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Contrast Mechanisms of Special Interest in Materials Science

  • D. E. Newbury
  • H. Yakowitz

Abstract

The versatility of the scanning electron microscope is due in great measure to the rich variety of mechanisms of electron interaction with solids. These interaction mechanisms can be employed to produce contrast in SEM images, revealing differences in the physical nature of the specimen from point to point. This chapter will discuss six contrast formation mechanisms of particular interest: (1) electron channeling contrast, which is related to the crystallographic nature of a specimen; (2) type I and (3) type II magnetic contrast, which can reveal magnetic domains in both crystalline and artificial magnetic structures; (4) voltage contrast, which arises from differences in the electrostatic potential of the specimen; (5) electronbeam- induced current contrast, a phenomenon of electron-hole pair production in semiconductor devices; and (6) cathodoluminescence, which arises from the emission of long-wavelength electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet, visible, and/or infrared regions. Of these mechanisms, 1–5 are confined to applications in the physical sciences, while mechanism 6, cathodoluminescence, finds application in physical, mineralogical, and biological sciences.

Keywords

Secondary Electron Primary Electron Internal Magnetic Field Chapter Versus Tilt Axis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. E. Newbury
    • 1
  • H. Yakowitz
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Materials ResearchNational Bureau of StandardsUSA

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