• Arnold S. Monto


Coronaviridae are a monogeneric family of RNA-containing agents that have been associated with respiratory illnesses in man and with a number of other diseases in laboratory and domestic animals. The name for the family was adopted to describe the characteristic fringe of crownlike projections seen around the viruses by electron microscopy; these projections are club-shaped rather than sharp or pointed as is the case with the myxoviruses. Like the myxoviruses, the coronaviruses contain essential lipids and are 80–160 nm in diameter.(23)Unlike them, the coronaviruses are positive stranded.(57,69)Whereas the animal strains are readily isolated in several different systems, recovery of the human strains has posed major problems. A number of these strains have been isolated only in organ culture of the human respiratory tract. This factor has made it difficult to determine the relationship among isolates and has complicated efforts to understand the role of these viruses in human respiratory illness. Therefore, much of the information on the epidemiology of the agents has come from serological studies.


Infectious Bronchitis Virus Mouse Hepatitis Virus Human Coronavirus Coronavirus Infection Human Coronaviruses 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Almeida, J. D., and Tyrrell, D. A. J., The morphology of three previously uncharacterized human respiratory viruses that grow in organ culture,J. Gen. Virol 1: 175 – 178 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Apostolov, K., and Spasic, P., Evidence of a viral aetiology in endemic (Balkan) nephropathy,Lancet 2: 1271 – 1273 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Becker, W. B., McIntosh, K., Dees, J. H., andChanock, R. M., Morphogenesis of avian infectious bronchitis virus and a related human virus (strain 229E),J. Virol. 1: 1019 – 1027 (1967).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berry, D. M., Cruickshank, J. G., Chu, H. P., and Wells, R. J. H., The structure of infectious bronchitis virus,Virology 23: 403 – 407 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bohl, E. H., Gupta, R. K. P., Olquin, M. V. F., and Saif, L. J., Antibody responses in serum, colostrum, and milk of swine after infection or vaccination with transmissible gastroenteritis virus,Infect. Immun. 6: 289 – 301 (1972).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bradburne, A. F., Antigenic relationships amongst coronaviruses,Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 31:352–364(1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bradburne, A. F., An investigation of the replication of coronaviruses in suspension cultures of L132 cells,Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 37: 297 – 307 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bradburne, A. F., Bynoe, M. L., and Tyrrell, D. A. J., Effects of a “new” human respiratory virus in volunteers,Br. Med. J. 3: 767 – 769 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bradburne, A. F., and Somerset, B. A., Coronavirus antibody titres in sera of healthy adults and experimentally infected volunteers,J. Hyg. 70: 235 – 244 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bradburne, A. F., and Tyrrell, D. A. J., The propagation of “coronaviruses” in tissue culture,Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 28: 133 – 150 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bradburne, A. F., and Tyrrell, D. A. J., Coronaviruses of man,Prog. Med. Virol. 13: 373 – 403 (1971).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bruckova, M., McIntosh, K., Kapikian, A. Z., and Chanock, R. M., The adaptation of two coronavirus strains (OC38 and OC43) to growth in cell monolayers,Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 135: 431 – 435 (1970).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bucknall, R. A., Kalica, A. R., and Chanock, R. M., Intracellular development and mechanism of hemadsorption of a human coronavirus, OC43,Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 139: 811 – 817 (1972).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bucknall, R. A., King, L. M., Kapikian, A. Z., and Chanock, R. M., Studies with human coronaviruses. II. Some properties of strains 229E and OC43,Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 139: 722 – 727 (1972).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Burks, J. S., DeVald, B. L., Jankovsky, L. D., and Gerdes, J. C., Two coronaviruses isolated from central nervous system tissue of two multiple sclerosis patients,Science 209: 933 – 934 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Calhoun, A. M., Jordan, W. S., Jr., and Gwaltney, J. M., Jr., Rhinovirus infections in an industrial population. V. Change in distribution of serotypes,Am. J. Epidemiol.99:58– 64 (1974).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Callow, K. A., Effect of specific humoral immunity and some non-specific factors on resistance of volunteers to respiratory coronavirus infection,J. Hyg. Camb. 95: 173 – 189 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Candeias, J. A. N., Carvalho, R. P. deS., and Antonacio, F., Seroepidemiologic study of coronavirus infection in Brazilian children and civilian adults,Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. 14: 121 – 125 (1972).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Caul, E. O., Pavel, W. K., and Clarke, S. K. R., Coronavirus particles in faece from patients with gastroenteritis,Lancet 1: 1192 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cavallaro, J. J., and Monto, A. S., Community-wide outbreak of infection with a 229E-like coronavirus in Tecumseh, Michigan,J. Infect. Dis.122: 272 – 279 (1970).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chanock, R., Chambon, L., Chang, W., Goncalves Ferreira, F., Gharpure, P., Grant, L., Hatem, J., Imam, I., Kalra, S., Lim, K., Madalengotia, J., Spence, L., Teng, P., and Ferreira, W., WHO respiratory disease survey in children: A serological study,Bull. WHO 37: 363 – 369 (1967).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chany, C., Moscovici, O., Lebon, P., and Rousset, S., Association of coronavirus infection with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis,Pediatrics 69: 209 – 214 (1982).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Coronaviruses,Nature 220: 650 (1968).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Couch, R. B., Douglas, R. G., Jr., Lindgren, K. M., Gerone, P. J., and Knight, V., Airborne tranmission of respiratory infection with Coxsackievirus A type 21,Am. J. Epidemiol. 91: 78 – 86 (1970).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Crouch, C. F., Raybould, T. J. G., and Acres, S. D., Monoclonal antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of bovine enteric coronavirus,J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 388 – 393 (1984).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Geilhausen, H. E., Ligon, F. B., and Lukert, P. D., The pathogenesis of virulent and avirulent avian infectious bronchitis virus,Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 40: 285 – 290 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gerna, G., Passarani, N., Battaglia, M., and Rondanelli, E. G., Human enteric coronaviruses: Antigenic relatedness to human coronavirus OC43 and possible etiologic role in viral gastroenteritis,J. Infect. Dis. 151: 796 – 803 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gump, D. W., Phillips, C. A., Forsyth, B. R., McIntosh, K., Lamborn, K. R., and Stouch, W. H., Role of infection in chronic bronchitis,Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 113: 465 – 474 (1976).Google Scholar
  29. Hamre, D., and Beem, M., Virologic studies of acute respiratory disease in young adults. V. Coronavirus 229E infections during six years of surveillance,Am. J. Epidemiol.96: 94 – 106 (1972).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hamre, D., Kindig, D. A., and Mann, J., Growth and intracellular development of a new respiratory virus,J. Virol. 1: 810 – 816 (1967).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hamre, D., and Procknow, J. J., A new virus isolated from the human respiratory tract,Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 121: 190 – 193 (1966).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Harnett, G. B., and Hooper, W. L., Test-tube organ cultures of ciliated epithelium for the isolation of respiratory viruses,Lancet 1: 339 – 340 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hartley, J. W., Rowe, W. P., Bloom, H. H., and Turner, H. C., Antibodies to mouse hepatitis viruses in human sera,Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 115: 414 – 418 (1964).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hasony, H. J., and MacNaughton, M. R., Prevalence of human coronavirus antibody in the population of southern Iraq,J. Med. Virol. 9: 209 – 216 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hendley, J. O., Fishburne, H. B., and Gwaltney, J. M., Jr., Coronavirus infections in working adults, Am.Rev. Respir. Dis. 105: 805 – 811 (1972).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hendley, J. O., Wenzel, R. P., and Gwaltney, J. M., Jr., Transmission of rhinovirus colds by self-inoculation,N. Eng. J. Med. 288: 1361 – 1364 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hierholzer, J. C., Palmer, E. L., Whitfield, S. G., Kaye, H. S., and Dowdle, W. R., Protein composition of coronavirus OC43,Virology 48: 516 – 527 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hierholzer, J. C., and Tannock, G. A., Quantitation of antibody to non-hemagglutinating viruses by single radial hemolysis: Serological test for human coronaviruses,J. Clin. Microbiol. 5: 613 – 620 (1977).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Higgins, P. G., Phillpotts, R. J., Scott, G. M., Wallace, J., Bernhardt, L. L., and Tyrrell, D. A. J., Intranasal interferon as protection against experimental respiratory coronavirus infections in volunteers,Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 24: 713 – 715 (1983).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hogue, B. G., King, B., and Brian, D. A., Antigenic relationships among proteins of bovine coronavirus, human respiratory coronavirus OC43, and mouse hepatitis coronavirus A59,J. Virol. 5: 384 – 388 (1984).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hovi, T., Kainulainen, H., Ziola, B., and Salmi, A., OC43 strain-related coronavirus antibodies in different age groups,J. Med. Virol. 3: 313 – 320 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kapikian, A. Z., James, H. D., Jr., Kelly, S. J., Dees, J. H., Turner, H. C., McIntosh, K., Kim, H. W., Parrott, R. H., Vincent, M. M., and Chanock, R. M., Isolation from man of “avian infectious bronchitis virus–like” viruses (coronaviruses) similar to 229E virus, with some epidemiological observations,J. Infect. Dis. 119: 282 – 290 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kapikian, A. Z., James, H. D., Jr., Kelly, S. J., King, L. M., Vaughn, A. L., and Chanock, R. M., Hemadsorption by coronavirus strain OC43,Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 139: 179 – 186 (1972).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kapikian, A. Z., James H. D., Jr., Kelly, S. J., and Vaughn, A. L., Detection of coronavirus strain 692 by immune electron microscopy,Infect. Immun. 7: 111 – 116 (1973).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kaye, H. S., and Dowdle, W. R., Some characteristics of hemagglutination of certain strains of “IBV-like” viruses,J. Infect. Dis. 120: 576 – 581 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kaye, H. S., and Dowdle, W. R., Seroepidemiologic survey of coronavirus (strain 229E) infections in a population of children,Am. J. Epidemiol. 101: 238 – 244 (1975).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kaye, H. S., Hierholzer, J. C., and Dowdle, W. R., Purification and further characterization of an “IB V-like” virus (coronavirus),Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 135: 457 – 463 (1970).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kaye, H. S., Marsh, H. B., and Dowdle, W. R., Seroepidemiologic survey of coronavirus (strain OC43) related infections in a children‘s population,Am. J. Epidemiol. 94: 43 – 49 (1971).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kaye, H. S., Ong, SB., and Dowdle, W. R., Detection of coronavirus 229E antibody by indirect hemagglutination,Appl. Microbiol. 24: 703 – 707 (1972).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kaye, H. S., Yarbrough, W. B., and Reed, C. J., Calf diarrhoea coronavirus,Lancet 2: 509 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kaye, H. S., Yarbrough, W. B., Reed, C. J., and Harrison, A. K., Antigenic relationship between human coronavirus strain OC43 and hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus strain 67N of swine: Antibody responses in human and animal sera,J. Infect. Dis. 135: 201 – 209 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kendall, E. J., Bynoe, M. L., and Tyrrell, D. A. J., Virus isolation from common colds occurring in a residential school,Br. Med. J. 2: 82 – 86 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kennedy, D. A., and Johnson-Lussenburg, C. M., Isolation and morphology of the internal component of human coronavirus, strain 229E,Intervirology 6:197–206 (1975–1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kraaueveld, C. A., Madge, M. H., and MacNaughton, M. R., Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for coronaviruses HCV 229E and MHV 3,J. Gen. Virol. 49: 83 – 89 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lapps, W., and Brian, D. A., Oligonucleotide fingerprints of antigenically related bovine coronavirus and human coronavirus OC43,Arch. Virol. 86: 101 – 108 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Larson, H. E., Reed, S. E., and Tyrrell, D. A., Isolation of rhinoviruses and coronaviruses from 38 colds in adults,J. Med. Virol. 5: 221 – 229 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lomniczi, B., and Kennedy, I., Genome of infectious bronchitis virus,J. Virol. 24: 99 – 107 (1977).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    MacNaughton, M. R., Occurrence and frequency of coronavirus infections in humans as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,Infect. Immun. 38: 419 – 423 (1982).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    MacNaughton, M. R., Madge, M. H., and Reed, S. E., Two antigenic groups of human coronaviruses detected by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,Infect. Immun. 33: 734 – 737 (1981).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    MacNaughton, M. R., Thomas, B. J., Davies, H. A., and Patterson, S., Infectivity of human coronavirus strain 229E,J. Clin. Microbiol. 12: 462 – 468 (1980).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Madden, D. L., Wallen, W. C., Houff, S. A., Leinikki, P. A., Sever, J. L., Holmes, K. A., Castellano, G. A., and Shekarchi, I.C., Coronavirus antibodies in sera from patients with multiple sclerosis and matched controls,Arch. Neurol. 38: 209 – 210 (1981).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    McIntosh, K., Becker, W. B., and Chanock, R. M., Growth in suckling-mouse brain of “IBV-like” viruses from patients with upper respiratory tract disease,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 58: 2268 – 2273 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    McIntosh, K., Bruckova, M., Kapikian, A. Z., Chanock, R. M., and Turner, H., Studies of new virus isolates recovered in tracheal organ culture,Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 174: 983 – 989 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    McIntosh, K., Dees, J. H., Becker, W. B., Kapikian, A. Z., and Chanock, R. M., Recovery in tracheal organ cultures of novel viruses from patients with respiratory disease,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 57: 933 – 940 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    McIntosh, K., Ellis, E. F., Hoffman, L. S., Lybass, T. G., Eller, J. J., and Fulginiti, V. A., The association of viral and bacterial respiratory infections with exacerbations of wheezing in young asthmatic children,J. Pediatr. 82: 578 – 590 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    McIntosh, K., Kapikian, A. Z., Hardison, K. A., Hartley, J. W., and Chanock, R. M., Antigenic relationships among the coronaviruses of man and between human and animal coronaviruses,J. Immunol. 102: 1109 – 1118 (1969).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    McIntosh, K., Kapikian, A. Z., Turner, H. C., Hartley, J. W., Parrott, R. H., and Chanock, R. M., Seroepidemiologic studies of coronavirus infection in adults and children,Am. J. Epidemiol. 91: 585 – 592 (1970).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    McLean, R. L., General discussion, International Conference on Asian Influenza,Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 83(Part 2): 36 – 38 (1961).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    McNaughton, M. R., and Madge, M. H., The genome of human coronavirus strain 229E,J. Gen. Virol. 39: 497 – 504 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mebus,C. A.,Stair,E.L.,Rhodes,M.B.,andTwiehaus, M. J., Pathology of neonatal calf diarrhea induced by coronavirus-like agent,Vet. Pathol. 10: 45 – 64 (1973).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Miller, L. T., and Yates, V. J., Neutralization of infectious bronchitis virus by human sera,Am. J. Epidemiol. 88: 406 – 409 (1968).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Monto, A. S., Higgins, M. W., and Ross, H. W., The Tecumseh study of respiratory illness. VIII. Acute infection in chronic respiratory disease and comparison groups,Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 111: 27 – 36 (1975).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Monto, A. S., and Johnson, K. M., Respiratory infections in the American tropics,Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 17: 867 – 874 (1968).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Monto, A. S., and Lim, S. K., The Tecumseh study of respiratory illness. III. Incidence and periodicity of respiratory syncytial andMycoplasma pneumoniaeinfections,Am. J. Epidemiol. 94: 290 – 301 (1971).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Monto, A. S., and Lim, S. K., The Tecumseh study of respiratory illness. VI. Frequency of and relationship between outbreaks of coronavirus infection,J. Infect. Dis. 129: 271 – 276 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Monto, A. S., and Maassab, H. F., Effect of cyclic nucleotide on coronavirus replication,Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 161: 181 – 185 (1979).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Monto, A. S., and Rhodes, L. M., Detection of coronavirus infection of man by immunofluorescence,Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 155: 143 – 148 (1977).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mufson, M. A., McIntosh, K., Chao, R. K., Krause, H. E., Wasil, R., and Mocega, H. E., Epidemiology of coronavirus infections in infants with acute lower respiratory disease,Clin. Res. 20: 534 (1972).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Oshiro, L. S., Schieble, J. H., and Lennette, E. H., Electron microscopic studies of coronavirus,J. Gen. Virol. 12: 161 – 168 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pelon, W., Classification of the “2060” viruses ECH028 and further study of its properties,Am. J. Hyg. 73: 36 – 54 (1961)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Phillips, C. A., McIntosh, K., Forsyth, B. R., Gump, D. W., and Stouch, W. H., Coronavirus infections in exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, in:Twelfth Inter science Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Atlantic City, New Jersey, p. 3, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1972.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Pike, B. V., and Garwes, D. J., Lipids of transmissible gastroenteritis virus and their relation to those of two different host cells,J. Gen. Virol. 34: 531 – 535 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Purcell, D. A., and Clarke, J. K., The replication of infectious bronchitis virus in fowl trachea,Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 39: 248 – 256 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Reed, S. E., The behavior of recent isolates of human respiratory coronavirusin vitroand in volunteers: Evidence of heterogeneity among 229E-related strains,J. Med. Virol. 13: 179 – 192 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Riski, H., and Hovi, T., Coronavirus infections of man associated with diseases other than the common cold,J. Med. Virol. 6: 259 – 265 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Saif, L. J., Bohl, E. H., and Gupta, R. K. P., Isolation of porcine immunoglobulins and determination of the immunoglobulin classes of transmissible gastroenteritis viral antibodies,Infect. Immun. 6: 600 – 609 (1972).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Schmidt, O. W., Antigenic characterization of human coronaviruses 229E and OC43 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,J. Clin. Microbiol. 20: 175 – 180 (1984).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Schmidt, O. W., Cooney, M. K., and Kenny, G. E., Plaque assay and improved yield of human coronaviruses in a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line,J. Clin. Microbiol. 9: 722 – 728 (1979).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Schmidt, O. W., and Kenny, G. E., Polypeptides and functions of antigens from human coronaviruses 229E and OC43,Infect. Immun. 35: 515 – 522 (1982).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Siddell, S., Wege, H., and Ter Meulen, V., The biology of coronaviruses,J. Gen. Virol. 64: 761 – 776 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sitbon, M., Human-enteric-coronaviruslike particles (CVLP) with different epidemiological characteristics,J. Med. Virol. 16: 67 – 76 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Stair, E. L., Rhodes, M. B., White, R. G., and Mebus, C. A., Neonatal calf diarrhea: Purification and electron microscopy of a coronavirus-like agent,Am. J. Vet. Res. 33:1147–1156(1972).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sturman, L. S., Holmes, K. V., and Behnke, J., Isolation of coronavirus envelope glycoproteins and interaction with the viral nucleocapsid,J. Virol. 33: 449 – 462 (1980).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Tannock, G. A., and Hierholzer, J. C., Presence of genomic polyadenylate and absence of detectable virion transcriptase in human coronavirus OC-43,J. Gen. Virol. 39: 29 – 39 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tyrrell, D. A. J., and Almeida, J. D., Direct electron microscopy of organ cultures for the detection and characterization of viruses,Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 22: 417 – 421 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Tyrrell, D. A. J., and Bynoe, M. L., Cultivation of a novel type of common–cold virus in organ cultures,Br. Med. J. 1: 1467 – 1470 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tyrrell, D. A. J., Bynoe, M. L., and Hoorn, B., Cultivation of “difficult” viruses from patients with common colds,Br. Med. J. 1: 606 – 610 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Vaucher, Y. E., Ray, C. G., Minnich, L. L., Payne, C. M., Beck, D., and Lowe, P., Pleomorphic, enveloped, virus-like particles associated with gastrointestinal illness in neonates,J. Infect. Dis. 145: 27 – 36 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wenzel, R. P., Hendley, J. O., Davies, J. A., and Gwaltney, J. M., Jr., Coronavirus infections in military recruits: Three-year study with coronavirus strains OC43 and 229E,Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 109: 621 – 624 (1974).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arnold S. Monto
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Epidemiology and International Health, School of Public HealthUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations