Advertisement

Malignant Thyroid Conditions

  • Ka Tak WongEmail author
  • Yolanda Y. P. Lee
  • Anil T. Ahuja
Chapter

Abstract

Thyroid nodules are a common clinical dilemma; however, the vast majority are benign. The clinical importance of thyroid nodules rests with the need to detect thyroid cancer, which occurs in 5–10%. The risk depends on factors including age, gender, history of radiation exposure and family history [1, 2].

Keywords

Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodule Papillary Carcinoma Follicular Carcinoma Thyroid Malignancy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material

24-Malignant nodule in diffuse multinodular goiter (6,757 KB)

25-Classic papillary carcinoma, transverse view(6,120 KB)

26-Classic papillary carcinoma, sagittal view (6,129 KB)

27-Large complex papillary carcinoma, transverse view (72,653 KB)

28-Large complex papillary carcinoma, sagittal view (70,874 KB)

29-Large papillary carcinoma with adjacent lymph node metast (6,329 KB)

30-Malignant intranodal vascularity (4,664 KB)

31-Microcalcifications in papillary carcinoma transverse vie (1,115 KB)

32-Microcalcifications in papillary carcinoma, sagittal view (1,115 KB)

33-Nodule with punctate hyperlucencies representing microcal (6,120 KB)

34-Papillary carcinoma demonstrating extracapsular extension (6,123 KB)

35-Papillary carcinoma, extracapsular extension, Power Doppl (6,723 KB)

36-Small nodule, 'taller than wide' representing papillary c (6,139 KB)

37-Small papillary carcinoma with adjacent lymph node metast (5,929 KB)

38-Prior left thyroid lobectomy for a benign lesion. Incide (80,510 KB)

39-Medullary carcinoma of thyroid gland with ipsilateral ce (61,445 KB)

40-Medullary carcinoma of thyroid gland. Note focal hyperlu (75,718 KB)

41-Metastatic medullary carcinoma to zone IV lymph nodes, tr (56,974 KB)

42-Metastatic medullary carcinoma to zone IV lymph nodes, sa (57,443 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    Hegedüs L. Clinical practice. The thyroid nodule. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:1764–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mandel SJ. A 64-year-old woman with a thyroid nodule. JAMA. 2004;292:2632–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Curtis RE, Rowlings PA, Deeg HJ, et al. Solid ­cancers after bone marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:897–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pacini F, Vorontsova T, Demidchik E, et al. Post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinoma in Belarus children and adolescents: comparison with naturally occurring thyroid carcinoma in Italy and France. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;81:3563–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    American Thyroid Association (ATA) Guidelines Taskforce on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Cooper DS, Doherty GM, Haugen BR, et al. Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid 2009;19:1167–1214.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boelaert K, Horacek J, Holder RL, Watkinson JC, Sheppard MC, Franklyn JA. Serum thyrotropin concentration as a novel predictor of malignancy in thyroid nodules investigated by fine-needle aspiration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:4295–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Walsh RM, Watkinson JC, Franklyn J. The management of the solitary thyroid nodule: a review. Clin Otolaryngol. 1999;24:388–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Campbell JP, Pillsbury HC. Management of the ­thyroid nodule. Head Neck. 1989;11:414–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ashcroft MW, Van Herle AJ. Management of ­thyroid nodules. II Scanning techniques, thyroid suppressive therapy, and fine needle aspiration. Head Neck Surg. 1981;3:297–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Task Force on Standards of Practice. Guidelines of the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology for examination of fine-needle aspiration specimens from ­thyroid nodules. Diagn Cytopathol. 1996;15:84–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sabel MS, Haque D, Velasco JM, Staren ED. Use of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in the management of thyroid disease. Am Surg. 1998;64:738–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hatada T, Okada K, Ishii H, Ichii S, Utsunomiya J. Evaluation of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration Biopsy for thyroid nodules. Am J Surg. 1998;175:133–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Newkirk KA, Ruigel MD, Jelinek J, et al. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and thyroid disease. Ootolaryngol Head Neck. 2000;123:700–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alexander EK, Heering JP, Benson CB, et al. Assessment of nondiagnostic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodules. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:4924–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kwak JY, Koo H, Youk JH, et al. Value of US correlation of a thyroid nodule with initially benign cytologic results. Radiology. 2010;254:292–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fatourechi V, Hay ID, Mullan BP, et al. Are post-therapy radioiodine scans informative and do they influence subsequent therapy of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer? Thyroid. 2000;10:573–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sherman SI, Tielens ET, Sostre S, Wharam Jr MD, Ladenson PW. Clinical utility of posttreatment radioiodine scans in the management of patients with thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994;78:629–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reynolds JC. Percent 131I uptake and post-therapy 131I scans: their role in the management of thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 1997;7:281–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mitchell JC, Grant F, Evenson AR, Parker JA, Hasselgren PO, Parangi S. Preoperative evaluation of thyroid nodules with 18FDG-PET/CT. Surgery. 2005;138:1166–74. discussion 1174–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    de Geus-Oei LF, Pieters GF, Bonenkamp JJ, et al. 18F-FDG PET reduces unnecessary hemithyroidectomies for thyroid nodules with inconclusive cytologic results. J Nucl Med. 2006;47:770–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kim JM, Ryu JS, Kim TY, et al. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography does not predict malignancy in thyroid nodules ­cytologically diagnosed as follicular neoplasm. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:1630–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sebastianes FM, Cerci JJ, Zanoni PH, et al. Role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in preoperative assessment of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:4485–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hales NW, Krempl GA, Medina JE. Is there a role for fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules? Am J Otolaryngol. 2008;29:113–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    King AD, Ahuja AT, To EWH, Tse GMK, Metreweli C. Staging of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: magnetic resonance imaging vs ultrasound of the neck. Clin Radiol. 2000;55:222–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yousem DM, Scheff AM. Thyroid and parathyroid. In: Som PM, Curtin HD, editors. Head and neck imaging. 3rd ed. St Louis: Mosby; 1996. p. 954–8.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mazzaferri EL. Managing small thyroid cancers. JAMA. 2006;295:2179–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Frates MC, Benson CB, Charboneau JW, et al. Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound. Management of thyroid nodules detected at US: Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound consensus conference statement. Radiology. 2005;237:794–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ross DS. Editorial: predicting thyroid malignancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:4253–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jemal A, Murray T, Ward E, et al. Cancer statistics, 2005. CA Cancer J Clin. 2005;55:10–30. Erratum in: CA Cancer J Clin 2005;55:259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Harach HR, Franssila KO, Wasenius VM. Occult papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. A “normal” finding in Finland. A systematic autopsy study. Cancer. 1985;56:531–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Are C, Hsu JF, Ghossein RA, Schoder H, Shah JP, Shaha AR. Histological aggressiveness of fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomogram (FDG-PET)-detected incidental thyroid carcinomas. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14:3210–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Papini E, Guglielmi R, Bianchini A, et al. Risk of malignancy in nonpalpable thyroid nodules: predictive value of ultrasound and color-Doppler features. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:1941–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hagag P, Strauss S, Weiss M. Role of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy in evaluation of nonpalpable thyroid nodules. Thyroid. 1998;8:989–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nam-Goong IS, Kim HY, Gong G, et al. Ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration of thyroid incidentaloma: correlation with pathological findings. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2004;60:21–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cronan JJ. Thyroid nodules: is it time to turn off the US machines? Radiology. 2008;247:602–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wong KT, Ahuja AT. Ultrasound of thyroid cancer. Cancer Imaging. 2005;5:157–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Frates MC, Benson CB, Doubilet PM, Cibas ES, Marqusee E. Can color Doppler sonography aid in the prediction of malignancy of thyroid nodules? J Ultrasound Med. 2003;22:127–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Khoo ML, Asa SL, Witterick IJ, Freeman JL. Thyroid calcification and its association with thyroid carcinoma. Head Neck. 2002;24:651–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kim EK, Park CS, Chung WY, Oh KK, Kim DI, Lee JT, et al. New sonographic criteria for recommending fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable solid nodules of the thyroid. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;178:687–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Peccin S, de Castsro JA, Furlanetto TW, Furtado AP, Brasil BA, Czepielewski MA. Ultrasonography: is it useful in the diagnosis of cancer in thyroid nodules? J Endocrinol Invest. 2002;25:39–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Appetecchia M, Solivetti FM. The association of colour flow Doppler sonography and conventional ultrasonography improves the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. Horm Res. 2006;66:249–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cappelli C, Castellano M, Pirola I, et al. The predictive value of ultrasound findings in the management of thyroid nodules. QJM. 2007;100:29–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Moon WJ, Jung SL, Lee JH, et al. Thyroid Study Group, Korean Society of Neuro- and Head and Neck Radiology. Benign and malignant thyroid nodules: US differentiation – multicenter retrospective study. Radiology. 2008;247:762–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rago T, Vitti P, Chiovato L, et al. Role of conventional ultrasonography and color flow-doppler sonography in predicting malignancy in ‘cold’ thyroid nodules. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998;138:41–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Brunese L, Romeo A, Iorio S, et al. A new marker for diagnosis of thyroid papillary cancer: B-flow twinkling sign. J Ultrasound Med. 2008;27: 1187–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cerbone G, Spiezia S, Colao A, et al. Power Doppler improves the diagnostic accuracy of color Doppler ultrasonography in cold thyroid nodules: follow-up results. Horm Res. 1999;52:19–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chan BK, Desser TS, McDougall IR, Weigel RJ, Jeffrey Jr RB. Common and uncommon sonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Ultrasound Med. 2003;22:1083–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Solbiati L, Cioffi V, Ballarati E. Ultrasonography of the neck. Radiol Clin North Am. 1992;30:941–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Varverakis E, Neonakis E, Tzardi M, Chrysos E. Role of color Doppler ultrasonography in the preoperative management of cold thyroid nodules. Hormones (Athens). 2007;6:44–51.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yuan WH, Chiou HJ, Chou YH, et al. Gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasonographic manifestations of papillary thyroid carcinoma: analysis of 51 cases. Clin Imaging. 2006;30:394–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Iannuccilli JD, Cronan JJ, Monchik JM. Risk for malignancy of thyroid nodules as assessed by sonographic criteria: the need for biopsy. J Ultrasound Med. 2004;23:1455–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fobbe F, Finke R, Reichenstein E, Schleusener H, Wolf KJ. Appearance of thyroid diseases using colour-coded duplex sonography. Eur J Radiol. 1989;9:29–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shimamoto K, Endo T, Ishigaki T, Sakuma S, Makino N. Thyroid nodules: evaluation with color Doppler ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med. 1993;12:673–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Spiezia S, Colao A, Assanti AP, et al. Usefulness of color echo Doppler with power Doppler in the diagnosis of hypoechoic thyroid nodules: work in progress. Radiol Med. 1996;91:616–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Stacul F, Bertolotto M, De Gobbis F, et al. US, colour-Doppler US and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Radiol Med. 2007;112:751–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Moon HJ, Kwak JY, Kim MJ, Son EJ, Kim EK. Can vascularity at power Doppler US help predict thyroid malignancy? Radiology. 2010;255:260–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Takashima S, Fukuda H, Nomura N, et al. Thyroid nodules: re-evaluation with ultrasound. J Clin Ultrasound. 1995;23:179–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cappelli C, Castellano M, Pirola I, et al. Thyroid nodule shape suggests malignancy. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;155:27–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Reading CC, Charboneau JW, Hay ID, Sebo TJ. Sonography of thyroid nodules: a “classic pattern” diagnostic approach. Ultrasound Q. 2005;21:157–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bonavita JA, Mayo J, Babb J, et al. Pattern recognition of benign nodules at ultrasound of the thyroid: which nodules can be left alone? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;193:207–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Frates MC, Benson CB, Doubilet PM, et al. Prevalence and distribution of carcinoma in patients with solitary and multiple thyroid nodules on sonography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:3411–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Moon WJ, Kwag HJ, Na DG. Are there any specific ultrasound findings of nodular hyperplasia (“leave me alone” lesion) to differentiate it from follicular adenoma? Acta Radiol. 2009;50:383–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ahuja A, Chick W, King W, Metreweli C. Clinical significance of the comet tail artifact in thyroid ultrasound. J Clin Ultrasound. 1996;24:129–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Horvath E, Majlis S, Rossi R, et al. An ultrasonogram reporting system for thyroid nodules stratifying cancer risk for clinical management. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:1748–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mihailescu DV, Schneider AB. Size, number, and distribution of thyroid nodules and the risk of malignancy in radiation-exposed patients who underwent surgery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:2188–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Alexander EK, Hurwitz S, Heering JP, et al. Natural history of benign solid and cystic thyroid nodules. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138:315–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Asanuma K, Kobayashi S, Shingu K, et al. The rate of tumour growth does not distinguish between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. Eur J Surg. 2001;167:102–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Papini E, Petrucci L, Guglielmi R, et al. Long-term changes in nodular goiter: a 5-year prospective randomized trial of levothyroxine suppressive therapy for benign cold thyroid nodules. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83:780–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ahn SS, Kim EK, Kang DR, Lim SK, Kwak JY, Kim MJ. Biopsy of thyroid nodules: comparison of three sets of guidelines. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;194:31–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gharib H, Papini E, Valcavi R, et al. AACE/AME Task Force on Thyroid Nodules. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and Associazione Medici Endocrinologi medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules. Endocr Pract. 2006;12:63–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Filetti S, Durante C, Torlontano M. Nonsurgical approaches to the management of thyroid nodules. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2006;2:384–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Quadbeck B, Pruellage J, Roggenbuck U, Hirche H, Janssen OE, Mann K, et al. Long-term follow-up of thyroid nodule growth. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2002;110:348–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Alexander EK, Marqusee E, Orcutt J, et al. Thyroid nodule shape and prediction of malignancy. Thyroid. 2004;14:953–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Roti E, degli Uberti EC, Bondanelli M, Braverman LE. Thyroid papillary microcarcinoma: a descriptive and meta-analysis study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008; 159: 659–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sugino K, Ito Jr K, Ozaki O, Mimura T, Iwasaki H, Ito K. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid. J Endocrinol Invest. 1998;21:445–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mazzaferri EL, de los Santos ET, Rofagha-Keyhani S. Solitary thyroid nodule: diagnosis and management. Med Clin North Am. 1988;72:1177–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Noguchi S, Yamashita H, Murakami N, Nakayama I, Toda M, Kawamoto H. Small carcinomas of the thyroid. A long-term follow-up of 867 patients. Arch Surg. 1996;131:187–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Berker D, Aydin Y, Ustun I, et al. The value of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in subcentimeter thyroid nodules. Thyroid. 2008;18:603–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wada N, Duh QY, Sugino K, et al. Lymph node metastasis from 259 papillary thyroid microcarcinomas: frequency, pattern of occurrence and recurrence, and optimal strategy for neck dissection. Ann Surg. 2003;237:399–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Cappelli C, Castellano M, Braga M, et al. Aggressiveness and outcome of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) versus microcarcinoma (PMC): a mono-institutional experience. J Surg Oncol. 2007; 95:555–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Popowicz B, Klencki M, Lewiński A, Słowińska-Klencka D. The usefulness of sonographic features in selection of thyroid nodules for biopsy in relation to the nodule’s size. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009;161:103–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lyshchik A, Drozd V, Demidchik Y, Reiners C. Diagnosis of thyroid cancer in children: value of gray-scale and power doppler US. Radiology. 2005;235:604–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mazzaferri EL, Sipos J. Should all patients with subcentimeter thyroid nodules undergo fine-needle aspiration biopsy and preoperative neck ultrasonography to define the extent of tumor invasion? Thyroid. 2008;18:597–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ito Y, Uruno T, Nakano K, et al. An observation trial without surgical treatment in patients with papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid. 2003;13:381–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kwak JY, Kim EK, Youk JH, et al. Extrathyroid extension of well-differentiated papillary thyroid microcarcinoma on US. Thyroid. 2008;18:609–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Koike E, Noguchi S, Yamashita H, et al. Ultrasonographic characteristics of thyroid nodules: prediction of malignancy. Arch Surg. 2001;136:334–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Solbiati L, Osti V, Cova L, Tonolini M. Ultrasound of thyroid, parathyroid glands and neck lymph nodes. Eur Radiol. 2001;11:2411–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kuma K, Matsuzuka F, Kobayashi A, et al. Outcome of long standing solitary thyroid nodules. World J Surg. 1992;16:583–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Komolafe F. Radiological patterns and significance of thyroid calcification. Clin Radiol. 1981;32: 571–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Taki S, Terahata S, Yamashita R, et al. Thyroid calcifications: sonographic patterns and incidence of cancer. Clin Imaging. 2004;28:368–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Yoon DY, Lee JW, Chang SK, et al. Peripheral calcification in thyroid nodules. J Ultrasound Med. 2007;26:1349–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kim BM, Kim MJ, Kim EK, et al. Sonographic differentiation of thyroid nodules with eggshell calcifications. J Ultrasound Med. 2008;27:1425–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Watters DA, Ahuja AT, Evans RM, et al. Role of ultrasound in the management of thyroid nodules. Am J Surg. 1992;164:654–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wienke JR, Chong WK, Fielding JR, Zou KH, Mittelstaedt CA. Sonographic features of benign thyroid nodules: interobserver reliability and overlap with malignancy. J Ultrasound Med. 2003;22: 1027–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Marqusee E, Benson CB, Frates MC, et al. Usefulness of ultrasonography in the management of nodular thyroid disease. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133:696–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hegedüs L, Bonnema SJ, Bennedbaek FN. Management of simple nodular goiter: current status and future perspectives. Endocr Rev. 2003;24: |102–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kunreuther E, Orcutt J, Benson CB, et al. Prevalence and distribution of carcinoma in the uninodular and multinodular goiter. Presented at the 76th Annual Meeting of the American Thyroid Association, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, September 29 – October 3, 2004.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Propper RA, Skolnick ML, Weinstein BJ, Dekker A. The nonspecificity of the thyroid halo sign. J Clin Ultrasound. 1980;8:129–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lu C, Chang TC, Hsiao YL, Kuo MS. Ultra­sonographic findings of papillary thyroid carcinoma and their relation to pathologic changes. J Formos Med Assoc. 1994;93:933–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hayashi N, Tamaki N, Yamamoto K, et al. Real-time ultrasonography of thyroid nodules. Acta Radiol Diagn (Stockh). 1986;27:403–8.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hoang JK, Lee WK, Lee M, Johnson D, Farrell S. US Features of thyroid malignancy: pearls and pitfalls. Radiographics. 2007;27:847–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Cappelli C, Pirola I, Cumetti D, et al. Is the anteroposterior and transverse diameter ratio of nonpalpable thyroid nodules a sonographic criteria for recommending fine-needle aspiration cytology? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005;63:689–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Stavros AT, Thickman D, Rapp CL, Dennis MA, Parker SH, Sisney GA. Solid breast nodules: use of sonography to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. Radiology. 1995;196:123–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Yoon SJ, Yoon DY, Chang SK, et al. “Taller-than-wide sign” of thyroid malignancy: comparison between ultrasound and CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;194:W420–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Brkljacić B, Cuk V, Tomić-Brzac H, Bence-Zigman Z, Delić-Brkljacić D, Drinković I. Ultrasonic evaluation of benign and malignant nodules in echographically multinodular thyroids. J Clin Ultrasound. 1994;22: 71–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lagalla R, Cariso G, Midiri M, Cardinale AE. Echo-Doppler couleru et pathologie thyroidienne. J Echograph Med Ultrasons. 1992;13:44–7.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Berni A, Tromba L, Falvo L, Marchesi M, Grilli P, Peparini N. Malignant thyroid nodules: comparison between color Doppler diagnosis and histological examination of surgical samples. Chir Ital. 2002;54: 643–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Tamsel S, Demirpolat G, Erdogan M, et al. Power Doppler US patterns of vascularity and spectral Doppler US parameters in predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules. Clin Radiol. 2007;62:245–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bakhshaee M, Davoudi Y, Mehrabi M, et al. Vascular pattern and spectral parameters of power Doppler ultrasound as predictors of malignancy risk in thyroid nodules. Laryngoscope. 2008;118: 2182–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    De Nicola H, Szejnfeld J, Logullo AF, Wolosker AM, Souza LR, Chiferi Jr V. Flow pattern and vascular resistive index as predictors of malignancy risk in thyroid follicular neoplasms. J Ultrasound Med. 2005;24:897–904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Levine RA. Doppler ultrasound. In: Baskin HJ, Duick DS, Levine RA, editors. Thyroid ultrasound and ultrasound-guided FNA. 2nd ed. New York: Springer Science; 2008. p. 30–5.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Levine RA. Value of Doppler ultrasonography in management of patients with follicular thyroid biopsy specimens. Endocr Pract. 2006;12:270–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ahuja AT, Ying M, Ho SY, Antonio G, Lee YP, King AD, et al. Ultrasound of malignant cervical lymph nodes. Cancer Imaging. 2008;8:48–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Leboulleux S, Girard E, Rose M, et al. Ultrasound criteria of malignancy for cervical lymph nodes in patients followed up for differentiated thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:3590–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kuna SK, Bracic I, Tesic V, et al. Ultrasonographic differentiation of benign from malignant neck lymphadenopathy in thyroid cancer. J Ultrasound Med. 2006;25:1531–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kessler A, Rappaport Y, Blank A, Marmor S, Weiss J, Graif M. Cystic appearance of cervical lymph nodes is characteristic of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Ultrasound. 2003;31:21–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    McGregor GI, Luomo A, Jackson SM. Lymph node metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer: a clinical review. Am J Surg. 1985;149:610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hamberger B, Gharib H, Melton 3rd LJ, Goellner JR, Zinsmeister AR. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules. Impact on thyroid practice and cost of care. Am J Med. 1982;73:381–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Mittendorf EA, Tamarkin SW, McHenry CR. The results of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy for evaluation of nodular thyroid disease. Surgery. 2002;132:648–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Jemal A, Murray T, Ward E, et al. Cancer statistics, 2008. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008;58:71–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Bruneton JN, Normand F. Thyroid gland. In: Bruneton JN, editor. Ultrasonography of the neck. Berlin: Springer; 1987. p. 22–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Rustgi AK. Hereditary gastrointestinal polyposis and nonpolyposis syndromes. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:1694–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    LiVolsi VA. Pathology of thyroid disease. In: Flak SA, editor. Thyroid disease: endocrinology, surgery, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1997. p. 70–5.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Chow SM, Chan JK, Law SC, et al. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma – clinical ­features and outcome. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2003;29: 446–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Carcangiu ML, Bianchi S. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Clinicopathologic study of 15 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 1989;13:1041–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Fujimoto Y, Obara T, Ito Y, Kodama T, Aiba M, Yamaguchi K. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Clinical importance, surgical treatment, and follow-up study. Cancer. 1990;66:2306–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Lam AK, Lo CY. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: a 35-year comparative study at a single institution. Ann Surg Oncol. 2006;13:176–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Vickery Jr AL, Carcangiu ML, Johannessen JV, Sobrinho-Simoes M. Papillary carcinoma. Semin Diagn Pathol. 1985;2:90–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lee JY, Shin JH, Han BK, et al. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: imaging and cytologic findings. Thyroid. 2007;17:567–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Filie AC, Chiesa A, Bryant BR, Merino MJ, Sobel ME, Abati A. The Tall cell variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: cytologic features and loss of heterozygosity of metastatic and/or recurrent neoplasms and primary neoplasms. Cancer. 1999;87:238–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Prendiville S, Burman KD, Ringel MD, et al. Tall cell variant: an aggressive form of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000;122:352–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ostrowski ML, Merino MJ. Tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a reassessment and immunohistochemical study with comparison to the usual type of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Am J Surg Pathol. 1996;20:964–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Putti TC, Bhuiya TA. Mixed columnar cell and tall cell variant of papillary carcinoma of thyroid: a case report and review of the literature. Pathology. 2000;32:286–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Jayaram G. Cytology of columnar-cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol. 2000;22:227–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Sobrinho-Simões M, Nesland JM, Johannessen JV. Columnar-cell carcinoma. Another variant of poorly differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid. Am J Clin Pathol. 1988;89:264–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ahuja AT. The thyroid and parathyroids. In: Ahuja AT, Evans RM, editors. Practical head and neck ultrasound. London: Greenwich Medical Media Limited; 2000. p. 35–64.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Solbiati L, Livraghi T, Ballarati E, Ierace T, Crespi L. Thyroid gland. In: Solbiati L, Rizzatto G, editors. Ultrasound of superficial structures. London: Churchill Livingstone; 1995. p. 49–85.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Simeone JF, Daniels GH, Mueller PR, et al. High resolution real time sonography of the thyroid. Radiology. 1982;145:431–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Solbiati L, Volterrani L, Rizzatto G, et al. The thyroid gland with low uptake lesions: evaluation with ultrasound. Radiology. 1985;155:187–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Noyek AM, Finkelstein DM, Witterick IJ, Kirsch JC. Diagnostic imaging of the thyroid gland. In: Falk SA, editor. Thyroid disease: endocrinology, surgery, nuclear medicine, and radiotherapy. New York: Raven Press; 1997. p. 137–9.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    McIvor NP, Freeman JL, Salem S. Ultrasonography of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 1993;55:303–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Kim HS, Han BK, Shin JH, et al. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of a diffuse sclerosing variant: ultrasonographic monitoring from a normal thyroid gland to mass formation. Korean J Radiol. 2010;11:579–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ahuja AT, Chow L, Chick W, et al. Metastatic cervical nodes in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: ultrasound and histological correlation. Clin Radiol. 1995;50:229–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    DeMay RM. Follicular lesions of the thyroid. W(h)ither follicular carcinoma? Am J Clin Pathol. 2000;114:681–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Baloch ZW, LiVolsi VA. Our approach to follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid. J Clin Pathol. 2007;60:244–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Greaves TS, Olvera M, Florentine BD, et al. Follicular lesions of thyroid: a 5-year fine-needle aspiration experience. Cancer. 2000;90:335–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Saggiorato E, De Pompa R, Volante M, et al. Characterization of thyroid ‘follicular neoplasms’ in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2005;12:305–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Tombouret R, Szefelbein WM, Pitman MB. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid. Cancer. 1999;87:299–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Williams ED, Doinach I, Bjanarson O, Michie W. Thyroid cancer in an iodide rich area. Cancer. 1977;39:215–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Lang W, Choritz H, Hundeshagen H. Risk factors in follicular thyroid carcinomas. A retrospective follow-up study covering a 14-year period with emphasis on morphological findings. Am J Surg Pathol. 1986;10:246–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Lin JD, Hsueh C, Chao TC, Weng JF, Huang BY. Thyroid follicular neoplasms diagnosed by high-resolution ultrasonography with fine needle aspiration cytology. Acta Cytol. 1997;41:687–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Iared W, Shigueoka DC, Cristófoli JC, et al. Use of color Doppler ultrasonography for the prediction of malignancy in follicular thyroid neoplasms: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Ultrasound Med. 2010;29:419–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Bondeson L, Bondeson AG, Ljungberg O, Tibblin S. Oxyphil tumors of the thyroid: follow-up of 42 surgical cases. Ann Surg. 1981;194:677–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Caplan RH, Abellera RM, Kisken WA. Hürthle cell tumors of the thyroid gland. A clinicopathologic review and long-term follow-up. JAMA. 1984;251:3114–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Chesky VE, Dreese WC, Hellwig CA. Hürthle cell tumors of the thyroid gland: a report on 25 cases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1951;11:1535–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Frazell EL, Duffy Jr BJ. Hürthle-cell cancer of the thyroid; a review of forty cases. Cancer. 1951;4:952–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Gosain AK, Clark OH. Hürthle cell neoplasms. Malignant potential. Arch Surg. 1984;119:515–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Horn Jr RC. Hürthle-cell tumors of the thyroid. Cancer. 1954;7:234–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Saull SC, Kimmelman CP. Hürthle cell tumors of the thyroid gland. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1985;93:58–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Phitayakorn R, McHenry CR. Follicular and Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2006;15:603–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Thompson NW, Dunn EL, Batsakis JG, Nishiyama RH. Hürthle cell lesions of the thyroid gland. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1974;139:555–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Gundry SR, Burney RE, Thompson NW, Lloyd R. Total thyroidectomy for Hürthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid. Arch Surg. 1983;118:529–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Yutan E, Clark OH. Hürthle cell carcinoma. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2001;2:331–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Tollefsen HR, Shah JP, Huvos AG. Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid. Am J Surg. 1975;130:390–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Chiacchio S, Lorenzoni A, Boni G, Rubello D, Elisei R, Mariani G. Anaplastic thyroid cancer: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment. Minerva Endocrinol. 2008;33:341–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Are C, Shaha AR. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: biology, pathogenesis, prognostic factors, and treatment approaches. Ann Surg Oncol. 2006;13:453–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Takashima S, Morimoto S, Ikezoe J, et al. CT evaluation of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Am J Roentgenol. 1990;154:61–3.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Compagno J. Diseases of the thyroid. In: Barnes L, editor. Surgical pathology of the head and neck. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1985. p. 1435–86.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    LiVolsi VA. Calcitonin: the hormone and its significance. Prog Surg Pathol. 1980;1:71–103.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Steiner AL, Goodman AD, Powers SR. Study of a kindred with pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma, hyperparathyroidism and Cushing’s disease: multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 2. Medicine (Baltimore). 1968;47:371–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    LiVolsi VA. Medullary carcinoma. In: LiVolsi VA, editor. Surgical pathology of the thyroid. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co.; 1990. p. 217–20.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Hazard JB, The C. Cells (parafollicular cells) of the thyroid gland and medullary thyroid carcinoma. A review. Am J Pathol. 1977;88:213–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Mendelsohn G, Eggleston JC, Weisburger WR, Gann DS, Baylin SB. Calcitonin and histaminase in C-cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid carcinoma. A light microscopic and immunohistochemical study. Am J Pathol. 1978;92:35–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Wolfe HJ, Melvin KE, Cervi-Skinner SJ, et al. C-cell hyperplasia preceding medullary thyroid carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1973;289:437–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Aliapoulios MA, Kacoyanis GP. Primary and metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Determination of thyrocalcitonin content by bioassay. Arch Surg. 1973;106:105–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Deftos LJ. Radioimmunoassay for calcitonin in medullary thyroid carcinoma. JAMA. 1974;227:403–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Dubé WJ, Bell GO, Aliapoulios MA. Thyrocalcitonin activity in metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Further evidence for its parafollicular cell origin. Arch Intern Med. 1969;123:423–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Rosai J, Carcangiu ML, DeLellis RA. Tumors of the thyroid gland. Atlas of tumor pathology. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1992. p. 207–9.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Kebebew E, Ituarte PH, Siperstein AE, Duh QY, Clark OH. Medullary thyroid carcinoma: clinical characteristics, treatment, prognostic factors, and a comparison of staging systems. Cancer. 2000;88:1139–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Pelizzo MR, Boschin IM, Bernante P, et al. Natural history, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of medullary thyroid cancer: 37 years experience on 157 patients. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2007;33:493–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Roman S, Lin R, Sosa JA. Prognosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma: demographic, clinical, and pathologic predictors of survival in 1252 cases. Cancer. 2006;107:2134–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Lee S, Shin JH, Han BK, Ko EY. Medullary thyroid carcinoma: comparison with papillary thyroid carcinoma and application of current sonographic criteria. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;194:1090–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Anscombe AM, Wright DH. Primary malignant lymphoma of the thyroid – a tumour of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue: review of seventy-six cases. Histopathology. 1985;9:81–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Burke JS, Butler JJ, Fuller LM. Malignant lymphomas of the thyroid. Cancer. 1977;39:1587–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Sakamoto A, Kasai N, Sugano H. Poorly differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid. A clinicopathologic entity for a high-risk group of papillary and follicular carcinomas. Cancer. 1983;52:1849–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Carcangiu ML, Zampi G, Rosai J. Poorly differentiated (“insular”) thyroid carcinoma. A reinterpretation of Langhans’ “wuchernde Struma”. Am J Surg Pathol. 1984;8:655–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Papotti M, Botto Micca F, Favero A, Palestini N, Bussolati G. Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas with primordial cell component. A group of aggressive lesions sharing insular, trabecular, and solid patterns. Am J Surg Pathol. 1993;17: 291–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Burman KD, Ringel MD, Wartofsky L. Unusual types of thyroid neoplasms. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1996;25:49–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Johnson NA, Tublin ME. Postoperative surveillance of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: rationale, techniques, and controversies. Radiology. 2008;249:429–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Schlumberger M, Berg G, Cohen O, et al. Follow-up of low-risk patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a European perspective. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004;150:105–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Toubeau M, Touzery C, Arveux P, et al. Predictive value for disease progression of serum thyroglobulin levels measured in the postoperative period and after (131)I ablation therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. J Nucl Med. 2004;45:988–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Rouxel A, Hejblum G, Bernier MO, et al. Prognostic factors associated with the survival of patients developing loco-regional recurrences of differentiated thyroid carcinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:5362–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Wenig BM, Thompson LD, Adair CF, Shmookler B, Heffess CS. Thyroid papillary carcinoma of columnar cell type: a clinicopathologic study of 16 cases. Cancer. 1998;82:740–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Akslen LA, LiVolsi VA. Prognostic significance of histologic grading compared with subclassification of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Cancer. 2000;88:1902–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Kim TY, Kim WB, Kim ES, et al. Serum thyro­globulin levels at the time of 131I remnant ablation just after thyroidectomy are useful for early prediction of clinical recurrence in low-risk patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:1440–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Aygun N. Imaging of recurrent thyroid cancer. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2008;41:1095–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Lind P, Kohlfürst S. Respective roles of thyroglobulin, radioiodine imaging, and positron emission tomography in the assessment of thyroid cancer. Semin Nucl Med. 2006;36:194–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Sheth S, Hamper UM. Role of sonography after total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer. Ultrasound Q. 2008;24:147–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Shin JH, Han BK, Ko EY, Kang SS. Sonographic findings in the surgical bed after thyroidectomy: comparison of recurrent tumors and nonrecurrent lesions. J Ultrasound Med. 2007;26:1359–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Wong KT, Choi FP, Lee YY, Ahuja AT. Current role of radionuclide imaging in differentiated thyroid cancer. Cancer Imaging. 2008;8:159–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ka Tak Wong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yolanda Y. P. Lee
    • 2
  • Anil T. Ahuja
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Imaging and Interventional RadiologyPrince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong KongShatin, NTHong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Imaging & Interventional RadiologyPrince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong KongShatin, NTHong Kong
  3. 3.Department of Imaging and Interventional RadiologyThe Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales HospitalShatin (NT)Hong Kong (SAR), China

Personalised recommendations