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Any cell needs extracellular signals for its growth, proliferation, and survival, among other events. Chemical, mechanical, electrical, and other physical interactions of cells with the extracellular matrix yield functional and structural signals for normal cellular activity as well as formation and maintenance of three-dimensional tissues. Environmental chemical signals are transmitted by hormones (Sect. 1.4) and growth factors (Table 3.1), in addition to nervous cues (Sect. 1.1).