Networked Learning: A Brief History and New Trends

  • David McConnell
  • Vivien Hodgson
  • Lone Dirckinck-Holmfeld
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter looks at the history, meaning and development of networked learning and how it has developed in both the UK and Denmark, as well as in other parts of Europe and the USA. Networked learning is an approach that takes a critical and inquiring perspective, and focuses on the potential of information and communication technology to support connections and collaboration. The chapter examines how networked learning has largely been influenced by an understanding of developments in technology to support learning alongside thinking stemming from the traditions of open learning and other radical pedagogies. The philosophical and pedagogical roots of networked learning are explained, and the development of the Networked Learning Conference is outlined, indicating its pivotal position in our understanding of this form of learning and teaching. The impact on networked learning of Web 2.0 is also examined, showing how it may provide the support for a shift in learning infrastructure and bring networked learning out of the research lab and into practice, providing many different learning designs. The conclusion is that the various scholars and practices associated with networked learning have an identifiable educational philosophy. The chapter also provides a brief summary of the overall structure of the book

References

  1. Beaty, E., Cousin, G., & Hodgson, V. (2010). Revisiting the e-quality in networked learning manifesto. In Dirckinck-Holmfeld, L., Hodgson, V., Jones, C., McConnell, D., & Ryberg, T. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Networked Learning 2010. Aalborg, Denmark: Aalborg University. ISBN978-1-86220-225-2.Google Scholar
  2. Boot, R., & Hodgson, V. (1987). Open learning: Meaning and experience. In V. Hodgson, S. Mann, & R. Snell (Eds.), Beyond distance teaching: Towards open learning (pp. 5–15). Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Castells, M. (2000). The rise of the network society (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  4. Coffey, J. (1977). Open learning opportunities for mature students. In C. Davies (Ed.), Open learning systems for mature students, CET Working Paper 14. London: Council for Educational Technology.Google Scholar
  5. Coto, M. C. (2010). Designing for change in university teaching practices. A community of practice approach to facilitate university teacher professional development in ICT and project-oriented problem pedagogy. PhD thesis, Department of Communication and Psychology, Aalborg University, Aalborg.Google Scholar
  6. Cousin, G., & Deepwell, F. (2005). Designs for network learning: A communities of practice perspective. Studies in Higher Education, 30(1), 57–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Danielsen, O., Dirckinck-holmfeld, L., Sørensen, B. H., Nielsen, J., & Fibiger, B. (1999). Læring og multimedier [Learning and multimedia]. Aalborg: Aalborg University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of education (1966 edn). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  9. Dirckinck-Holmfeld, L. (1990). Kommunikation på trods og på tværs [Project pedagogy and computer-mediated communication in distance education] Dissertation, Aalborg University, Aalborg.Google Scholar
  10. Dirckinck-Holmfeld, L. (1995). Tilbage til praksis [Back to practice]. Humaniora, 9(2), 25–27.Google Scholar
  11. Dirckinck-Holmfeld, L. (2002). Designing virtual learning environments based on problem oriented project pedagogy. In L. Dirckinck-Holmfeld & B. Fibiger (Eds.), Learning in virtual environments (pp. 31–54). Frederiksberg C: Samfundslitteraturess.Google Scholar
  12. Dirckinck-Holmfeld, L., & Fibiger, B. (Eds.). (2002). Learning in virtual environments. Frederiksberg C: Samfundslitteratur.Google Scholar
  13. Dirckinck-Holmfeld, L., Jones, C., & Lindström, B. (Eds.). (2009). Analysing networked learning practices in higher education and continuing professional development. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  14. Emms, J., & McConnell, D. (1988). An evaluation of tutorial support provided by electronic mail and computer conferencing. Aspects of Educational Technology, 21, 263–270.Google Scholar
  15. E-Quality Network (2002). Towards e-quality in networked e-learning in higher education ‘manifesto. Presented at the Networked Learning 2002 Conference, Sheffield. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from http://csalt.lancs.ac.uk/esrc/manifesto.htm
  16. Ferreday, D. J., Hodgson, V. E., & Jones, C. (2006). Dialogue, language and identity: Critical issues for networked management learning. Studies in Continuing Education, 28(3), 223–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fjuk, A., & Dirckinck-Holmfeld, L. (1997). Articulation of actions in distributed collaborative learning. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, 9(2), 3–24.Google Scholar
  18. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continum.Google Scholar
  19. Giroux, H. (1992). Border crossings: Cultural workers and the politics of education. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Goodyear, P. (2001). Effective networked learning in higher education notes and guidelines. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from http://csalt.lancs.ac.uk/jisc/
  21. Goodyear, P., Banks, S., Hodgson, V., & McConnell, D. (2004). Research on networked learning: An overview. In P. Goodyear, S. Banks, V. Hodgson, & D. McConnell (Eds.), Advances in research on networked learning. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  22. Goodyear, P., & Steeples, C. (1992). IT-based open learning tasks and tools. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 8(3), 163–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harris, D. (1987). Openness and closure in distance education. Lewes: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  24. Hiltz, S. R. (1990). Evaluating the virtual classroom. In L. Harasim (Ed.), Online education: Perspectives on a new environment. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  25. Hiltz, S. R., & Turoff, M. (1978). The network nation: Human communication via computer (1st ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  26. Hodgson, V., & Fox, S. (1995). Understanding networked learning communities. In P. Held & W. F. Kugemann (Eds.), Telematics for education and training. Proceedings of Delta 94 Conference, Dusseldorf, Germany.Google Scholar
  27. Hodgson, V., Lewis, R., & McConnell, D. (1989). IT-based open learning: A study report. ESRC InTER Programme Occasional Paper 12/89, Lancaster University, Lancaster, England.Google Scholar
  28. Hodgson, V. E., & McConnell, D. (1992). IT-based open learning: A case-study in management learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 8(3), 136–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hodgson, V. E., & McConnell, D. (1995). Co-operative learning and development networks. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 11(4), 210–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Howe, A., & McConnell, D. (1984). The use of the Cyclops telewriting system for teaching electronics. International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education, 21, 234–249.Google Scholar
  31. Knowles, M. (1975). Self-directed learning. New York: Associated Press.Google Scholar
  32. Knowles, M. (1985). Andragogy in action. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  33. Kolb, D. A., Rubin, I. M., & McIntyre, J. M. (1974). Organizational psychology: A book of readings (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  34. Kolmos, A., Fink, F. K., & Krogh, L. (Eds.). (2004). The Aalborg PBL model: Progress, diversity and challenges. Aalborg: Aalborg University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Lorentsen, A. (2004). Quality in master programmes in continuing education through problem based project work. In A. Kolmos, F. K. Fink, & L. Krogh (Eds.), The Aalborg PBL mode l: Progress, diversity and challenges (pp. 263–283). Aalborg: Aalborg University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Mason, R., & Kaye, A. (1990). Towards a new paradigm for distance education. In L. Harasim (Ed.), Online education: Perspectives on a new environment. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  38. McConnell, D. (1982). Cyclops telewriting tutorials. Teaching at a Distance, 22(Autumn), 20–25.Google Scholar
  39. McConnell, D. (1983). Sharing the screen: Cyclops teleconference tutorials. Media in Education and Development, June, 59–63.Google Scholar
  40. McConnell, D. (1984). Cyclops shared-screen teleconferencing. In A. W. Bates (Ed.), The role of technology in distance education (pp. 139–153). London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  41. McConnell, D. (1986). The impact of Cyclops shared-screen teleconferencing in distance tutoring. British Journal of Educational Technology, 17(1), 37–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. McConnell, D. (1988a). Computer conferencing in teacher inservice education: A case study. In D. Harris (Ed.), World yearbook of education, 1988: Education for the new technologies (pp. 199–218). London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  43. McConnell, D. (1988b). Co-operative student/tutor design of an educational technology and development course for adults. Aspects of Educational Technology, 21, 64–71.Google Scholar
  44. McConnell, D. (1994). Implementing computer supported cooperative learning. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  45. McConnell, D. (1998). Developing networked learning professionals: A critical perspective. In Banks, S., Graebner, C., & McConnell, D. (Eds.), Networked lifelong learning: Innovative approaches to education and training through the Internet (pp. v.1-v.x11). Proceedings of the International Conference, University of Sheffield, DACE, Sheffield, England. ISBN 1 899 323 05 1 (pp. 430). Retrieved August 7, 2011 from http://www.networkedlearningconference.org.uk/past/nlc1998/
  46. McConnell, D. (1999). Networked learning [Guest editorial]. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 15(3), 177–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McConnell, D. (2000). Implementing computer supported cooperative learning (2nd ed.). London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  48. McConnell, D. (2006). E-learning groups and communities. Maidenhead: SRHE/OU Press.Google Scholar
  49. McConnell, D., & Sharples, M. (1983). Distance teaching by Cyclops: An educational evaluation of the open university’s telewriting system. British Journal of Educational Technology, 14(2), 109–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Morrison, T. R. (1989). Beyond legitimacy: Facing the future in distance education. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 8(1), 3–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Negt, O. (1975). Sociologisk fantasi og eksemplarisk indlæring (B. Nielsen et.al., Trans.). Frederiksberg: Roskilde University Press. (Original work published 1971)Google Scholar
  52. Palme, O. (2000). History of the KOM Computer Conferencing System. Retrieved January 19, 2011 from http://people.dsv.su.se/∼jpalme/s1/history-of-KOM.html
  53. Pilkington, R., & Guldberg, K. (2009). Conditions for productive networked learning among professionals and carers: The WebAutism case study. In L. Dirckinck-Holmfeld, C. Jones, & B. Lindström (Eds.), Analysing networked learning practices in higher education and continuing professional development. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  54. Rogers, C. (1983). Freedom to learn for the eighties. Columbus, OH: C. E. Merrill.Google Scholar
  55. Ryberg, T., & Dirckinck-Holmfeld, L. (2010). Analysing digital literacy in action: A case study of a problem-oriented learning process. In R. Sharpe, H. Beetham, & S. de Freitas (Eds.), Rethinking learning for a digital age (pp. 170–183). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Short, T. J., Williams, E., & Christie, B. (1976). The social psychology of telecommunications. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  57. Steeples, C., & Jones, C. (Eds.). (2001). Networked learning in higher education. Berlin: Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  58. Tolsby, H., Nyvang, T., & Dirckinck-Holmfeld, L. (2002). A survey of technologies supporting virtual project based learning. In S. Banks (Ed.), The third international conference on networked learning (pp. 572–581). Sheffield: University of Sheffield.Google Scholar
  59. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • David McConnell
    • 1
  • Vivien Hodgson
    • 2
  • Lone Dirckinck-Holmfeld
    • 3
  1. 1.Independent Consultant in Higher EducationStirlingUK
  2. 2.Lancaster University Management SchoolLancaster UniversityLancasterUK
  3. 3.Faculty of HumanitiesAalborg UniversityAalborgDenmark

Personalised recommendations