In-vivo antibody imaging for the detection of human tumors

  • David M. Goldenberg
  • Hildegard Goldenberg
  • Robert M. Sharkey
  • Robert E. Lee
  • Jo Ann Horowitz
  • Thomas C. Hall
  • Hans J. Hansen
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 51)


Radionuclide imaging has become an important method in the detection and staging of neoplastic diseases. However, most nuclear imaging methods localize lesions by indirectly demonstrating a decrease in the accretion of the radiopharmaceutical (negative image) or by a physiologic attribute of the tissue that permits a positive image of the lesion. For example, to the extent that a tumor lacks organ-specific properties, an organ-imaging agent could be used to show the tumor as a defect, such as with technetium sulfur colloid for imaging the liver and spleen. The development of more selective methods for localizing tumors by means of anti-cancer antibodies labeled with a radionuclide suitable for external imaging has been a recent approach gaining in interest and application for cancer imaging, although it has been pursued for over 30 years [1–3]. Early animal studies in the 1950s showed that radio-iodinated antibodies prepared against extracts of rodent tumors could localize in these tumors selectively [1,4,5]. Subsequently, it was found that this preferential tumor accretion of the radioactive antibodies was due mainly to anti-fibrin antibodies [1,6–8]; anti-fibrinogen antibodies were later explored for tumor imaging and therapy [1,9].


Carcinoembryonic Antigen Antibody Fragment Prostatic Acid Phosphatase Antibody Imaging Magnetic Resonance Imagine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    DeLand, F.H., and Goldenberg, D.M. (1986) Radiolabeled antibodies: Radiochemistry and clinical applications. In: Freeman, L.M., (ed.), Freeman and Johnson’s Clinical Radionuclide Imaging, 3rd ed. update, Orlando, FL: Grune & Stratton, pp. 1915–1992.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goldenberg, D.M. (1987) Current status of cancer imaging with radiolabeled antibodies. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 113:203–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Murray, J.L., and Unger, M.W. (1988) Radioimmunodetection of cancer with monoclonal antibodies: Current status, problems, and future directions. CRC Crit. Rev. Oncol./Hematol. 8:227–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pressman, D., and Korngold, L. (1953) The in vivo localization of anti-Wagner osteogenic sarcoma antibodies. Cancer (Philadelphia) 6:619–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Korngold, L., and Pressman, D. (1954) The localization of antilymphosarcoma antibodies in the Murphy lymphosarcoma of the rat. Cancer Res. 14:96–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Day, E.D., Planinsek, J.A., and Pressman, D. (1959) Loalization in vivo of radioiodinated anti-rat-fibrin antibodies and radioiodinated rat fibrinogen in the Murphy rat lymphosarcoma and in other transplantable rat tumors. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 22:413–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Day, E.D., Planinsek, J.A., and Pressman, D. (1959) Localization of radioiodinated rat fibrinogen in transplanted rat tumors. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 23:799–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Spar, I.L., Bale, W.F., Goodland, R.L., et al. (1960) Distribution of injected 131I-labeled antibody to dog fibrin in tumor-bearing dogs. Cancer Res. 20:1501–1504.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    McCardle, R.J., Harper, P.V., Spar, I.L., et al. (1966) Studies with iodine-131-labeled antibody to human fibrinogen for diagnosis and therapy of tumors. J. Nucl. Med. 7:837–847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Primus, F.J., Wang, R.H., Goldenberg, D.M., and Hansen, H.J. (1973) Localization of human GW-39 tumors in hamsters by radiolabeled heterospecific antibody to carcino-embryonic antigen. Cancer Res. 33:2977–2982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goldenberg, D.M., Preston, D.F., Primus, F.J., and Hansen, H.J. (1974) Photoscan localization of GW-39 tumors in hamsters using radiolabeled anticarcinoembryonic antigen immunoglobulin G. Cancer Res. 34:1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goldenberg, D.M., DeLand, F., Kim, E., et al. (1978) Use of radiolabeled antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen for the detection and localization of diverse cancers by external photoscanning. N. Engl. J. Med. 298:1384–1388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Goldenberg, D.M. (1978) Carcinoembryonic antigen and other tumor-associated antigens in colon cancer diagnosis and management. In: Grundmann, E. (ed.), Colon Cancer. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag, pp. 163–178.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    DeLand, F.H., Kim, E.E., Simmons, G., and Goldenberg, D.M. (1980) Imaging approach in radioimmunodetection. Cancer Res. 40:3046–3049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ballou, B., Levine, G., Hakala, R.R., and Solter, D. (1979) Tumor location detected with radioactivity labeled monoclonal antibody and external scintigraphy. Science 206:844–847.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mach, J.-P., Buchegger, F., Forni, M., et al. (1981) Use of radiolabeled monoclonal anti-CEA antibodies for the detection of human carcinomas by external photoscanning and tomoscintigraphy. Immunol. Today 2:239–249.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gaffar, S.A., Bennett, S.J., DeLand, F.H., and Goldenberg, D.M. (1982) Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) radioactive antibody fragments for cancer localization in vivo. Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 23:249.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Larson, S.M., Carrasquillo, J.A., Krohn, K.A., et al. (1983) Localization of 131I-labeled p97-specific Fab fragments in human melanoma as a basis for radiotherapy. J. Clin. Invest. 72:2101–2114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wahl, R.L., Parker, C.W., and Philpott, G.W. (1983) Improved radioimaging and tumor localization with monoclonal F(ab’)2 J. Nucl. Med. 24:317–325.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goldenberg, D.M., Kim, E.E., Bennett, S.J., et al. (1983) CEA radioimmunodetection in the evaluation of colorectal cancer and in the detection of occult neoplasms. Gastroenterology 84:524–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    DeLand, F.H., Lieber, A., Ram, M.D., and Goldenberg, D.M. (1986) Preliminary findings in the evaluation of hepatic malignancies by radioimmunodetection, x-ray computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 12:429–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Goldenberg, D.M., and DeLand, F.H. (1983) History and status of tumor imaging with radiolabeled antibodies. J. Biol. Response Modif. 1:121–136.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Keenan, A.M., Harbert, J.C., and Larson, S.M. (1985) Monoclonal antibodies in nuclear medicine. J. Nucl. Med. 26:531–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Begent, R.H.J. (1985) Recent advances in tumor imaging; use of radiolabeled antitumor antibodies. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 780:151–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Larson, S.M. (1987) Lymphoma, melanoma and colon cancer: Diagnosis and treatment with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. The 1986 Eugene Pendergrass New Horizons Lecture. Radiology 165:297–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Goldenberg, D.M. (1988) Targeting of cancer with radiolabeled antibodies. Prospects for imaging and therapy. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 112:580–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goldenberg, D.M. (1989) Future role of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in oncological diagnosis and therapy. Semin. Nucl. Med. 19:332–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Primus, F.J., MacDonald, R., Goldenberg, D.M., and Hansen, H.J. (1977) Tumor detection and localization with purified antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen. Cancer Res. 37:1544–1547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sharkey, R.M., Ballance, C., Varga, D., et al. (1988) Pharmacological and radiodosimetric analysis of patients given radioiodinated anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody (Mab) for tumor therapy (abstract). Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 7:100.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Spiegelberg, H.L., and Weigle, W.O. (1965) The catabolism of homologous and heterologous 7S gamma globulin fragments. J. Exp. Med. 121:323–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Scheinberg, D.A., and Strand, M. (1983) Kinetic and catabolic considerations of monoclonal antibody targeting in erythroleukemic mice. Cancer Res. 43:265–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Endo, K., Kamma, H., and Ogata, T. (1988) Radiolabeled monoclonal antibody 15 and its fragments for localization and imaging of xenografts of human lung cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 80:835–842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Murray, J.L., Rosenblum, M.G., Sobol, R.E., et al. (1985) Radioimmunoimaging in malignant melanoma with 111In-labeled monoclonal antibody 96.5. Cancer Res. 45:2376–2381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Patt, Y.Z., Lamki, L.M., Haynie, T.P., et al. (1988) Improved tumor localization with increasing dose of indium-111-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody ZCE-025 in metastatic colorectal cancer. J. Clin. Oncol. 6:1220–1230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Carrisquillo, J.A., Abrams, P.G., Schroff, R.W., et al. (1988) Effect of antibody dose on the imaging and biodistribution of indium-111 9.2.27 anti-melanoma monoclonal antibody. J. Nucl. Med. 29:39–47.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rosenblum, M.G., Murray, J.L., Haynie, T.P., et al. (1985) Pharmacokinetics of 111In-labeled anti-p97 monoclonal antibody in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. Cancer Res. 45:2382–2386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lamki, L., Haynie, T.P., Murray, J.L., et al. (1986) The effect of increasing unlabeled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) doses on metastases detection and on body distribution of In-111 MoAbs (abstract). Br. J. Cancer 54:535.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Carrasquillo, J.A., Bunn, Jr., P.A., Keenan, A.M., et al. (1986) Radioimmunodetection of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas with 111In-labeled T101 monoclonal antibody. N. Engl. J. Med. 315:673–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wahl, R.L., Liebert, M., and Wilson, B.S. (1986) The influence of monoclonal antibody dose on tumor uptake of radiolabeled antibody. Cancer Drug Deliv. 3:243–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sharkey, R.M., Primus, F.J., and Goldenberg, D.M. Antibody protein dose and radioimmunodetection of GW-39 human colon tumor xenografts. Int. J. Cancer 39:611–617.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Quinones, J., Mizejewski, G., and Beierwaltes, W.H. (1971) Choriocarcinoma scanning using radiolabeled antibody to chorionic gonadotropin. J. Nucl. Med. 12:69–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mach, J.-P., Carrel, S., Merenda, C., et al. (1974) In vivo localization of radiolabeled antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen in human colon carcinoma grafted into nude mice. Nature 248:704–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Goldenberg, D.M. (1979) Carcinoembryonic antigen in the management of colorectal cancer. Acta Hepatogastroenterol. 26:1–3.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Goldenberg, D.M., Neville, A.M., Carter, A.C., et al. (1981) Carcinoembryonic antigen: Its role as a marker in the management of cancer. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement. Cancer Res. 41:2017–2018.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Primus, F.J., Bennett, S.J., Kim, E.E., et al. (1980) Circulating immune complexes in cancer patients receiving goat radiolocalizing antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen. Cancer Res. 40:497–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Primus, F.J., and Goldenberg, D.M. (1980) Immunological considerations in the use of goat antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen for the radioimmunodetection of cancer. Cancer Res. 40:2979–2983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Goldenberg, D.M., Kim, E.E., DeLand, F.H., et al. (1980) Radioimmunodetection of cancer with radioactive antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen. Cancer Res. 40:2984–2992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Abelev, G.I. (1974) α-fetoprotein as a marker of embryo-specific differentiation in normal and tumor tissues. Transplant. 20:3–37.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ruoslahti, E., Salaspuro, M., Pihko, H., et al. (1974) Serum α-fetoprotein: Diagnostic significance in liver disease. Br. Med. J. 2:527–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Waldmann, T.A., and Mclntire, K.R. (1974) The use of a radioimmunoassay for alpha-fetoprotein in the diagnosis of malignancy. Cancer 34:1510–1515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Scardino, P.T., Cox, H.D., Waldmann, T.A., et al. (1977) The value of serum tumor markers in the staging and prognosis of germ cell tumors of the testis. J. Urol. 118:994–999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Norgaard-Pedersen, B., Albrechtesen, R., and Teilum, G. (1975) Serum alpha-fetoprotein as a marker for endodermal sinus tumour (yolk sac tumor) or a vitelline component of ‘teratocarcinoma.’ Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 83:573–589.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Silver, H.K.B., Deneault, J., Gold, P., et al. (1974) The detection of α1-fetoprotein in patients with viral hepatitis. Cancer Res. 34:244–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Goldenberg, D.M., Kim, E.E., DeLand, F.H., et al. (1980) Clinical studies on the radioimmunodetection of tumors containing alpha-fetoprotein. Cancer (Philadelphia) 45:2500–2505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kim, E.E., DeLand, F.H., Nelson, M.O., et al. (1980) Radioimmunodetection of cancer with radiolabeled antibodies to α-fetoprotein. Cancer Res. 40:3008–3012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Halsall, A.K., Fairweather, D.S., Bradwell, A.R., et al. (1981) Localization of malignant germ cell tumors by external scanning after injection of radiolabeled anti-alpha fetoprotein. Br. Med. J. 283:942–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Goldenberg, D.M., Goldenberg, H., Higginbotham-Ford, E., et al. (1987) Imaging of primary and metastatic liver cancer with 131I monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against alphafetoprotein. J. Clin. Oncol. 5:1827–1835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Goldenberg, D.M., Kim, E.E., DeLand, F.H., et al. (1980) Radioimmunodetection of cancer using radioactive antibodies to human chorionic gonadotropin. Science 208:1284–1286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Javadpour, N., Kim, E.E., DeLand, F.H., et al. (1981) The role of radioimmunodetection in the management of testicular cancer. JAMA 246:45–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Goldenberg, D.M., Kim, E.E., and DeLand, F.H. (1981) HCG radioantibodies in the radioimmunodetection of cancer and for disclosing occult metastases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:7754–7758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Goldenberg, D.M., DeLand, F.H., Bennett, S.J., et al. (1983) Radioimmunodetection of prostatic cancer: In vivo use of radioactive antibodies against prostatic acid phosphatase for diagnosis and detection of prostatic cancer by nuclear imaging. JAMA 250:630–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Goldenberg, D.M., and DeLand, F.H. (1984) Clinical studies of prostatic cancer imaging with radiolabeled antibodies against prostatic acid phosphatase. Urol. Clin. North Am. 11:277–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    DeLand, F.H., Kim, E.E., Simmons, G., and Goldenberg, D.M. (1980) Imaging approach in radioimmunodetection. Cancer Res. 40:3046–3049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ott, R.J., Grey, L.J., Zivanovic, M.A., et al. (1983) The limitations of the dual radionuclide subtraction technique for the external detection of tumours by radioiodine-labeled anti-bodies. Br. J. Radiol. 56:101–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Green, A.J., Begen, R.H.J., Keep, P.A., et al. (1984) Analysis of radioimmunodetection of tumors by the subtraction technique. J. Nucl. Med. 25:96–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Delaloye, B., Bischof-Delaloye, A., Buchegger, F., et al. (1984) Detection of colorectal carcinoma by emission-computerized tomography after injection of 123I-labeled Fab or F(ab’)2 fragments from monoclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies. J. Clin. Invest. 77:301–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Goldenberg, D.M., Goldenberg, H., Sharkey, R.M., et al. (1989) Imaging of colorectal carcinoma with radiolabeled antibodies. Semin. Nucl. Med. 19:262–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pettit, W.A., DeLand, F.H., Bennett, S.J., and Goldenberg, D.M. (1980) Radiolabeling of affinity-purified goat anti-carcinoembryonic antigen immunoglobulin G with technetium-99m. Cancer Res. 40:3043–3045.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Rhodes, B.A., Torvestad, D.A., Breslow, K., et al. (1982) 99mTc-labeling and acceptance testing of radiolabeled antibodies and antibody fragments. In: Burchiel, S.W., and Rhodes, B.A. (eds.), Tumor Imaging. The Radioimmunochemical Detection of Cancer. New York: Masson Publishing, pp. 111–123.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fritzberg, A.R., Abrams, P.G., Beaumier, P.L., et al. (1988) Specific and stable labeling of antibodies with technetium-99m with a diamide dithiolate chelating agent. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:4025–4029.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Schwarz, A., and Steinstrasser, A. (1987) A novel approach to Tc99m-labeled monoclonal antibodies (abstract). J. Nucl. Med. 28:721.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hansen, H.J., Jones, A.L., Grebenau, R., et al. (1990) Labeling of anti-tumor antibodies and antibody fragments with 99mTc. In: Goldenberg, D.M. (ed.), Cancer Imaging with Radiolabeled Antibodies. Norwell, MA: Kluwer, pp. 233–244.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Magnani, J.L., Steplewski, Z., Koprowski, H., et al. (1983) Identification of the gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer-associated antigen detected by monoclonal antibody 19–9 in the sera of patients as a mucin. Cancer Res. 43:5489–5492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Johnson, V.G., Schlom, J., Paterson, A.J., et al. (1986) Analysis of a human tumor-associated glycoprotein (TAG-72) identified by a monoclonal antibody B72.3. Cancer Res. 46:850–857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pant, K.D., Dahlman, H.L., and Goldenberg, D.M. (1977) A putatively new antigen (CSAp) associated with gastrointestinal and ovarian neoplasia. Immunol Commun. 6: 411–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nocera, M.A., Shochat, D., Primus, F.J., et al. (1987) Representation of epitopes on colon-specific antigen-p (CSAp) defined by monoclonal antibodies. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 79: 943–948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Moldofsky, P.J., Powe, J., Mulhern, Jr., C.B., et al. (1983) Metastatic colon carcinoma detected with radiolabeled F(ab’)2 monoclonal antibody fragments. Radiology 149:549–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mach, J.P., Chatal, J.F., Lumbroso, J.D., et al. (1983) Tumor localization in patients by radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies against colon carcinoma. Cancer Res. 43:5593–5600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Chatal, J.F., Saccavini, J.C., Fumoleau, P., et al. (1984) Immunoscintigraphy of colon carcinoma. J. Nucl. Med. 25:307–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Colcher, D., Esteban, J.M., Carrasquillo, J.A., et al. (1987) Quantitative analyses of selective radiolabeled monoclonal antibody localization in metastatic lesions of colorectal cancer patients. Cancer Res. 47:1185–1189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Esteban, J.M., Colcher, D., Sugarbaker, D., et al. (1987) Quantitative and qualitative aspects of radiolocalization in colon cancer patients of intravenously administered Mab B72.3. Int. J. Cancer 39:50–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Baum, R.P., Lorenz, M., and Hor, G. (1987) Radioimmunszintigraphie bei kolorektalen karzinomen — Stellenwert in der rezidivdiagnostik nach 2 jahren klinischer erfahrung. Nuklearmedizin 10:219–234.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Baum, R.P., Lorenz, M., Senekowitsch, R., et al. (1988) Clinical experience in cancer diagnosis with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in 200 patients and initial attempts at radioimmunotherapy. In: Srivastava, S.C. (ed.), Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibodies for Imaging and Therapy. New York: Plenum, pp. 613–651.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Schlom, J. (1989) Innovations in monoclonal antibody tumor targeting. JAMA 261:744–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Farrands, P.A., Pimm, M.V., Embleton, M.J., et al. (1982) Radioimmunodetection of human colorectal cancers by an anti-tumor monoclonal antibody. Lancet 2:397–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Armitage, N.C., Perkins, A.C., Pimm, M.V., et al. (1984) The localization of an antitumor monoclonal antibody (791T/36) in gastrointestinal tumors. Br. J. Surg. 71:407–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Nelson, M.O., DeLand, F.H., Shochat, D., et al. (1983) External imaging of gastric cancer metastases with radiolabeled CE A and CSAp antibodies (letter). N. Engl. J. Med. 308:847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Brady, L.W., Woo, D.V., Markoe, A.M., et al. (1987) Monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In: Bleehan, N. (ed.), Radiobiology in Radiotherapy. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 233–241.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Order, S.E., Sleeper, A.M., Stillwagon, G.B., et al. (1989) Current status of radioimmuno-globulins in the treatment of human malignancy. Oncology 3:115–120.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Morrison, S.L. (1985) Transfectomas provide novel chimeric antibodies. Science 229: 1202–1207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Neuberger, M.S., Williams, G.T., and Fox, R.O. (1984) Recombinant antibodies possessing novel effector functions. Nature 312:604–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Shar, D.R., Khazaeli, M.B., and LoBuglio, A.F. (1988) Mouse/human chimeric antibodies to a tumor-associated antigen: Biologic activity of the four human IgG subclasses. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 80:1553–1559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sharkey, R.M., Primus, F.J., Shochat, D., and Goldenberg, D.M. (1988) Comparison of tumor targeting of mouse monoclonal and goat polyclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies in the GW-39 human tumor-hamster host model. Cancer Res. 48:1823–1828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gaffar, S.A., Pant, K.D., Shochat, D., et al. (1981) Experimental studies of tumor radioimmunodetection using antibody mixtures against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and colon-specific antigen-p (CSAp). Int. J. Cancer 27:101–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • David M. Goldenberg
  • Hildegard Goldenberg
  • Robert M. Sharkey
  • Robert E. Lee
  • Jo Ann Horowitz
  • Thomas C. Hall
  • Hans J. Hansen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations