Host Reactions to Infection

  • Sara E. Monaco
  • Walid E. Khalbuss
  • Liron Pantanowitz
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 17)


The reaction of a host to infectious stimuli can differ and manifest in various ways. This includes common host reactions such as acute purulent inflammation, granulomatous inflammation, viral inclusions, reactive atypia, and necrosis. Less common host reactions may also occur such as those encountered in immunocompromised hosts and atypical responses to microorganisms like inflammatory pseudotumor formation, xanthogranulomatous inflammation, malakoplakia, emperipolesis, ciliocytophthoria, and crystal formation. Awareness and recognition of these reactions and their cytomorphologic features can help identify potential infectious agents.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara E. Monaco
    • 1
  • Walid E. Khalbuss
    • 1
  • Liron Pantanowitz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA

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