Advertisement

Sensation Seeking and Risk Taking

  • Marvin Zuckerman
Part of the Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy book series (CISJ)

Abstract

Zuckerman has pursued the conceptualization and measurement of sensation seeking with such success that it is beginning to take its place alongside such long-established concepts as introversion and extraversion. Zuckerman conceives sensation seeking as a motive that can be measured as both trait and state.

Keywords

Sensation Seek Sensory Deprivation Risk Appraisal Reticular Activate System Average Evoke Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 2nd ed. ( DSM-II). Washington, D.C.: APA, 1968.Google Scholar
  2. Barchas, J. & Usdin, E. Serotonin and behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  3. Berlyne, D. E. Conflict, arousal, and curiosity. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blackburn, R. Sensation seeking, impulsivity, and psychopathic personality. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1969, 55, 571–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blackburn, R. Psychopathy, arousal, and the need for stimulation. In R. D. Hare & D. Schalling (Eds.), Psychopathic behavior. New York: Wiley, 1978.Google Scholar
  6. Bone, R. N., Cowling, L. W., & Choban, M. C. Sensation seeking and volunteering for experiments. Unpublished data from personal communication, 1974.Google Scholar
  7. Borkovec, T. D. Autonomic reactivity to sensory stimulation in psychopathic, neurotic, and normal juvenile delinquents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1970, 55, 217–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brownfield, C. A. Optimal stimulation levels of normal and disturbed subjects in sensory deprivation. Psychologia, 1966, 9, 27–38.Google Scholar
  9. Buchsbaum, M. Neural events and the psychophysical law. Science, 1971, 172, 502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buchsbaum, M. Average evoked response and stimulus intensity in identical and fraternal twins. Physiological Psychology, 1974, 2, 365–370.Google Scholar
  11. Buchsbaum, M. Average evoked response augmenting/reducing in schizophrenia and affective disorders. In D. X. Freedman (Ed.), Biology of the major psychoses. New York: Raven Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  12. Buchsbaum, M., Goodwin, F., Murphy, D., & Borge, AER in affective disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1971, 128, 51–57.Google Scholar
  13. Buchsbaum, M., Landau, S., Murphy, D., & Goodwin, F. Average evoked response in bipolar and unipolar affective disorders: Relationship to sex, age of onset, and monoamine oxidase. Biological Psychiatry, 1973, 7, 199–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Buchsbaum, M., & Pfefferbaum, A. Individual differences in stimulus intensity response. Psychophysiology, 1971, 8, 600–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carpenter, W. T., Murphy, D. L., & Wyatt, R. J. Platelet monoamine oxidase activity in acute schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1975, 132, 438–441.Google Scholar
  16. Carrol, E. N., & Zuckerman, M. Psychopathology and sensation seeking in ‘downers,’ ‘speeders,’ and ‘trippers’: A study of the relationship between personality and drug choice. International Journal of Addictions, 1977, 12, 591–601.Google Scholar
  17. Coursey, R. D., Buchsbaum, M., & Frank el, B. L. Personality measures and evoked responses in chronic insomniacs. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1975, 84, 239–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Daitzman, R. & Tumilty, T. N. Support for an activation-regulation deficit in schizophrenia. Implications for treatment. Newsletter for Research in Mental Health and Behavioral Science, 1974, 16, 31–35.Google Scholar
  19. Ellis, A. Humanistic psychotherapy: The rational emotive approach. New York: Julian Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  20. Emmons, T. D. & Webb, W. W. Subjective correlates of emotional responsivity and stimulation seeking in psychopaths, normals, and acting-out neurotics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1974, 42, 620–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eysenck, H. J. Experiments with drugs. New York: Pergamon Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  22. Eysenck, H. J. The biological basis of personality. Springfield, 111.: Thomas, 1967.Google Scholar
  23. Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1975.Google Scholar
  24. Farley, F. H. Personal communication, 1973.Google Scholar
  25. Farley, F. H., & Farley, S. V. Stimulus-seeking motivation and delinquent behavior among insti-tutionalized delinquent girls. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1972, 39, 140–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Freud, S. The problem of anxiety. New York: Norton, 1936.Google Scholar
  27. Gray, J. A. Causal theories of personality and how to test them. In J. R. Royce (Ed.), Multivariate analysis and psychological theory. New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  28. Hare, R. D. Psychopathy, autonomic functioning, and the orienting response. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Monograph Supplement, 1968, 73 (3, Part 2), 1–24.Google Scholar
  29. Hare, R. D. Electrodermal and cardiovascular correlates of psychopathy. In R. D. Hare & D. Schalling (Eds.), Psychopathic behavior. New York: Wiley, 1978Google Scholar
  30. Hebb, D. O. Drives and the CNS (conceptual nervous system). Psychological Review, 1955, 62, 243–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kilpatrick, D. G., Sutker, P. B., & Smith, A. D. Deviant drug and alcohol use: The role of anxiety, sensation seeking and other personality variables. In M. Zuckerman & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Emotions and anxiety: New concepts, methods and applications. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1976.Google Scholar
  32. Kish, G. B. Reduced cognitive innovation and stimulus-seeking in chronic schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1970. 26, 170–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kish, G. B. A developmental and motivational analysis of stimulus-seeking. Paper presented at symposium, “The sensation-seeking motive,” at 81st meeting of the American Psychological Association, Montreal, August 1973.Google Scholar
  34. Landau, S. G., Buchsbaum, M. S., & Carpenter, W. Schizophrenia and stimulus intensity control. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1975, 32, 1239–1245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lindsley, D. B. Psychophysiology and motivation. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation. Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  36. Lindsley, D. B. Common factors in sensory deprivation, sensory distortion, and sensory overload. In P. Solomon et al. (Eds.) Sensory deprivation. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1961.Google Scholar
  37. Lykken, D. T. Manual for the Activity Preference Questionnaire (APQ). Report No. PR-68-3 from the Research Laboratories, Dept. of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, 1968.Google Scholar
  38. Malmo, R. B. Activation: A neuropsychological dimension. Psychological Review, 1959, 66, 367–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McGhie, A., & Chapman, J. Disorders of attention and perception in early schizophrenia. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 1961, 34, 103–117.Google Scholar
  40. McReynolds, P. Assimilation and anxiety. In M. Zuckerman & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Emotions and anxiety: New concepts, methods, and applications. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1976.Google Scholar
  41. Meichenbaum, D. H. Cognitive behavior modification. Morristown, N.J.: General Learning, 1974.Google Scholar
  42. Mellstrom, M., Cicala, G. A., & Zuckerman, M. General versus specific trait anxiety measures in the prediction of fear of snakes, heights, and darkness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1976, 44, 83–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Montgomery, K. C. The relation between fear induced by novel stimulation and exploratory behavior. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1955, 48, 254–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Murphy, D. L., Belmaker, R. H., Buchsbaum, M., Wyatt, R. J., Martin, N. F., & Ciaranello, R. Biogenic amine-related enzymes and personality variations in normals. Psychological Medicine, 1977, 7, 149–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Murphy, D. L., Belmaker, R., & Wyatt, R. J. Monoamine oxidase in schizophrenia and other behavioral disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 1974, 11, 221–247.Google Scholar
  46. Murphy, D. L., & Weiss, R. Reduced monoamine oxidase activity in blood platelets from bipolar depressed patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1972, 128, 1351–1357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Murphy, D. L., & Wyatt, R. J. Reduced monoamine oxidase activity in blood platelets from schizophrenic patients. Nature, 1972, 238, 225–226.Google Scholar
  48. Murtaugh, T. L. Perceptual isolation, drug addiction, and adaptation phenomena. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Temple University, 1971.Google Scholar
  49. Neary, R. S. The development and validation of a state measure of sensation seeking. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Delaware, 1975.Google Scholar
  50. Neary, R. S., & Zuckerman, M. Sensation seeking, trait and state anxiety, and the electrodermal orienting reflex. Psychophysiology, 1976, 13, 205–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Olds, J., & Olds, M. E. Drives, rewards, and the brain. In F. Barron et al. (Eds.), New directions in psychology I I. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1965.Google Scholar
  52. Patrick, A. W., & Zuckerman, M. An application of the state-trait concept to the need for achievement. Journal of Research in Personality, 1977, 11, 459–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Patrick, A. W., Zuckerman, M., & Masterson, F. A. An extension of the trait-state distinction from affects to motive measures. Psychological Reports, 1974, 34, 1251–1258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Payne, R. W., Matussek, P., & George, E. I. An experimental study of schizophrenic thought disorder. Journal of Mental Science, 1959, 105, 627–652.Google Scholar
  55. Piatt, J. J. “Addiction-proneness” and personality in heroin addicts. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1975, 84, 303–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Quay, H. C. Psychopathic personality as pathological stimulation seeking. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1965, 122, 180–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Schlosberg, H. Three dimensions of emotion. Psychological Review, 1954, 61, 81–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schooler, C., Zahn, T. P., Murphy, D. L., & Buchsbaum, M. Psychological correlates of monoamine oxidase activity in normals. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 1978, 166, 177–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schultz, D. P. Sensory restriction: Effects on behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  60. Segal, B. Personality factors related to drug and alcohol use. In D. J. Letteri (Ed.), Predicting adolescent drug abuse: A review of issues, methods, and correlates. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research Issues II. DHEW Publication No. ( ADM ) 72 - 299, 1976.Google Scholar
  61. Skolnick, N. J. Personality change in chronic drug abusers: A comparison of treatment and no- treatment groups. Unpublished master’s thesis. University of Delaware, 1977.Google Scholar
  62. Spielberger, C. D. Theory and research on anxiety. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety and behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  63. Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. The state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) test manual for form X. Palo Alto, Calif.: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  64. Stein, L. Norepinephrine reward pathways: Role in self-stimulation, memory consolidation, and schizophrenia. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  65. Thorne, G. L. Sensation-seeking scale with deviant populations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1971, 37, 106–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tumilty, T. N., & Daitzman, R. Locus of control and sensation seeking among schizophrenics: Extensions and replications. Unpublished manuscript, 1977.Google Scholar
  67. Venables, P. H. Input dysfunction in schizophrenia. In B. A. Maher (Ed.), Progress in experimental personality research, Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press, 1964.Google Scholar
  68. Wundt, W. M. Grundzuge der physiologischen psychologie. Leipsig: Engleman, 1873.Google Scholar
  69. Zuckerman, M. The development of an affect adjective check list for the measurement of anxiety. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1960, 24, 457–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zuckerman, M. Toward isolating the sources of stress in perceptual isolation. Paper presented in symposium, “Sensory deprivation research: Where do we go from here?” at meeting of American Psychological Association, Los Angeles, September, 1964.Google Scholar
  71. Zuckerman, M. Theoretical formulations: I. In J. P. Zubek (Ed.), Sensory deprivation: Fifteen years of research. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969.Google Scholar
  72. Zuckerman, M. Dimensions of sensation seeking. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1971, 36, 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zuckerman, M. Drug usage as one manifestation of a “sensation-seeking” trait. In W. Keup (Ed.), Drug abuse, current concepts and research. Springfield, 111.: Charles C Thomas, 1972.Google Scholar
  74. Zuckerman, M. The sensation-seeking motive. In B. A. Maher (Ed.), Progress in experimental personality research, Vol. 7. New York: Academic Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  75. Zuckerman, M. General and situation-specific traits and states: New approaches to assessment of anxiety and other constructs. In M. Zuckerman & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Emotions and anxiety: New concepts, methods, and applications. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1976. (a)Google Scholar
  76. Zuckerman, M. Sensation seeking and anxiety, traits and states, as determinants of behavior in novel situations. In I. G. Sarason & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Stress and anxiety, Vol. 3. Washington, DC: Hemisphere, 1976. (b)Google Scholar
  77. Zuckerman, M. Sensation seeking. In H. London & J. Exner (Eds.), Dimensions of personality. New York: Wiley, 1978. (a)Google Scholar
  78. Zuckerman, M. Sensation seeking and psychopathy. In R. D. Hare & D. Schalling (Eds.), Psychopathic behavior. New York: Wiley, 1978. (b)Google Scholar
  79. Zuckerman, M. Sensation seeking: Beyond the optimal level of arousal. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, in press.Google Scholar
  80. Zuckerman, M., Bone, R. N., Neary, R., Mangelsdorf, D., & Brustman, B. What is the sensation seeker? Personality trait and experience correlates of the Sensation Seeking Scales. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1972, 39, 308–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zuckerman, M., Eysenck, S. B. G., & Eysenck, H. J. Sensation seeking in England and America: Cross-cultural, age, and sex comparisons. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1978, 46, 139–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zuckerman, M., Kolin, E. A., Price, L., & Zoob, I. Development of a Sensation Seeking Scale. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1964, 28, 477–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zuckerman, M., & Lubin, B. Manual for the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List. San Diego, Calif.: Educational and Industrial Testing Service, 1965.Google Scholar
  84. Zuckerman, M., Murtaugh, T., & Siegel, J. Sensation seeking and cortical augmenting-reducing. Psychophysiology, 1974, 11, 535–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zuckerman, M., Schultz, D. P., & Hopkins, T. R. Sensation seeking and volunteering for sensory deprivation and hypnosis experiments. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1967, 31, 358–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zuckerman, M., Sola, S., Masterson, J., & Angelone, J. F. MMPI patterns in drug abusers before and after treatment in therapeutic communities. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1915, 43, 286–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marvin Zuckerman
    • 1
  1. 1.University of DelawareNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations