. Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34, 149–169.Google Scholar
  58. Elliott, E. S., & Dweck, C. S. (1988). Goals: An approach to motivation and achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 5–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ellison, B. J., & Hallinan, M. T. (2004). Ability grouping in catholic and public schools. Catholic Education: A Journal of Inquiry and Practice, 8, 107–129.Google Scholar
  60. Else-Quest, N. M., Hyde, J. S., & Hejmadi, A. (2008). Mother and child emotions during mathematics homework. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 10, 5–35.Google Scholar
  61. Epstein, J. L. (1995). School/family/community partnerships: Caring for the children we share. Phi Delta Kappan, 76, 701–712.Google Scholar
  62. Epstein, J. L., & Van Vooris, F. L. (2001). More than minutes: Teachers’ roles in designing homework. Educational Psychologist, 36, 181–193.Google Scholar
  63. Espinoza-Herold, M. (2007). Stepping beyond Si Se Puede: Dichos as a cultural resource in mother-daughter interaction in a Latino family. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 38(3), 260–277.Google Scholar
  64. Finn, J. D. (1989). Withdrawing from school. Review of Educational Research, 59, 117–142.Google Scholar
  65. Finn, J. D. (1993). School engagement and students at risk (No. NCES-93–470). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  66. Finn, J. D., & Voelkl, K. E. (1993). School characteristics related to student engagement. The Journal of Negro Education, 62, 249–268.Google Scholar
  67. Flouri, E. (2004). Subjective well-being in midlife: The role of involvement of and closeness to parents in childhood. Journal of Happiness Studies, 5, 335–358.Google Scholar
  68. Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74, 59–109.Google Scholar
  69. Furlong, M. J., Whipple, A. D., St. Jean, G., Simental, J., Soliz, A., & Punthuna, S. (2003). Multiple contexts of school engagement: Moving toward a unifying framework for educational research and practice. The California School Psychologist, 9, 99–114.Google Scholar
  70. Furrer, C., & Skinner, E. (2003). Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 148–162.Google Scholar
  71. Gandara, P. C. (1995). Over the ivy walls: The educational mobility of low income Chicanos. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  72. García Coll, C., & Marks, A. K. (2009). Immigrant stories: Ethnicity and academics in middle childhood. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Gilman, R., Huebner, E. S., & Furlong, M. J. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of positive psychology in schools. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  74. Goldenberg, C., & Gallimore, R. (1995). Immigrant Latino parents’ values and beliefs about their children’s education: Continuities and discontinuities across cultures and generations. In M. Maehr, P. R. Pintrich, & D. E. Bartz (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Culture, motivation, and achievement (Vol. 9, pp. 183–228). San Francisco: JAI.Google Scholar
  75. Gorman-Smith, D., Tolan, P. H., Henry, D. B., & Florsheim, P. (2000). Patterns of family functioning and adolescent outcomes among urban African American and Mexican American families. Journal of Family Psychology, 14, 436–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Green, G., Rhodes, J., Hirsch, A. H., Suarez-Orozco, C., & Camic, P. M. (2008). Supportive adult relationships and the academic engagement of Latin American immigrant youth. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 393–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Griffiths, A.-J., Sharkey, J. D., & Furlong, M. J. (2009). Student engagement and positive school adaption. In R. Gilman, E. S. Huebner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  78. Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Parent styles associated with children’s self-regulation and competence in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 143–154.Google Scholar
  79. Grolnick, W. S., & Slowiaczek, M. L. (1994). Parents’ involvement in children’s schooling: A multidimensional conceptualization and motivational model. Child Development, 65, 237–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hansen, D. M., Larson, R. W., & Dworkin, J. B. (2003). What adolescents learn in organized youth activities: A survey of self-reported developmental experiences. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13, 25–56.Google Scholar
  81. Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Tauer, J. M., & Elliot, A. J. (2002). Predicting success in college: A longitudinal study of achievement goals and ability measures as predictors of interest and performance from freshman year through graduation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 562–575.Google Scholar
  82. Harkness, S., & Super, C. (1992). Parental ethnotheories in action. In A. Sigel, J. McGillicuddy-DeLisi, & J. J. Goodnow (Eds.), Parental belief systems: The psychological consequences for children (2nd ed., pp. 373–391). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  83. Hauser, R. M., Pager, D. I., & Simmons, S. J. (2004). Race-ethnicity, social background, and grade retention. In H. J. Walberg, A. J. Reynolds, & M. C. Wang (Eds.), Can unlike students learn together? (pp. 97–114). Greenwich, CT: IAP.Google Scholar
  84. Haynes, N. M., Emmons, C. L., Gebreyesus, S., & Ben-Avie, M. (1996). The School Development Program evaluation process. In N. M. Haynes (Ed.), Rallying the whole village: The Comer process for reforming education (pp. 123–146). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  85. Hektner, J. M., Schmidt, J. A., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2007). Experience sampling method: Measuring the quality of everyday life. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  86. Henri, R. (1923/2007). The art spirit. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  87. Hidi, S., & Anderson, V. (1992). Situational interest and its impact on reading and expository writing. In K. A. Renninger, S. Hidi, & A. Krapp (Eds.), The role of interest in learning and development (pp. 215–238). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  88. Hidi, S., & Renninger, K. A. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 41, 111–127.Google Scholar
  89. Hill, N. E., & Taylor, L. C. (2004). Parental school involvement and children’s academic achievement. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 161–164.Google Scholar
  90. Hong, E., & Lee, K. (1999, April). Chinese parents’ awareness of their children’s homework style and homework behavior and its effects on achievement. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  91. Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Battiato, A. C., Walker, J. M., Reed, R. P., DeLong, J. M., & Jones, K. P. (2001). Parental involvement in homework. Educational Psychologist, 36, 195–209.Google Scholar
  92. Horvat, E. M., Weininger, E. B., & Lareau, A. (2003). From social ties to social capital. American Educational Research Journal, 40, 319–351.Google Scholar
  93. Huang, D., Coordt, A., La Torre, D., Leon, S., Miyoshi, J., Perez, P., et al. (2009). The after-school hours: Examining the relationship between afterschool staff-based social capital and student engagement in LA’s BEST. Los Angeles, CA: National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing.Google Scholar
  94. Huang, D., Miyoshi, J., La Torre, D., Marshall, A., Perez, P., & Peterson, C. (2009). Exploring the intellectual, social, and organizational capitals at LA’s BEST. Los Angeles: National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing.Google Scholar
  95. Huebner, E. S., & Diener, C. (2008). Research on life satisfaction of children and youth. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  96. Hughes, J. N., & Kwok, O.-M. (2007). Influence of student-teacher and parent-teacher relationships on lower achieving readers’ engagement and achievement in the primary grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 39–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hulleman, C. S., Durik, A. M., Schweigert, S. B., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2008). Task values, achievement goals, and interest: An integrative analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 398–416.Google Scholar
  98. Ingersoll, R. M. (2004). Why do high-poverty schools have difficulty staffing their classrooms with qualified teachers? Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.Google Scholar
  99. Jarrett, R. L. (1998). African American children, families, and neighborhoods: Qualitative contributions to understanding developmental pathways. Applied Developmental Science, 2, 2–16.Google Scholar
  100. Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. (1977). Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A longitudinal study of youth. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  101. Jeynes, W. H. (2010). The salience of the subtle aspects of parental involvement and encouraging that involvement: Implications for school based programs. Teachers College Record, 112, 747–774.Google Scholar
  102. Johnson, S. M. (2006). The workplace matters: Teacher quality, retention, and effectiveness. Washington, DC: National Education Association.Google Scholar
  103. Kaplan, A., & Maehr, M. (2007). The contributions and prospects of goal orientation theory. Educational Psychology Review, 19, 141–184.Google Scholar
  104. Kegan, R. (1982). The evolving self: Problem and process in human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Kohn, A. (2006). The homework myth: Why our kids get too much of a bad thing. Cambridge, MA: De Capo Lifelong Books.Google Scholar
  106. Kralovec, E., & Buell, J. (2001). End homework now. Educational Leadership, 58(7), 39–42.Google Scholar
  107. Lamborn, S. D., Brown, B. B., Mounts, N. S., & Steinberg, L. (1992). Putting school in perspective: The influence of family, peers, extracurricular participation, and part-time work on academic engagement. In F. M. Newmann (Ed.), Student engagement and achievement in American secondary schools (pp. 153–181). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  108. Lansford, J. E., Deater-Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Petit, G. S. (2004). Ethnic differences in the link between physical discipline and later adolescent externalizing behaviors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 801–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Lareau, A. (1987). Social class differences in family-school relationships: The importance of cultural capital. Sociology of Education, 60, 73–85.Google Scholar
  110. Lareau, A. (2000). Home advantage: Social class and parental intervention in elementary education. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  111. Lareau, A. (2002). Invisible inequality: Social class and childrearing in black families and white families. American Sociological Review, 67, 747–776.Google Scholar
  112. Larson, R. W. (2006). Positive youth development, willful adolescents, and mentoring. Journal of Community Psychology, 34, 677–689.Google Scholar
  113. Larson, R. W., & Richards, M. H. (1991). Boredom in the middle school years: Blaming schools versus blaming students. American Journal of Education, 99, 418–443.Google Scholar
  114. Leone, C. M., & Richards, M. H. (1989). Classwork and homework in early adolescence: The ecology of achievement. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 18, 531–548.Google Scholar
  115. Lerner, R. M., Lerner, J. V., Phelps, E., & Colleagues. (2008). The positive development of youth: Report of the findings from the first four years of the 4-H study of positive youth development. Retreived Dec. 4, 2011 from http://www.ase.tufts.edu/iaryd/documents/4HStudyFindings2008.pdf.
  116. Leventhal, T., Fauth, R. C., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2005). Neighborhood poverty and public policy: A 5-year follow-up of children’s educational outcomes in the New York City moving to opportunity demonstration. Developmental Psychology, 41, 933–952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Li, J., Holloway, S. D., Bempechat, J., & Loh, E. (2008). Building and using a social network: Nurture for low income Chinese American adolescents’ learning. In Y. Hirokazu & N. Way (Eds.), The social contexts of immigrant children and adolescents. New directions for child and adolescent development (Vol. 121, pp. 9–25). San Francisco: Wiley.Google Scholar
  118. Lubienski, S. L., Lubienski, C., & Crane, C. C. (2008). Achievement differences and school type: The role of school climate, teacher certification, and instruction. American Journal of Education, 115(1), 97–138.Google Scholar
  119. Maehr, M. L. (1976). Continuing motivation: An analysis of a seldom considered educational outcome. Review of Educational Research, 46, 443–462.Google Scholar
  120. Maehr, M. L., & Nicholls, J. G. (1980). Culture and achievement motivation: A second look. In N. Warren (Ed.), Studies in cross cultural psychology. San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  121. Mahoney, J. L., Larson, R. W., & Eccles, J. S. (Eds.). (2005). Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  122. Mahoney, J. L., Parente, M. E., & Lord, H. (2007). After-school program engagement: Links to child competence and program quality and content. The Elementary School Journal, 107, 385–404.Google Scholar
  123. Mandara, J., & Murray, C. B. (2002). Development of an empirical typology of African American family functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 16, 318–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Mandara, J., Varner, F., Greene, N., & Richman, S. (2009). Intergenerational family predictors of the black–white achievement gap. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 867–878.Google Scholar
  125. Mapp, K. L., Johnson, V. R., Strickland, C. S., & Meza, C. (2008). High school family centers: Transformative spaces linking schools and families in support of student learning. Marriage and Family Review, 43, 338–368.Google Scholar
  126. Marks, H. M. (2000). Student engagement in instructional activity: Patterns in the elementary, middle and high school years. American Educational Research Journal, 37, 153–184.Google Scholar
  127. Martin, A. J., & Dowson, M. (2009). Interpersonal relationships, motivation, engagement, and achievement: Yields for theory, current issues, and educational practice. Review of Educational Research, 79, 327–365.Google Scholar
  128. Meece, J. L., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Hoyle, R. H. (1988). Students’ goal orientations and cognitive engagement in classroom activities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 514–523.Google Scholar
  129. Mitchell, M. (1993). Situational interest: Its multifaceted structure in the secondary school mathematics classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 424–436.Google Scholar
  130. Moll, L. C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory Into Practice, 31(2), 132–141.Google Scholar
  131. Morgan, S. L. (2001). Counterfactuals, causal effect heterogeneity, and the Catholic school effect on learning. Sociology of Education, 74, 341–374.Google Scholar
  132. Nakamura, J. (2001). The nature of vital engagement in adulthood. In M. Michaelson & J. Nakamura (Eds.), Supportive frameworks for youth engagement (pp. 5–18). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  133. Nakamura, J., & Shernoff, D. J. (2009). Good mentoring: Fostering excellent practice in higher education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  134. National Research Council, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. (2004). Engaging schools: Fostering high school students’ motivation to learn. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  135. Newmann, F. M. (Ed.). (1992). Student engagement and achievement in American secondary schools. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  136. Newmann, F. M., & Wehlage, G. G. (1993). Five standards of authentic instruction. Educational Leadership, 50, 8–12.Google Scholar
  137. Nicholls, J. G. (1978). The development of the concepts of effort and ability, perception of academic attainment, and the understanding that difficult tasks require more ability. Child Development, 49, 800–814.Google Scholar
  138. Nicholls, J. G. (1983). Conceptions of ability and achievement motivation: A theory and its implications for education. In S. G. Paris, G. M. Olson, & H. W. Stevenson (Eds.), Learning and motivation in the classroom (pp. 211–237). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  139. Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91, 328–346.Google Scholar
  140. Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  141. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107–110, § 115, Stat. 1425 (2002).Google Scholar
  142. Nystrand, M., & Gamoran, A. (1991). Instructional discourse, student engagement, and literature achievement. Research in the Teaching of English, 25, 261–290.Google Scholar
  143. Ogbu, J. U. (2003). Black American students in an affluent suburb: A study of academic disengagement. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  144. Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. (1990). Promoting metacognition and motivation of exceptional children. Rase: Remedial & Special Education, 11, 7–15.Google Scholar
  145. Pelletier, L. G., Fortier, M. S., Vallerand, R. J., Tuson, K. M., Briere, N. M., & Blais, M. R. (1995). Toward a new measure of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation in sports: The sport motivation scale (SMS). Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 17, 35–53.Google Scholar
  146. Pinderhughes, E. E., Nix, R., Foster, E. M., & Jones, D. (2001). Parenting in context: Impact of neighborhood poverty, residential stability, public services, social network. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 941–953.Google Scholar
  147. Pintrich, P. R. (2000). Multiple goals, multiple pathways: The role of goal orientation in learning and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 544–555.Google Scholar
  148. Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33–40.Google Scholar
  149. Pomerantz, E. M., Moorman, E. A., & Litwak, S. D. (2007). The how, whom, and why of parents’ involvement in children’s academic lives: More is not always better. Review of Educational Research, 77(3), 373–410.Google Scholar
  150. Pomerantz, E. M., Ng, F. F., & Wang, Q. (2006). Mothers’ mastery-oriented involvement in children’s homework: Implications for the well-being of children with negative perceptions of competence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 99–111.Google Scholar
  151. Ramirez, A. Y. (2003). Dismay and disappointment: Parental involvement of Latino immigrant parents. The Urban Review, 35(2), 93–110.Google Scholar
  152. Rathunde, K. (1996). Family context and talented adolescents’ optimal experience in school-related activities. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 6, 605–628.Google Scholar
  153. Reese, L., Balzano, S., Gallimore, R., & Goldenberg, C. (1995). The concept of “educaciòn”: Latino family values and American schooling. International Journal of Educational Research, 23, 57–81.Google Scholar
  154. Reschly, A. L., & Christenson, S. L. (2009). Parents as essential partners for fostering students’ learning outcomes. In R. Gilman, E. S. Huebner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (pp. 257–272). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  155. Reschly, A. L., Huebner, E. S., Appleton, J. J., & Antaramian, S. (2008). Engagement as flourishing: The contribution of positive emotions and coping to adolescents’ engagement at school and with learning. Psychology in the Schools, 45, 419–431.Google Scholar
  156. Rhodes, J. (2002). Stand by me: The risks and rewards of mentoring today’s youth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  157. Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive development in a social context. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  158. Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  159. Rogoff, B., Baker-Sennett, J., Lacasa, P., & Goldsmith, D. (1995). Development through participation in sociocultural activity. In J. J. Goodnow, P. J. Miller, & F. Kessel (Eds.), Cultural practices as contexts for development (Vol. 67, pp. 45–65). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  160. Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., Spilt, J. L., & Oort, F. J. (2011). The influence of affective teacher-student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach. Review of Educational Research, 81, 493–529.Google Scholar
  161. Roy, J., & Mishel, L. (2008). Using administrative data to estimate graduation rates: Challenges, proposed solutions and their pitfalls. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 16(11), 2–27.Google Scholar
  162. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Sander, W., & Krautman, A. C. (1995). Catholic schools, dropout rates and educational attainment. Economic Inquiry, 33, 217–233.Google Scholar
  164. Sansone, C., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The search for optimal motivation and performance. San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  165. Schmidt, J. A., Shernoff, D. J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2007). Individual and situational factors related to the experience of flow in adolescence: A multilevel approach. In A. D. Ong & Mv Dulmen (Eds.), The handbook of methods in positive psychology (pp. 542–558). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  166. Schunk, D. H., Pintrich, P. R., & Meece, J. L. (Eds.). (2008). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  167. Schutz, A. (2006). Home is a prison in the global city: The tragic failure of school-based community engagement strategies. Review of Educational Research, 76, 691–743.Google Scholar
  168. Shek, D. T. L. (1998). A longitudinal study of the relations between parent-adolescent conflict and adolescent psychological well-being. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 159, 53–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Shernoff, D. J. (2010). The experience of student engagement in high school classrooms: Influences and effects on long-term outcomes. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing.Google Scholar
  170. Shernoff, D. J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2009). Flow in schools: Cultivating engaged learners and optimal learning environments. In R. C. Gilman, E. S. Heubner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (pp. 131–145). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  171. Shernoff, D. J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Schneider, B., & Shernoff, E. S. (2003). Student engagement in high school classrooms from the perspective of flow theory. School Psychology Quarterly, 18, 158–176.Google Scholar
  172. Shernoff, D. J., & Hoogstra, L. (2001). Continuing motivation beyond the high school classroom. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 93, 73–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Shernoff, D. J., & Schmidt, J. A. (2008). Further evidence of an engagement-achievement paradox among U.S. high school students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 891–903.Google Scholar
  174. Shernoff, D. J., & Vandell, D. L. (2007). Engagement in after-school program activities: Quality of experience from the perspective of participants. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 891–903.Google Scholar
  175. Shulman, R. (2009, August 2). Harlem program singled out as model. Washington Post.Google Scholar
  176. Sirin, S. R., & Rogers-Sirin, L. (2004). Exploring school engagement of middle-class African American adolescents. Youth & Society, 35, 323–340.Google Scholar
  177. Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 571–581.Google Scholar
  178. Smerdon, B. A. (1999). Engagement and achievement: Differences between African-American and white high school students. Research in Sociology of Education and Socialization, 12, 103–134.Google Scholar
  179. Steinberg, L. (1996). Beyond the classroom: Why school reform has failed and what parents need to do. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  180. Steinberg, L., Mounts, N. S., Lamborn, S. D., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1991). Authoritative parenting and adolescent adjustment across varied ecological niches. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 1, 19–36.Google Scholar
  181. Stipek, D. J. (1993). Motivation to learn: From theory to practice (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  182. Suárez-Orozco, C., Suárez-Orozco, M., & Todorova, I. (2008). Learning a new land: Immigrant students in American society. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press/Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  183. Suldo, S. M. (2009). Parent-child relationships. In R. Gilman, E. S. Huebner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  184. Taylor, L. C., Hinton, I. D., & Wilson, G. J. (1995). Parental influences on academic performance in African American students. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 4, 293–302.Google Scholar
  185. Tendulkar, S., Buka, S., Dunn, E. C., Subramanian, S. V., & Koenen, K. C. (2010). A multilevel investigation of neighborhood effects on parental warmth. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(5), 557–573.Google Scholar
  186. Toppo, G. (2010). In Philadelphia, a bold move against “dropout factories.” USA Today, 1A–2A.Google Scholar
  187. Urdan, T., & Turner, J. C. (2005). Competence motivation in the classroom. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 297–317). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  188. Valenzuela, A. (1999). Subtractive schooling: US-Mexican youth and the politics of caring. New York: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  189. Valenzuela, A., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1994). Familism and social capital in the academic achievement of Mexican origin and Anglo Americans. Social Science Quarterly, 75, 18–36.Google Scholar
  190. Voelkl, K. E. (1997). Identification with school. American Journal of Education, 105, 294–318.Google Scholar
  191. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  192. Weiner, B. (1979). A theory of motivation for some classroom experiences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 3–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Weiner, B. (2005). Motivation from an attributional perspective and the social psychology of perceived competence. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 73–84). New York: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
  194. Weisner, T. (2002). Ecocultural understanding of children’s developmental pathways. Human Development, 45, 275–281.Google Scholar
  195. Xu, J., & Corno, L. (1998). Case studies of families doing third grade homework. Teachers College Record, 100, 402–436.Google Scholar
  196. Xu, J., & Corno, L. (2003). Family help and homework management reported by middle school students. The Elementary School Journal, 103, 503–519.Google Scholar
  197. Zhang, S., & Anderson, S. G. (2010). Low-income single mothers’ community violence exposure and aggressive parenting practices. Children and Youth Services Review, 32, 889–895.Google Scholar
  198. Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychologist, 25, 3–17.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology and Human DevelopmentWheelock CollegeBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Leadership, Educational Psychology, and FoundationsNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalbUSA

Personalised recommendations