Invariant NKT Cell-Based Vaccine Strategies
The success of vaccination strategies depends on the efficient generation of appropriate antigen-specific T- and B-cell responses. The unique position of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells at the interface of the innate and adaptive immune systems and their ability to direct the maturation of dendritic cells and B cells offers the possibility of harnessing them to “jump-start” the antigen-specific immune response to both microbial pathogen and tumor antigens. In this chapter, we explore the development of pharmacological agents that when used in vaccination strategies as adjuvants to antigenic proteins are able to activate iNKT cells which then augment antigen-specific T- and B-cell responses. In addition, we consider the future directions and challenges in translating these findings from experimental data obtained in mice to use in the clinic.
KeywordsDendritic Cell iNKT Cell Vaccination Strategy Dendritic Cell Maturation Invariant Natural Killer
The authors thank Moira Johnson for editorial advice and assistance. J.-P. J. is supported by a program grant from The Wellcome Trust. J.S. and M.S. are supported by CRUK (program grant and ECMC stream). Research in the Human Immunology Unit is supported by the Medical Research Council.
- Fujii S, Shimizu K, Smith C et al (2003) Activation of natural killer T cells by alpha-galactosylceramide rapidly induces the full maturation of dendritic cells in vivo and thereby acts as an adjuvant for combined CD4 and CD8 T cell immunity to a coadministered protein. J Exp Med 198: 267–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zajonc DM, Cantu C, 3 rd, Mattner J et al (2005) Structure and function of a potent agonist for the semi-invariant natural killer T cell receptor. Nat Immunol 6: 810–818.Google Scholar