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Viral Gastroenteritis

  • Albeit Z. Kapikian
  • Robert M. Chanock
Chapter

Abstract

Nonbacterial gastroenteritis is a syndrome that affects a broad segment of the population throughout the world. In the developed countries, it is a major cause of morbidity in infants and young children, whereas in the developing countries, it is a major cause of both morbidity and mortality in this same age group. In the Cleveland Family Study, which included some 25,000 illnesses over an approximate 10-year period, infectious gastroenteritis was the second most common disease experience and accounted for 16% of all illnesses.(103)In addition, a winter survey of a sample of United States physicians engaged in pediatric practice revealed that “GI disturbance” was the second most common disease for which children were brought to the physicians’ offices, accounting for 9.5% of all visits.(3)On the global scale, the impact of diarrheal diseases is staggering; World Health Organization (WHO) statistics reveal that diarrheal diseases account for a large proportion of the total reported deaths in many countries(255,477)An estimate of the total number of diarrheal episodes during a single year (1975) in children less than 5 years of age in Asia, Africa, and Latin America revealed that over 450 million episodes of diarrhea would occur, and of these 1–4% would be fatal, resulting in the deaths of 5–18 million infants and young children in this 1-year period.(364)In a recent report on a strategy for disease control in developing countries, it was estimated that in Africa, Asia, and Latin America in a 1-year period (1977–1978), there would be 3–5 billion cases of diarrhea and 5–10 million deaths; diarrheas were ranked number one in frequency in the categories of disease and mortality.(460)In addition, from selected studies it was estimated that in Latin America, Africa, and Asia (excluding China), 744 million to one billion diarrhea episodes and 4.6 million deaths from diarrhea occur annually in children under 5 years of age.(406)

Keywords

Acute Gastroenteritis Viral Gastroenteritis Diarrheal Illness Norwalk Virus Immune Electron Microscopy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albeit Z. Kapikian
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Robert M. Chanock
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Children’s Hospital National Medical CenterUSA
  3. 3.Department of Child Health and DevelopmentGeorge Washington University School of Medicine and Health SciencesUSA

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