Advertisement

Polyploidy pp 219-239 | Cite as

Polyploidy in Angiosperms: Monocotyledons

  • Peter Goldblatt
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 13)

Abstract

Several different estimates of polyploid frequency in angio-sperms have been made, including G.L. Stebbins’ (1,2) figure, first published in 1950, of 30–35%, and suggestions by M.J.D. White in 1942 (3) of at least 40%, and by Grant in 1963 (4) of 47%. These figures represent different ways of calculating Polyploidy and different interpretations of the meaning of the word in the context of plant systematics. Stebbins’ estimate includes as polyploid those species which have gametic chromosome numbers that are multiples of the basic diploid number found in their genus, in other words, intrageneric Polyploidy. White’s figure is based on the simple observation that even haploid numbers exceed odd by about 40% and he thus assumed this 40% to be largely attributable to a polyploid origin. Grant postulated that species with haploid numbers in excess of n=13 would mainly be polyploid and those with n=13 or less, predominantly diploid. Grant’s study also included the only estimate I have encountered of Polyploidy in each of the two subclasses of angiosperms. He calculated a frequency of 43% in Dicotyledonae and a much higher 58% in Monocotyledonae. These figures were based on chromosome data accumulated by 1955 for some 17,138 species.

Keywords

Chromosome Number Base Number Polyploid Species Haploid Number Polyploid Origin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Stebbins, G.L., 1959, “Variation and Evolution in Plants,” Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stebbins, G.L., 1971, “Chromosomal Evolution in Higher Plants,” Edward Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    White, M.J.D., 1952, “The Chromosomes,” ed. 2, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grant, V., 1963, “The Origin of Adaptations,” Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fedorov, A.N., 1969, “Chromosome Numbers of Flowering Plants,” Acad. Nauk, Leningrad.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Moore, R.J., 1975, Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers for 1973–1974. Regnum Vegetabile 96: 1–257.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Raven, P.H., 1975, The bases of angiosperm phylogeny: cytology. Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 62: 724–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Airy Shaw, H.K., 1973, J.C. Willis’ “A Dictionary of the Flowering Plants and Ferns,” ed. 8, University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cronquist, A., 1968, “The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants,” Houghton Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jones, K., Jopling, C., 1972, Chromosomes and the classifi-cation of the Commelinaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 65: 129–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lewis, W.H., 1964, Meiotic chromosomes in African Commelin-aceae. Sida 1: 274–293.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Faden, R.W., 1975, A biosystematic study of the genus Aneilema R. Br. (Commelinaceae). Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington University.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jones, K., 1974, Chromosome Evolution by Robertsonian change in Gibasis (Commelinaceae). Chromosoma 45: 353–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jones, K., 1977, The role of Robertsonian change in karyotype evolution in higher plants. Chromosomes Today 6: 121–129.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mehra, P.N., Sachdeva, S.K., 1971, in IOPB Chromosome number reports 34. Taxon 20: 609–614.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Briggs, B.C., 1963, Chromosome numbers in Lapyrodia and Restio in Australia. Contr. N.S.W. Nat. Herb. 3: 228–232.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Briggs, B.C., 1966, Chromosome numbers in some Australian monocotyledons. Contr. N.S.W. Nat. Herb. 4: 24–34.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hsu, C., 1971, Preliminary chromosome studies on the vascular plants of Taiwan (IV). Counts and systematic notes on some monocotyledons. Taiwania 16: 123–136.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Snogerup, S., 1963, Studies in the genus Juncus III. Bot. Not. 116: 142–156.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brown, W.V. Syjth, B.N., 1972, Grass evolution, the Kranz syndrome, 13C/12 C ratios and continental drift. Nature 239: 345–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stebbins, G.L., 1975, The role of polyploid complexes in the evolution of North American grasslands. Taxon 24: 91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Harlan, J.R., deWet, J.M.J., 1975, On t5. Winge and a prayer: the origins of Polyploidy. Bot. Rev. 41: 361–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Marchant, C.J., 1968, Chromosome evolution in the Bromeliaceae. Kew Bull. 21: 161–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sharma, A.K., Ghosh, I., 1971, Cytotaxonomy of the family Bromeliaceae. Cytologia 36: 327–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mahanty, H.K., 1970, A cytological study of the Zingiberales with special reference to their taxonomy. Cytologia 35: 13–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Maas, P.J.M., 1972, Costoideae. Flora Neotropica Monograph 8: 1–139.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Maas, P.J.M., 1977, Renealmia & Costoideae Additions. Flora Neotropica Monograph 18: 1–218.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Anderson, L., 1977, The genus Ischnosiphon (Marantaceae). Opera Bot. 43: 1–113.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Moore, H.E., Uhl, N.W., 1973, Palms and the origin and evolution of monocotyledons. Quart. Rev. Biol. 48: 414–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Read, R.W., 1965, Chromosome numbers in the Coryphoideae. Cytologia 30: 385–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Read, R.W., 1966, New chromosome counts in the Palmae. Principes 10: 55–61.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jones, G.E., 1957, Chromosome numbers and phylogenetic relationships in the Araceae. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of Virginia.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Marchant, C.J., 1970, Chromosome variation in Araceae I. Pothoeae to Stylochitoneae. Kew Bull. 24: 315–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Marchant, C.J., 1973, Chromosome variation in Araceae: V. Acoreae to Lasieae. Kew Bull. 28: 199–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Traub, H.P., Moldenke, H.N., 1947, The tribe Galantheae. Herbertia 14: 85–116.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Traub, H.P., Moldenke, H.N., 1949, Amaryllidaceae: Tribe Amarylleae. Amer. Pl. Life Soc., Stanford.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Stern, F.C., 1956, “Snowdrops and Snowflakes,” Royal Horti-cultural Soc., London.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fernandes, A., 1967, Contribution à la connaissance de la biosystématique de quelques espèces du genre Narcissus L. Portug. Acta Biol. ser. B. 9: 1–42.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Whitaker, T.W., 1934, Chromosome constitution in certain monocotyledons. J. Arnold Arb. 15: 135–142.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gomez-Pompa, A., Villalobos-Pietrini, 1971, Studies in Agavaceae. I. Chromosome morphology and number of seven species. Madroño 21: 208–221.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Borgen, L., 1967, Chromosome numbers of vascular plants from the Canary Islands with special reference to Polyploidy. Nyt. Mag. Bot. 16; 81–121.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gadella, T.W.J., 1972, Cytological studies on some flowering plants collected in Africa. Bull. J. Bot. Nat. Belg. 42: 393–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sharma,, A.K., Datta, P.C., 1960, Chromosome studies in species of Dracaena with special reference to their means of speciation. J. Genetics 57: 43–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Goldblatt, P., Poston, M.E., Ayensu, E.S., 1980, Observations on chromosome cytology of Velloziaceae. (In preparation.)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Green, J.W., 1960, The genus Conostylis II. Taxonomy. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 85: 334–373.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ornduff, R., 1979, Chromosome numbers and relationships of certain African and American genera of Haemodoraceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 66 (in press).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ornduff, R., 1979, Chromosome numbers of Cyanella (Tecophil- aeaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 66 (in press).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brighton, c.A., Mathew, B., Marchant, C.J., 1973, Chromosome counts in the genus Crocus. Kew Bull. 28: 451–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Burkill, I.H., 1960, The organography and the evolution of Dioscoreaceae, the family of the yams. J. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) 56: 319–412.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kores, P., White, D.A., Thien, L.B., 1978, Chromosomes of Corsia (Corsiaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 65: 584–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jones, K. 1974, Cytology and the study of orchids, pp. 383–392, in Wither, C.L., (ed.), “The Orchids: Scientific Studies,” John Wiley amp; Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Duncan, R.E., 1959, Orchids and cytology, pp. 189 - 260, in Wither, C.L., (ed.), “The Orchids, A Scientific Survey,” Ronald Press, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Goldblatt
    • 1
  1. 1.Missouri Botanical GardenSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations