Advertisement

A Thermodynamic Model for Predicting Formation of Chemical Bonds between Metals and Cured Polyimides During Metallization

  • N. J. Chou
  • C. H. Tang

Abstract

Adhesion between metals and polymers has been a subject of practical concern in the microelectronic packaging technology. Formation of chemical bonds promises the type of adhesion favored by the new processing techniques being developed in the industry. In an earlier paper, a thermodynamic model was proposed where an effective partial molar energy was defined for the pendent oxygen in the cured polyimide (PI) and its limiting values determined experimentally by in-situ XPS monitoring of interfacial reaction during metallization. Used to predict whether a metal will form chemical bonds with the oxygen in PI, the model was found to be valid for several metals. In this paper a quasichemical approach is used to examine the validity of the assumptions on which the model is based. It is shown that until a detailed quantum mechanical treatment is made, some of these assumptions should be regarded as a mixture of truth and expediency.

Keywords

Free Energy Change Vacancy Formation Transition State Theory Interfacial Oxidation Polyimide Substrate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    N. J. Chou, D. W. Dong, J. Kim and A. C. Liu, Extended Abstracts, 83–1, Abstr. No. 247, Electrochem. Soc. Meeting, May 8–13, 1983, San Francisco, California; see also, J. Electrochem. Soc., 131, 2337 (1984)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    N. J. Chou and C. H. Tang, J. Vac. Sci. Techn. A2, 751 (1984)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. N. Sanda, J. W. Bartha, B.D. Silverman, P. S. Ho and A. R. Rossi, Mat. Res. Soc. Sym. Proc. 40, 283 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. J. L. Jordan, P.N. Sanda, J.F. Morar, C.A. Kovac, F.J. Himpsel, and R.A. Pollak, NSLS 1985 Annual Report, Brookhaven National Laboratory, BNL 51947, 98 (1985); andGoogle Scholar
  5. J. L. Jordan, P.N. Sanda, J.F. Morar, C.A. Kovac, F.J. Himpsel, and R.A. Pollak, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A4 1046 (1986)Google Scholar
  6. 4.
    B. D. Silverman, P. N. Sanda, P. S. Ho and A. R. Rossi, J. Polymer Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed. 23, 2857 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 5.
    J. W. Bartha, P. O. Hahn, F. LeGoues and P. S. Ho, paper presented at American Vacuum Society 31st National Symposium, Reno, Nevada, Dec 4–7, 1984Google Scholar
  8. 6.
    O. Kubaschewski and E. LL. Evans, “Metallurgical Thermochemistry”, Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, 1956Google Scholar
  9. 7.
    R. Ginsburg and J. R Susko, private communication, 1983Google Scholar
  10. 8.
    P. J. Flory, “Statistical Mechanics of Chain Molecules”, Wiley Interscience, New York, 1969Google Scholar
  11. 9.
    A. I. Kitaigorodsky, “Mixed Crystals”, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1984Google Scholar
  12. 10.
    R. A. Swalin, J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 18, 290, (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 11.
    L. Pauling, “The Nature of Chemical Bonds”, Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York, 1960Google Scholar
  14. 12.
    L. Fieser and M. Fieser, “Organic Chemistry” Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1960Google Scholar
  15. 13.
    P. L. Buchwalter, A. I. Baise, in “Polyimides: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications”, K. L. Mittal, editor, Vol. 1, p.537, Plenum Press, New York, 1984Google Scholar
  16. 14.
    H. J. Leary, Jr. and D. S. Campbell, ACS Sym. Ser. 162, 147 (1981)Google Scholar
  17. 15.
    C. D. Wagner, W. M. Riggs, L. E. Davis, J. F. Moulder and G. E. Mullenberg, “Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy”, Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Eden Prairie, Minnesota, 1979Google Scholar
  18. 16.
    F. S. Ohuchi and S. C. Freilich, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A4, 1039 (1986)Google Scholar
  19. 17.
    N. D. Lang and A. R. Willams, Phys. Rev. Letters, 37, 212 (1976) and references cited thereinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 18.
    See, e.g., S. Bagus and K. Hermann, Solid State Commun., 20, 5(1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 19.
    A. B. Fowler, private communication, 1984Google Scholar
  22. 20.
    R. S. Mulliken and W. B. Person, “Molecular Complexes”, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1969Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. J. Chou
    • 1
  • C. H. Tang
    • 1
  1. 1.IBM T. J. Watson Research CenterYorktown HeightsUSA

Personalised recommendations