In rapidly urbanized and dense cities public parks, open green spaces, and recreational infrastructure have been associated with physical and mental health, quality of life (Sarmiento etal., 2010), promotion of healthy life style, and social, economic, and environmental benefits (Li, Wang, Paulussen, & Liu, 2005; Coley, Kuo, & Sullivan, 1997). Urban parks promote healthy lifestyles including physical activity (Gómez etal.2010a, 2010b; Humpel, Owen, & Leslie, 2002; Bedimo-Rung, Mowen, & Cohen, 2005), contributing to the prevention of chronic diseases (Andersen, Schnohr, Schroll, & Hein, 2000; Cohen et al., 2007; Yancey et al., 2007; Floyd, Spengler, Maddock, Gobster, & Suau, 2008). In addition, urban parks also offer communities a space to socialize (Gobster, 1998; Seeland, Dübendorfer, & Hansmann, 2009), experience nature, relax, and even contribute to climate stabilization (Chiesura, 2004; Nilsson etal., 2007 del Saz & García, 2007).
Multiobjective Optimization Facility Location Service Area Negative Externality Connectivity Index
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The authors would like to thank the contributions of Liliana Ospina (team leader), Janneth Segura, Libia Martínez, Diego Cala, and Diana Restrepo, planners from the Gerencia de Equipamientos Deportivos y Recreativos (Office of Sports and Recreation Facilities of Bogotá) at IDRD. We would also like to thank Olga Silva and Diego Montero from IDRD’s Construction Office; and to Liliana Ricardo and Rafael Sáenz from the Public Space Committee. We are grateful with Jose David Pinzón from Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano for his advice on ArcGIS. We thank Fair Isaac Corporation (FICO) for providing us with Xpress-MP licenses under the Academic Partner Program subscribed with Universidad de los Andes. Finally, we thank the Departamento Nacional de Planeación – DNP (the Colombian Planning Department) for their financial support under DNP’s 50th Anniversary Essay Competition. The constructive comments of the book editor, Prof. Michael Johnson, and two anonymous reviewers greatly improved the chapter.
Alves, M.J., & Clímaco, J. (2007). A review of interactive methods for multiobjective integer and mixed-integer programming. European Journal of Operational Research, 180(1), 99–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andersen, L.B., Schnohr, P., Schroll, M., & Hein, H.O. (2000). All-cause mortality associated with physical activity during leisure time, work, sports, and cycling to work. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160(11), 1621–1628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Badri, M.A., Mortagy, A.K., & Alsayed, A. (1998). A multi-objective model for locating fire stations. European Journal of Operational Research, 110(2), 243–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bedimo-Rung, A.L., Mowen, A.J., & Cohen, D.A. (2005). The significance of parks to physical activity and public health: A conceptual model. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(2S2), 159–168.Google Scholar
Boffey, B., Yates, D., & Galvão, R.D. (2003). An algorithm to locate perinatal facilities in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. Journal of Operations Research Society, 54(1), 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brans, J.-P., Vincke, P., & Mareschal, B. (1986). How to select and how to rank projects: The PROMETHEE method. European Journal of Operational Research, 24(2), 228–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chankong, V. & Haimes, Y.Y. (1983). Multiobjective decision making: Theory and methodology. New York.Google Scholar
Chiesura, A. (2004). The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landscape and Urban Planning, 68(1), 129–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, D.A., McKenzie, T.L., Sehgal, A., Williamson, S., Golinelli, D., & Lurie, N. (2007). Contribution of public parks to physical activity. American Journal of Public Health, 97(3), 509–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coley, R.L., Kuo, F.E., & Sullivan, W.C. (1997). Where does community grow? The social context created by nature in urban public housing. Environment and Behavior, 29(4), 468–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daskin, M.S. (2008). What you should know about location modeling. Naval Research Logistics, 55(4), 283–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dekle, J., Lavieri, M.S., Martin, E., Emir-Farinas, H., & Francis, R.L. (2005). A Florida county locates disaster recovery centers. Interfaces, 35(2), 133–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
del Saz, S. & García, L. (2007). Estimating the non-market benefits of an urban park: Does proximity matter? Land Use Policy, 24(1), 296–305.Google Scholar
Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística deColombia (DANE). (2007). Proyecciones nacionales y departamentales de población 2006–2020 (National and regional population trends 2006–2020). http://www.dane.gov.co. Accessed 16 Feb 2009.
Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística deColombia (DANE). (2010). Proyecciones de población de Bogotá 2006–2015 (Bogotá’s population trends 2006–2015). http://www.dane.gov.co. Accessed 22 June 2010.
Environmental Sciences ResearchInstitute (ESRI) (2004). ArcGIS 9: Getting started with ArcGIS. ESRI Press, Redlands, CA.Google Scholar
Erkip, F. (1997). The distribution of urban public services: The case of parks and recreational services in Ankara. Cities, 14(6), 353–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faghri, A., Lang, A., Hamad, K., & Henck, H. (2002). Integrated knowledge-based geographic information system for determining optimal location of park-and-ride facilities. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 128(1), 18–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farahani, R.Z., SteadieSeifi, M., & Asgari, N. (2010). Multiple criteria facility location problems: A survey. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 34(7), 1689–1709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farhan, B. & Murray, A.T. (2008). Siting park-and-ride facilities using a multi-objective spatial optimization model. Computers and Operations Research, 35(2), 445–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Floyd, M.F., Spengler, J.O., Maddock, J.E., Gobster, P.H., & Suau, L.J. (2008). Park-based physical activity in diverse communities of two U.S. cities: An observational study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34(4), 299–305.Google Scholar
Galvão, R.D., Acosta-Espejo, L.G., & Boffey, B. (2002). hierarchical model for the location of perinatal facilities in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. European Journal of Operational Research, 138(3), 495–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gobster, P.H. (1998). Urban parks as green walls or green magnets? Interracial relations in neighborhood boundary parks. Landscape and Urban Planning, 41(1), 43–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goicoechea, A., Hansen, D.R., & Duckstein, L. (1982). Multiobjective decision analysis with engineering and business applications. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
Gómez, L.F., Parra, D.C., Buchner, D., Brownson, R., Sarmiento, O.L., Pinzón, J.D., et al., (2010a). Built environment attributes and walking patterns among the elderly population in Bogotá. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38(6), 592–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gómez, L.F., Sarmiento, O.L., Parra, D.C., Schmid, T., Pratt, M., Jacoby, E., et al. (2010b). Characteristics of the built environment associated with leisure-time physical activity among adults in Bogotá, Colombia: A multilevel study. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 7(2), S193–S203.Google Scholar
Horner, M.W. & Grubesic, T.H. (2001). A GIS-based planning approach to locating urban rail terminals. Transportation, 28(1), 55–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Humpel, N., Owen, N., & Leslie, E. (2002). Environmental factors associated with adults’ participation in physical activity: A review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22(3), 188–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaczynski, A.T. & Henderson, K.A. (2007). Environmental correlates of physical activity: A review of evidence about parks and recreation. Leisure Sciences, 29(4), 315–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaczynski, A.T., Potwarka, L.R., & Saelens, B.E. (2008). Association of park size, distance, and features with physical activity in neighborhood parks. American Journal of Public Health, 98(8), 1451–1456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keeney, R.L. & Raiffa, H. (1993). Decisions with multiple objectives: Preferences and value tradeoffs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Kim, D.G. & Kim, Y.D. (2010). A branch and bound algorithm for determining locations of long-term care facilities. European Journal of Operational Research, 206(1), 168–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, F., Wang, R., Paulussen, J., & Liu, X. (2005). Comprehensive concept planning of urban greening based on ecological principles: A case study in Beijing, China. Landscape and Urban Planning, 72(4), 325–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macintyre, S., Macdonald, L., & Ellaway, A. (2008). Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland. Social Science and Medicine, 67(7), 900–914.Google Scholar
Majid, I., Sinden, J.A., & Randall, A. (1983). Benefit evaluation of increments to existing systems of public facilities (Australia). Land Economics, 59(4), 377–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marsh, M.T. & Schilling, D.A. (1994). Equity measurement in facility location analysis: A review and framework. European Journal of Operational Research, 74(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Medaglia, A.L., Hueth, D., Mendieta, J.C., & Sefair, J.A. (2008). Multiobjective model for the selection and timing of public enterprise projects. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 42(1), 31–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Medaglia, A.L., Villegas, J.G., & Rodríguez-Coca, D.M. (2009). Hybrid biobjective evolutionary algorithms for the design of a hospital waste management network. Journal of Heuristics, 15(2), 153–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mladenka, K.R. & Hill, K.Q. (1977). The distribution of benefits in an urban environment: Parks and libraries in Houston. Urban Affairs Review, 13(1), 73–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mowen, A., Orsega-Smith, E., Payne, L., Ainsworth, B., & Godbey, G. (2007). The role of park proximity and social support in shaping park visitation, physical activity, and perceived health among older adults. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 4(2), 167–179.Google Scholar
Neema, M.N. & Ohgai, A. (2010). Multi-objective location modeling of urban parks and open spaces: continuous optimization. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 34(5), 359–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nicholls, S. & Shafer, C.S. (2001). Measuring accessibility and equity in a local park system: The utility of geospatial technologies to park and recreation professionals. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 19(4), 102–124.Google Scholar
Nilsson, K., Åkerlund, U., Konijnendijk, C.C., Alekseev, A., Caspersen, O.H., Guldager, S., et al. (2007). Implementing urban greening aid projects - the case of St. Petersburg, Russia. Urban Forest and Urban Greening, 6(2), 93–101.Google Scholar
Oh, K. & Jeong, S. (2007). Assessing the spatial distribution of urban parks using GIS. Landscape and Urban Planning, 82(1–2), 25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Owen, S.H. & Daskin, M.S. (1998). Strategic facility location: A review. European Journal of Operational Research, 111(3), 423–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parra, D., Gómez, L., Pratt, M., Sarmiento, O.L., Mosquera, J., & Triche, E. (2007). Policy and built environment changes in Bogotá and their importance in health promotion. Indoor and Built Environment, 16(4), 344–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ReVelle, C.S. & Eiselt, H.A. (2005). Location analysis: A synthesis and survey. European Journal of Operational Research, 165(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ReVelle, C.S., Eiselt, H.A., & Daskin, M.S. (2008). A bibliography for some fundamental problem categories in discrete location science. European Journal of Operational Research, 184(3), 817–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roy, B. (1996). Multicriteria methodology for decision aiding. Dordrecht, Netherlands; Boston, Mass.: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
Saaty, T.L. (1980). The analytic hierarchy process. New York; London: McGraw-Hill International Book Co., c1980.Google Scholar
Sarmiento, O.L., Schmid, T., Parra, D.C., del Castillo, A.D., Gómez, L.F., Pratt, M., et al. (2010). Quality of life, physical activity, and built environment characteristics among colombian adults. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 7(2), 181–195.Google Scholar
Secretaria Distrital de Hacienda de Bogotá – Bogotá’s Secretaryof Finance (2009). Población por UPZ en los niveles 1 a 3 del SISBEN (Distribution of low-income population by UPZ). http://www.shd.gov.co. Accessed 22 June 2010.
Secretaria Distrital de Hacienda de Bogotá – Bogotá’s Secretaryof Finance (2010). Sistema de Información de Estadísticas Comparadas – SIEC (Repository of comparative statistics). http://www.shd.gov.co. Accessed 14 Nov 2010.
Seeland, K., Dübendorfer, S., & Hansmann, R. (2009). Making friends in Zurich’s urban forests and parks: The role of public green space for social inclusion of youths from different cultures. Forest Policy and Economics, 11(1), 10–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steuer, R. (1989). Multiple criteria optimization: Theory, computation and application. Malabar, Fla.: Krieger, 1989.Google Scholar
Tajibaeva, L., Haight, R.G., & Polasky, S. (2008). A discrete-space urban model with environmental amenities. Resource and Energy Economics, 30(2), 170–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Triantaphyllou, E. (2000). Multi-criteria decision making methods: A comparative study, volume44 of Applied Optimization Series. Dordrecht; Boston, Mass.: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.Google Scholar
United Nations. (2007). World urbanization prospects: The 2007 revision (urban agglomerations). http://www.unpopulation.org. Accessed 16 Feb 2009.
Villegas, J.G., Palacios, F., & Medaglia, A.L. (2007). Solution methods for the bi-objective (cost-coverage) unconstrained facility location problem with an illustrative example. Annals of Operations Research, 147(1), 109–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yancey, A.K., Fielding, J.E., Flores, G.R., Sallis, J.F., McCarthy, W.J., & Breslow, L. (2007). Creating a robust public health infrastructure for physical activity promotion. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32(1), 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zucca, A., Sharifi, A.M., & Fabbri, A.G. (2008). Application of spatial multi-criteria analysis to site selection for a local park: A case study in the Bergamo Province, Italy. Journal of Environmental Management, 88(4), 752–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar