Advertisement

Treatment of Anxiety and Pain in Childhood Cancer Through Hypnosis

Chapter

Abstract

Data from consecutive referrals of 34 patients ranging in age from 4 to 19 years are summarized. Sixteen patients were referred for pain and anxiety in bone marrow aspirations and lumbar punctures, five patients for reduction of pain in short procedures such as intravenous injections and changing bandages, three for relief of continuous pain, and ten for ancillary symptoms such as anxiety. All patients were tested on the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale for Children. For young children aged four to six years, it is usually inappropriate to rely upon formal hypnotic procedures. They respond to a kind of protohypnosis where the fantasy is part of the external situation. Anxiety can be reduced by the use of relaxation and distraction; reduction in anxiety is minimally correlated with hypnotic responsiveness. Once anxiety is reduced, the patient is better able to experience hypnotic analgesia.

Keywords

Lumbar Puncture Childhood Cancer Bone Marrow Aspiration Bandage Removal Short Procedure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Gardner, G.G. Childhood, death and human dignity: Hypnotherapy for David. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1976, 24, 122–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hilgard, E.R., & Hilgard, J.R. Hypnosis in the relief of pain. Los Altos, California: William Kaufmann, Inc., 1975.Google Scholar
  3. LaBaw. W., Holton, C., Eccles, D., & Tewell, K. Use of self-hypnosis by children with cancer. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1975, 17, 233–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Morgan, A.H., & Hilgard, J.R. Standardization of the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale for Children. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Los Angeles, October 15, 1977.Google Scholar
  5. Olness, K. Discussions with J.R. Hilgard on the use of hypnosis in children with cancer, November, 1975. Children’s Health Center, Minnesota Children’s Hospital, Minneapolis, Minnesota.Google Scholar
  6. Roark, J.R. Discussion with J.R. Hilgard on the use of hypnosis in children with cancer, November, 1975. University of Arkansas, Medical Science, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology and Oncology.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Stanford UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations