Product-Service System Approaches

A Business Perspective on Service Modeling
  • Daniel Beverungen
  • Martin Matzner
  • Oliver Müller
  • Jörg Becker


For some time, increasing importance is attached to services, both from an economical and a managerial perspective. First, the notion of “service as basic unit of exchange” emphasizes the application of specialized competencies for the benefit of someone else, while disregarding if a physical good or any other resource is used for exchanging value. Second, service-orientation allows enterprises to enter new markets by extending their existing portfolio of products by related services or realizing entire new offerings that are enabled by recent advances in information technology. Service description is a key challenge in developing and providing services to and with customers. Further it is a premise for coordinating several providers of an integrated customer solution. This chapter is an effort to explain how conceptual modeling can facilitate service description. We use Product-Service Systems (PSS) as an exemplary domain.We extract central concepts from several disciplines that are engaged in researching business aspects of PSS to develop a catalogue of modeling requirements to be accounted for in service description. Consecutively, these requirements are utilized to assess the current state of conceptual modeling languages for (product-related) service description. The review leads to the identification of further prospects to be accounted for by service description.


Business Process Service Process International Standard Organization Service Description Engineering Discipline 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    W. F. Ahrens, E. Schnieder, and M. Chouikha. Formale Prozessbeschreibungen - gestern, heute und morgen. atp - Automatisierungstechnische Praxis, 42(9):24–32, 2000.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Anderl and D. Trippner. STEP: Standard for the exchange of product model data. Gabler, Wiesbaden, Germany, 2000.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Y. Baldwin and K. B. Clark. Managing in an Age of Modularity. Harvard Business Review, September:84–93, 1997.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    I. R. Bardhan, H. Demirkan, P. K. Kannan, R. J. Kauffman, and R. Sougstad. An Interdisciplinary Perspective on IT Services Management and Service Science. Journal of Management Information Systems, 26(4):13–64, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Becker, D. Beverungen, and R. Knackstedt. The challenge of conceptual modeling for product-service systems: status-quo and perspectives for reference models and modeling languages. Information Systems and E-Business Management, 8(1):33–66, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Becker, D. Beverungen, R. Knackstedt, and O. Müller. Model-Based Decision Support for the Customer-Specific Configuration of Value Bundles. Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures, 4(1):26–38, 2009.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Becker, R. Knackstedt, D. Beverungen, S. Bräuer, D. Bruning, D. Christoph, D. Jorch, F. Joß Bächer, H. Jostmeier, S. Wiethoff, and A. Yeboah. Modellierung der hybriden Wertschöpfung: Eine Vergleichsstudie zu Modellierungstechniken. University of Münster, Arbeitsberichte des Instituts für Wirtschaftinformatik, Nr. 125, Münster, 2009.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Belz. Fit for Service: Industrie als Dienstleister. Hanser Wirtschaft, St. Gallen, 1997.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. J. Bitner, A. L. Ostrom, and F. N. Morgan. Service blueprinting: A practical technique for service innovation. California Management Review, 50(3):66–94, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Black, C. Draper, T. Lococo, F. Matar, and C. Ward. An integration model for organizing IT service management. IBM Systems Journal, 46(3):405–422, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Bley, M. Bernardi, B. Schmitt, and C. Zenner. Assembly planning of mini and micro products enhanced by an integrated product and process model. In Proceedings of the International Precision Assembly Seminar (IPAS 2003), pages 31–38, Bad Hofgastein, Austria, 2003.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Bossmann. Feature-basierte Produkt- und Prozessmodelle in der integrierten Produktentstehung. 2007.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. Botta. Rahmenkonzept zur Entwicklung von Product-Service Systems. Josef Eul Verlag, Lohmar, Germany, 2007.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    H.-J. Bullinger. Service Engineering: Ein Rahmenkonzept für die systematische Entwicklung von Dienstleistungen. In H..-J. Bullinger and A.-W. Scheer, editors, Service Engineering - Entwicklung und Gestaltung innovativer Dienstleistung, pages 51–82. Springer, Berlin et al, Germany, 2nd edition, 2003.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung (bpb). Datenreport 2008 - Ein Sozialbericht für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Technical report, Bonn, Germany, 2008.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. Congram and M. Epelman. How to describe your service: An invitation to the structured analysis and design technique. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 6(2):6–23, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. Corsten and R. Gössinger. Rahmenkonzept zur integrativen Modellierung von Dienstleistungen. 2003.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    P. Dadam, K. Kuhn, M. Reichert, T. Beuter, and M. Nathe. ADEPT: Ein integrierender Ansatz zur Entwicklung flexibler, zuverlässiger kooperierender Assistenzsysteme in klinischen Anwendungsumgebungen. 1995.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    N. P. Dalal, M. Kamath,W. J. Kolarik, and E. Sivaraman. Toward an integrated framework for modeling enterprise processes. Communications of the ACM, 47(3):83–87, Mar. 2004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. J. Dietrich and S. Kirn. Flexible Wertschöpfungsnetzwerke in der kundenindividuellen Massenfertigung — Ein serviceorientiertes Modell für die Schuhindustrie. In O. K. Ferstl, E. J. Sinz, S. Eckert, and T. Isselhorst, editors, Wirtschaftsinformatik 2005, pages 23–42. Heidelberg, Germany, 2005.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    B. Dietrich. Resource Planning for Business Services. Communications of the ACM, 49(7):62– 64, July 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    DIN. Publicly Available Specification 1018: Essential structure for the description of services in the procurement stage. German Standards Institute, Beuth Verlag, Berlin, 2002.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    DIN. Publicly Available Specification 1094: Product-Service Systems — Value Creation by Integrating Goods and Services. German Standards Institute, Beuth Verlag, Berlin, 2009.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Emmrich. Ein Beitrag zur systematischen Entwicklung produktorientierter Dienstleistungen. Dissertation, University of Paderborn, Germany, 2005.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    W. H. Engelhardt, M. Kleinaltenkamp, and M. Reckenfelderbäumer. Leistungsbündel als Absatzobjekte. Ein Ansatz zur U¨ berwindung der Dichotomie von Sach- und Dienstleistungen. Schmalenbachs Zeitschrift fuer betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung, 45(5):395–426, 1993.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. Ferrario, N. Guarino, C. Janiesch, T. Kiemes, D. Oberle, and F. Probst. Towards an Ontological Foundation of Services Science: The General Service Model. In 10th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Zürich, Switzerland, 2011.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. A. Fitzsimmons and M. J. Fitzsimmons. Service Management — Operations, Strategy, and Information Technology. McGraw-Hill, Inc, Boston, MA, USA, 3rd edition, 2001.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Fließ. Die Steuerung von Kundenintegrationsprozessen. Deutscher Universitätsverlag, Wiesbaden, Germany, 2001.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    W. Ganz. Germany: Service Engineering. Communications of the ACM, 49(7):79, July 2006.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. Garud and A. Kumaraswamy. Technological and organizational designs for realizing economies of substitution. In R. Garud, A. Kumaraswamy, and N. Langlois, editors, Managing in the Modular Age, pages 45–77. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, USA, 2003.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    P. Gu and K. Chan. Product modelling using STEP. Computer-Aided Design, 27(3):163–179, Mar. 1995.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    M. Hanna andW. Newman. Integrated Operations Management: A Supply Chain Perspective. Thomson/South-Western, Florence, KY, USA, 2006.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    I. Hartel. Aufbau und Betrieb eines kooperativen Dienstleistungsmanagements in der Investitionsg üterindustrie. In R. Kreibich, editor, Erfolg mit Dienstleistungen, pages 47–54. Schäffer-Pöschel, Stuttgart, Germany, 2004.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J. Hausmann, R. Heckel, and S. Sauer. Dynamic Meta Modeling with Time: Specifying the Semantics of Multimedia Sequence Diagrams. Software and Systems Modeling, 3(3):181–193, Feb. 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    R. Holten. Entwicklung einer Modellierungstechnik für Data-Warehouse-Fachkonzepte. In H. Schmidt, editor, Proceedings of the MobIS-Fachtagung, pages 3–21, Siegen, Germany, 2000.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    IAI. International Alliance for Interoperability: Data Modeling Using EXPRESS-G for IFC Development, 2008.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    International Standards Organization (ISO). Product Data Interchange using STEP (PDES) Part 11 - The EXPRESS Language Reference Manual, 1995.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    H. Katzan. Service Science: Concepts, Technology, Management. iUniverse, New York, NY, USA, 2008.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Kingman-Brundage, W. George, and D. Bowen. Service Logic: Achieving Service System Integration. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 6(4):20–39, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    L. Klein, P. Schreiner, and C. Seemann. Die Dienstleistungen im Griff—Erfolgreich Gründen mit System. Fraunhofer IRB Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany, 2003.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    D. Koonce and R. Judd. A visual modelling language for EXPRESS schema. International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 14(5):457–472, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    W. Kraemer and V. Zimmermann. Public Service Engineering — Planung und Realisierung innovativer Verwaltungsprodukte. In A.-W. Scheer, editor, Rechnungswesen und EDV: Kundenorientierung in Industrie, Dienstleistung und Verwaltung, 17. Saarbrücker Arbeitstagung, pages 555–580. Physica, Heidelberg, Germany, 1996.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    G. Kunau, K.-U. Loser, and T. Herrmann. Im Spannungsfeld zwischen formalen und informellen Aspekten: Modellierung von Dienstleistungen mit SeeMe. In T. Herrmann, U. Kleinbeck, and H. Krcmar, editors, Konzepte für das Service Engineering - Modularisierung, Prozessgestaltung und Produktivitätsmanagement. Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin, Germany, 2005.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    R. F. Lusch, S. L. Vargo, and M. Tanniru. Service, value networks and learning. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 38(1):19–31, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    S. Madhavaram and S. D. Hunt. The service-dominant logic and a hierarchy of operant resources: developing masterful operant resources and implications for marketing strategy. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1):67–82, Aug. 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    P. P. Maglio and J. Spohrer. Fundamentals of Service Science. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1):18–20, July 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. Manavazhi. Hybrid modelling framework for synthesizing virtual structures. Construction Management and Economics, 18(4):415–426, June 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    H. Mason. ISO 10303 - STEP: A key standard for the global market. ISO Bulletin, January:9– 13, 2002.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    N. Maussang, P. Zwolinski, and D. Brissaud. Design of Product-Service Systems. In 10th European Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production (ERSCP), 2005.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mercer Management Consulting. Mercer-Analyse — Ungenutzte Chancen im Servicegesch äft, 2003.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    O. Mont. Product-service systems: Panacea or myth? Phd thesis, Lund University, 2004.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    N. Morelli. Designing Product/Service Systems: A Methodological Exploration. Design Issues, 18(3):3–17, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    OECD. Enhancing the Performance of the Services Sector. Technical report, June 2005.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    A. Parasuraman, V. A. Zeithaml, and L. L. Berry. SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1):12–40, 1988.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    A. F. Payne, K. Storbacka, and P. Frow. Managing the Co-creation of Value. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1):83–96, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    M. J. Pratt. Introduction to ISO 10303 — the STEP Standard for Product Data Exchange. Journal of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, 1(1):102–103, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    ProSTEP. iViP: Architektur und Aufbau, 2007.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    J. B. Quinn, J. Baruch, and P. Paquette. Exploiting the manufacturing-services interface. Sloan Management Review, 29(4):45–56, 1988.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    J. B. Quinn, T. L. Doorley, and P. C. Paquette. Beyond Products: Service-Based Strategy. Harvard Business Review, 68(2):58–67, 1990.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    A. Rai and V. Sambamurthy. Editorial Notes — The Growth of Interest in Services Management: Opportunities for Information Systems Scholars. Information Systems Research, 17(4):327–331, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    C. Rainfurth, S. Tegtmeyer, and G. Lay. Organisation produktbegleitender Dienstleistungen. In G. Lay and M. Nippa, editors, Management produktbegleitender Dienstleistungen, pages 99–119. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2005.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    T. Sakao and Y. Shimomura. Service Engineering: A novel engineering discipline for producers to increase value combining service and product. Journal of Cleaner Production, 15(2):590–604, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    S. E. Sampson and C. M. Froehle. Foundations and implications of a proposed unified services theory. Production and Operations Management, 15(2):329–343, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    A.-W. Scheer. ARIS — Vom Geschäftsprozess zum Anwendungssystem. Springer, Berlin et al., Germany, 4th edition, 2002.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    A.-W. Scheer, O. Grieble, and R. Klein. Modellbasiertes Dienstleistungsmanagement. In H.-J. Bullinger and A.-W. Scheer, editors, Service Engineering - Entwicklung und Gestaltung innovativer Dienstleistungen, pages 19–52. Springer, Berlin et al., Germany, 2nd edition, 2006.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    M. Schmied. Themenheft Service Engineering. Bonn, Germany, 2002.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    K. Schneider, H.-J. Bullinger, and A.-W. Scheer. Service engineering — entwicklung und gestaltung innovativer dienstleistungen. In H.-J. Bullinger and A.-W. Scheer, editors, Service Engineering, pages 3–18. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    E. Schnieder. Modellkonzepte in der Automatisierungstechnik. In G. Engels, A. Oberweis, and A. Zündorf, editors, Modellierung 2001, pages 7–17. Bonn, Germany, 2001.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    D. R. Shaw and C. P. Holland. Strategy, networks and systems in the global translation services market. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 19(4):242–256, Dec. 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    G. L. Shostack. Breaking Free from Product Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 41(2):73–80, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    G. L. Shostack. How to design a service. European Journal of Marketing, 1(16):49–63, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    G. L. Shostack. Design services that deliver. Harvard Business Review, 62(1):133–139, 1984.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    J. Spohrer, P. P. Maglio, J. Bailey, and D. Gruhl. Steps Toward a Science of Service Systems. Computer, 40(1):71–77, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    J. Spohrer and D. Riecken. Service Science. Communications of the ACM, 49(7):31–34, 2006.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    M. Steinbach, C. Botta, and C. Weber. Integrierte Entwicklung von Product-Service Systems. Werkstatttechnik online, 95(7/8):546–553, 2005.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    F. Stille. Product-related Services — Still Growing in Importance. DIW Economic Bulletin, 40(6):195–200, 2003.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    F. Sturm, A. Bading, and M. Schubert. Investitionsgüterhersteller auf dem Weg zum Lösungsanbieter—Eine empirische Studie. Fraunhofer IRB Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany, 2007.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    C. S. Sturts and F. H. Griffis. Pricing Engineering Services. Journal of Management in Engineering, 21(2):56–62, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    A. Tan, T. C. McAloone, and M. M. Andreasen. What Happens to Integrated Product Development Models with Product/Service-System Approaches. In Proceedings of the 6th Integrated Product Development Workshop (IPD 2006), Magdeburg, Germany, 2006.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    J. Teboul. Service is Front Stage: Positioning Services for Value Advantage. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK, 2006.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    A. Tukker and U. Tischner. Product-services as a research field: past, present and future. Reflections from a decade of research. Journal of Cleaner Production, 14(17):1552–1556, 2006.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    K. R. Tuli, A. K. Kohli, and S. G. Bharadwaj. Rethinking Customer Solutions: From Product Bundles to Relational Processes. Journal of Marketing, 71(3):1–17, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    S. Vandermerwe and J. Rada. Servitization of business. European Management Journal, 6(4):314–324, 1988.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    S. L. Vargo and R. F. Lusch. Evolving to a New Dominant Logic for Marketing. The Journal of Marketing, 68(1):1 – 17, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    S. L. Vargo and R. F. Lusch. Service-dominant logic: continuing the evolution. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1):1–10, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    S. L. Vargo, R. F. Lusch, and M. Archpru Akaka. Advancing service science with servicedominant logic — clarifications and conceptual development. In P. Maglio, C. Kieliszewski, and J. Spohrer, editors, Handbook of Service Science, Service Science: Research and Innovations in the Service Economy, pages 133–156. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2010.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    K. Winkelmann. Prospektive Bewertung der kooperativen Erbringung industrieller Dienstleistungen im Maschinenbau durch Simulation mit Petri-Netzen. Shaker Verlag, Aachen, Germany, 2007.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    K. Winkelmann and H. Luczak. Prospective analysis of cooperative provision of industrial services using coloured petri nets. In S. Donatelli and P. S. Thiagarajan, editors, Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency - ICATPN 2006, 27th International Conference on Applications and Theory of Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency, Turku, Finland, June 26-30, 2006, Proceedings, volume 4024 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 362–380. Springer, 2006.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    F. Wolff and U. Frank. A Multiperspective Framework for Evaluating Conceptual Models in Organisatinal Change. In Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2005), St. Gallen, Switzerland, 2005.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Beverungen
    • 1
  • Martin Matzner
    • 1
  • Oliver Müller
    • 2
  • Jörg Becker
    • 1
  1. 1.European Research Center for Information SystemsUniversity of MünsterMünsterGermany
  2. 2.Martin Hilti Chair of Business Process ManagementUniversity of LiechtensteinVaduzLiechtenstein

Personalised recommendations