Bunyavirus: Structure and Replication

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 726)

Abstract

The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of a large number of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that infect animals, insects, and plants. The tripartite genome of bunyaviruses, encapsidated in the form of individual ribonucleoprotein complexes, encodes four structural proteins, the glycoproteins Gc and Gn, the nucleoprotein N, and the viral polymerase L. Some bunyaviruses also use an ambi-sense strategy to encode the nonstructural proteins NSs and NSm. While some bunyaviruses have a T = 12 icosahedral symmetry, others only have locally ordered capsids, or capsids with no detectable symmetry. Bunyaviruses enter cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis or phagocytosis. In endosome, viral glycoproteins facilitate membrane fusion at acidic pH, thus allowing bunyaviruses to uncoat and deliver their genomic RNA into host cytoplasm. Bunyaviruses replicate in cytoplasm where the viral polymerase L catalyzes both transcription and replication of the viral genome. While transcription requires a cap primer for initiation and ends at specific termination signals before the 3′ end of the template is reached, replication copies the entire template and does not depend on any primer for initiation. This review will discuss some of the most interesting aspects of bunyavirus replication, including L protein/N protein-mediated cap snatching, prime-and-realign for transcription and replication initiation, translation-coupled transcription, sequence/secondary structure-dependent transcription termination, ribonucleoprotein encapsidation, and N protein-mediated initiation of viral protein translation. Recent developments on the structure and functional characterization of the bunyavirus capsid and the RNA synthesis machineries (including both protein L and N) will also be discussed.

Abbreviations

BDV

Borna disease virus

BUNV

Bunyamwera virus

CCHFV

Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

cRNA

Complementary RNA or antigenomic RNA

EM

Electron microscopy

FluA

Influenza A virus

JCV

Jamestown Canyon virus

LACV

La Crosse virus

nt

Nucleotide

NTR

Nontranslated terminal region

OTU

Ovarian tumor-like protease motif

PTV

Punta Toro virus

RdRp

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

RNP

Ribonucleoprotein complex

RSV

Respiratory syncytial virus

RV

Rabies virus

RVFV

Rift Valley fever virus

SNV

Sin Nombre virus

TSWV

Tomato spotted wilt virus

UUKV

Uukuniemi virus

vRNA

Viral RNA or genomic RNA

VSV

Vesicular stomatitis virus

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Aaron Collier for critical reading of the manuscript. The authors are supported by grants C-1565 from the Welch Foundation and AI077785 from the National Institutes of Health.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Cell BiologyRice UniversityHoustonUSA

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