Oculofacial Anesthesia

  • Julie A. WoodwardEmail author
  • Usha P. Reddy
  • Nicholas A. Ramey
  • Daniel J. Woodward
  • Guy G. Massry


There are a variety of anesthetic agents employed for aesthetic surgery of the eyelids and the periorbital region. It is incumbent upon the surgeon to be aware of the varied routes of anesthetic administration (topical, infiltrative, regional, intravenous, inhaled, etc.), how these agents work, there associated utility, and side effect profiles. Without this understanding, proceeding with surgery places the patient at risk of adverse sequelae. In addition, some forms of anesthesia such as: topical, regional blocks, local, and potentially oral and intravenous, can be safely administered by the surgeon. Others, which create deep sedation (monitored anesthesia care, general), require the assistance of trained and credentialed personnel. It is important to consider the surgical procedure, its length, patient health history, and patient preference while deciding which route of anesthesia to use.


Nerve Block Malignant Hyperthermia Malignant Hyperthermia Sensory Block Periorbital Region 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julie A. Woodward
    • 1
    Email author
  • Usha P. Reddy
    • 2
  • Nicholas A. Ramey
    • 3
  • Daniel J. Woodward
    • 4
  • Guy G. Massry
    • 5
  1. 1.Chief Division of Oculofacial Surgery, Department of OphthalmologyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyDuke Eye CenterDurhamUSA
  4. 4.Department of AnesthesiologyOregon Health and Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA
  5. 5.Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery, Spaulding Drive Cosmetic Surgery and DermatologyBeverly HillsUSA

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