Advertisement

Pedophilia pp 201-220 | Cite as

Mechanisms of Inbreeding Avoidance in Nonhuman Primates

  • Anne Pusey

Abstract

Anthropologists have long noted that there is a universal tendency for humans to avoid and to prohibit sexual activity between various categories of relatives. This universal phenomenon of incest avoidance was regarded by some as a uniquely human characteristic that sets humans apart from animals. Recently, however, it has become clear that many animals also avoid mating with their close relatives, and several anthropologists have pointed to a biological basis for human incest taboos (e.g., Bischof, 197S; van den Berghe, 1982; Durham, in press). In this chapter, this author reviews the evidence that nonhuman primates avoid mating with their relatives and almost never breed with them. “Inbreeding” is used as a general term to describe breeding with consanguineous relatives. Close inbreeding is defined as “mating and breeding with first-degree relatives such as parents or siblings” and is synonymous with incest as it is defined in this volume.

Keywords

Sexual Behavior Nonhuman Primate Rhesus Macaque Natal Group Japanese Macaque 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bengtsson, B.O. Avoiding inbreeding: At what cost? Journal of Theoretical Biology, 1978, 73, 439–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bischof, N. Comparative ethology of incest avoidance. In R. Fox (Ed.), Biosocial anthropology. New York: Wiley, 1975, pp. 37–67.Google Scholar
  3. Blouin, S.F., and Blouin, M. Inbreeding avoidance behaviors. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 1988, 3, 230–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bramblett, C.A. Incest avoidance in socially living vervet monkeys. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1983, 63, 176.Google Scholar
  5. Bulger, J., and Hamilton, WJ., III. Inbreeding and reproductive success in a natural chacma baboon, Papio cynocephalus ursinus, population. Animal Behaviour, 1988, 36, 574–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burke, T., Davies, N.B., Bruford, M.W., and Hatchwell, B.J. Parental care and mating behavior of polyandrous dunnocks Prunella modularis related to paternity by DNA fingerprinting.Nature, 1989, 338, 249–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., and Bodmer, W.F. The genetics of human populations. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman, 1971.Google Scholar
  8. Chapais, B. Male dominance and reproductive activity in rhesus monkeys. In R.A. Hinde (Ed.), Primate social relationships: An integrated approach. Oxford: Blackwell, 1983, pp. 267–271.Google Scholar
  9. Clark, C.B. A preliminary report on weaning among chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. In S. Chevalier-Skolnikoff and F.E. Poirier (Eds.), Primate bio-social development. New York: Garland Press, 1977, pp. 235–260.Google Scholar
  10. Clutton-Brock, T.H. Female transfer and inbreeding avoidance in social mammals. Nature, 1989, 337, 70–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coe, C.L., Conolly, A.C., Kraemer, H.C., and Levine, S. Reproductive development and behavior of captive female chimpanzees. Primates, 1979, 20, 571–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Colvin, J. Influences of the social situation on male emigration.In R.A. Hinde (Ed.), Primate social relationships. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer, 1983, pp. 160–171.Google Scholar
  13. Dittus, W. The social regulation of populations density and age-sex distribution in the toque monkey. Behaviour, 1977, 63, 281–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dobson, F.S., and Jones, W.T. Multiple causes of dispersal. American Naturalist, 1985, 126, 855–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Durham, W.H. Coevolution: Genes, culture and human diversity. Stanford: Stanford University Press, in press.Google Scholar
  16. Enomoto, T. The sexual behavior of Japanese monkeys. Journal of Human Evolution, 1974, 3, 351–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Enomoto, T. On social preference in sexual behavior of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Journal of Human Evolution, 1978, 7, 283–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Epple, G., and Katz, Y. Social influences on estrogen excretion and ovarian cyclicity in saddle back tamarins (Saguinus fuscollis). American Journal of Primatology, 1984, 6, 215–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goodall, J. The chimpanzees of Gombe. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  20. Gouzoules, S., and Gouzoules, H. Group life. In B.B. Smuts, D.L. Cheney, R.M. Seyfarth, R.W. Wrangham, and T.T. Struhsaker (Eds.), Primate societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987, pp. 299–305.Google Scholar
  21. Greenwood, P.T. Mating systems, philopatry, and dispersal in birds and mammals. Animal Behaviour, 1980, 28, 1140–1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hanby, J.P., and Brown, C.E. The development of sociosexual behaviours in Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata. Behaviour, 1974, 49, 152–196.Google Scholar
  23. Harcourt, A.H. Strategies of emigration and transfer by primates, with particular reference to gorillas. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 1978, 48, 401–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Henzi, S.P., and Lucas, J.W. Observations on the inter-troop movement of adult vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Folia Primatologica, 1980, 33, 220–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Holmes, W.G., and Sherman, P.W. Kin recognition in animals. American Scientist. 1983, 71, 46–55.Google Scholar
  26. Hrdy, S.B. The langurs of Abu. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  27. Imanishi, K. The origin of the human family—a primatological approach. In K. Imanishi and S.A. Altmann (Eds.), Japanese monkeys. Published by the editors, 1965, pp. 113–140.Google Scholar
  28. Itoigawa, N., Negayama, K., and Kondo, K. Experimental study on sexual behavior between mother and son in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Primates, 1981, 22, 494–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Leighton, D.R. Gibbons, territoriality and monogamy. In B.B. Smuts, DJL. Cheney, R.M. Seyfarth, R.W. Wrangham, and T.T. Struhsaker (Eds.), Primate societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987, pp. 135–145.Google Scholar
  30. Maple, TJL. Orang utan behavior. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1980.Google Scholar
  31. Missakian, E.A. Genealogical mating activity in free-ranging groups of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago. Behaviour, 1973, 45, 224–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moore, J., and Ali, R. Are dispersal and inbreeding avoidance related? Animal Behaviour, 1984, 32, 94–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Murray, R.D., and Smith, E.O. The role of dominance and intrafamilial bonding in the avoidance of close inbreeding. Journal of Human Evolution, 1983, 12, 481–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nishida, T., and Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M. Chimpanzees and bonobos: Cooperative relationships among males. In B.B. Smuts, D.L. Cheney, R.M. Seyfarth, R.W. Wrangham, and T.T. Struhsaker (Eds.), Primate societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987, pp. 165–177.Google Scholar
  35. van Noordwijk, M.A., and van Schaik, C.P. Male migration and rank acquisition in wild long-tailed macaques Macaca fascicularis. Animal Behaviour, 1985, 33, 849–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. O’Brien, SJ., Roelke, M.E., Marker, L., Newman, A., Winkler, C.A., Meltzer, D., Colly, L., Evermann, J.F., Bush, M., and Wildt, D.E. A genetic basis for species vulnerability in the cheetah. Science, 1985, 227, 1428–1434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Packer, C. Inter-troop transfer and inbreeding avoidance in Papio anubis. Animal Behaviour, 1979, 27, 1–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Packer, C. Dispersal and inbreeding avoidance. Animal Behaviour, 1985, 33, 666–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Parker, H., and Parker, S. Father-daughter sexual abuse: An emerging perspective. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1986, 56, 531–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Paul, A., and Kuester, J. Intergroup transfer and incest avoidance in semi-free-ranging Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at Salem (FRG). American Journal of Primatology, 1985, 8, 317–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pusey, A.E. The physical and social development of wild adolescent chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinjurtchii). Ph.D. dissertation, 1978, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  42. Pusey, A.E. Inbreeding avoidance in chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour, 1980, 28, 543–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pusey, A.E. Mother-offspring relationships in chimpanzees after weaning. Animal Behaviour, 1983, 31, 363–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pusey, A.E. Sex-biased dispersal and inbreeding avoidance in birds and mammals. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 1987, 2, 295–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pusey, A.E., and Packer, C. Dispersal and philopatry. In B.B. Smuts, D.L. Cheney, R.M. Seyfarth, R.W. Wrangham, and T.T. Struhsaker (Eds.), Primate societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987, pp. 250–266.Google Scholar
  46. Ralls, K., and Ballou, J. Extinction: Lessons from zoos. In C.M. Schonewald-Cox, S.M. Chambers, B. MacBryde, and L. Thomas (Eds.), Genetics and conservation: A reference for managing wild animal and plant populations. Menlo Park, Calif.: Benjamin-Cummings, 1983, pp. 164–184.Google Scholar
  47. Ralls, K., Harvey, P.H., and Lyles, A.M. Inbreeding in natural populations of birds and mammals. In M. Soule (Ed.), Conservation biology: The science of scarcity and diversity. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates Inc., 1986, pp. 35–56.Google Scholar
  48. Sade, D.S. Inhibition of mother-son mating among free-ranging rhesus monkeys. Science and Psychoanalysis, 1968, 12, 18–38.Google Scholar
  49. Sade, D.S., Rhodes, D.L., Loy, J., Hausfater, G., Breuggeman, J.A., Kaplan, J.R., Chepko-Sade, B.D., and Cushing-Kaplan, K. New findings on incest among free-ranging rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1984, 63, 212–213.Google Scholar
  50. Scott, L.M. Reproductive behavior of adolescent female baboons (Papio anubis) in Kenya. In M. Small (Ed.), Female primates: Studies by women primatologists. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1984, pp. 77–100.Google Scholar
  51. Shepher, J. Mate selection among second generation kibbutz adolescents and adults: Incest avoidance and negative imprinting. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1971, 1, 293–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Smith, D.G. Inbreeding in three captive groups of rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1982, 58, 447–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Smuts, B.B. Sex and friendship in baboons. New York: Aldine, 1985.Google Scholar
  54. Smuts, B.B., Cheney, D.L., Seyfarth, R.M., Wrangham, R.W., and Struhsaker, T.T. (Eds.), Primate societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  55. Stewart, KJ., and Harcourt, A.H. Gorillas: Variation in female relationships. In B.B. Smuts, D.L. Cheney, R.M. Seyfarth, R.W. Wrangham, and T.T. Struhsaker (Eds.), Primate societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987, pp. 155–164.Google Scholar
  56. Sugiyama, Y. Life history of male Japanese monkeys. In J.S. Rosenblatt, R.A. Hinde, E. Shaw, and C. Beer (Eds.), Advances in the study of behavior, Vol. 7. New York: Academic Press, 1976, pp. 255–284.Google Scholar
  57. Takahata, Y. The socio-sexual behavior of Japanese monkeys. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 1982, 59, 89–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tilson, R.L. Family formation strategies of Kloss’s gibbon.Folia Primatologica, 1981, 35, 259–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tokuda, K. A study on the sexual behavior in the Japanese monkey troop. Primates, 1961–2, 3, 1–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tutin, C.E.G. Mating patterns and reproductive strategies in a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1979, 6, 29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. van den Berghe, P.L. Human inbreeding avoidance: Culture in nature. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1982, 6, 91–124.Google Scholar
  62. Walters, J.R. Kin recognition in nonhuman primates. In D.J.C. Fletcher and C.D. Michener (Eds.), Kin recognition in animals. New York: John Wiley, 1987, pp. 359–393.Google Scholar
  63. Waser, P.M., Austad, S.N., and Keane, B. When should animals tolerate inbreeding? American Naturalist, 1986, 128, 529–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Westermarck, E.A. The history of human marriage. 3 vols. London: Macmillan, 1891.Google Scholar
  65. Wolf, A.P., and Huang, C. Marriage and adoption in China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1980Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne Pusey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Behavioral BiologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations