Energetics of Winter and Migratory Fattening

  • Herbert Biebach

Abstract

Many birds live in environments that undergo marked variation in the course of the day and the year. From day to night the light level can change 1,000,000-fold, and under extreme conditions the air temperature can drop from +30°C to 5°C, or the relative humidity can rise from 20% to 80%. The same kind of variation can apply to the alternation between summer and winter, with months of permanent light followed by months of permanent darkness at the poles, with a temperature range of +30°C to -40°C in a continental climate and a several-meter snow cover that can persist for several winter months in mountain areas or high latitude with high precipitation. Superimposed on these predictable changes in the abiotic environment are unpredictable weather events. The climatic fluctuations are paralleled by changes in the biotic environment of a bird; certain prey animals or food plants disappear temporarily or are periodically not accessible. Birds have a relatively high metabolic rate, which implies continual energy consumption and a constant supply of food. To ensure that this supply is uninterrupted despite the extreme variation in availability of food, birds have developed many strategies, without which they would not have been able to survive in a diversity of habitats.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Alerstam, T. 1978. Reoriented bird migration in coastal areas: dispersal to suitable resting grounds? Oikos 30:405–408.Google Scholar
  2. Alerstam, T.1985. Strategies of migratory flight, illustrated by Arctic and Common Terns, Sterna paradisaea and Sterna hirundo. In Migration: Mechanisms and Adaptive Significance, ed. M. A. Rankin. Contributions in Marine Science, Supplement, vol. 27:580–603. University of Texas, Port Aransas.Google Scholar
  3. Alerstam, T. and Å. Lindström. 1990. Optimal bird migration: the relative importance of time, energy and safety. In Bird Migration, ed. E. Gwinner, pp. 331–351. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  4. Ankney, C. D. 1984. Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding and molting Brant. Auk 101:361–370.Google Scholar
  5. Ankney, C. D. and C. D. Maclnnes. 1978. Nutrient reserves and reproductive performance of female Lesser Snow Geese. Auk 95:459–471.Google Scholar
  6. Ash, J. S. 1969. Spring weights of trans-Saharan migrants in Morocco. Ibis 111:1–10.Google Scholar
  7. Atchley, W. R. 1978. Ratios, regression intercepts, and the scaling of data. Syst. Zool. 27:78–83.Google Scholar
  8. Atchley, W. R. and D. Anderson. 1978. Ratios and the statistical analysis of biological data. Syst Zool. 27:71–78.Google Scholar
  9. Baggott, G. K. 1975. Moult, flight muscle “hypertrophy” and premigratory lipid deposition of the juvenile Willow Warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus. J. Zool Lond. 1975:299–314.Google Scholar
  10. Bairlein, F. 1985a. Efficiency of food utilization during fat deposition in the long-distance migratory Garden Warbler, Sylvia borin. Oecologia 68:118–125.Google Scholar
  11. Bairlein, F. 1985b. Body weights and fat deposition of Palaearctic passerine migrants in the central Sahara. Oecologia 66:141–146.Google Scholar
  12. Bairlein F. 1990. Nutrition and food selection in migratory birds. In Bird Migration, ed. E. Gwinner, pp. 198–213. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  13. Bairlein, F. and E. Gwinner. 1994. Nutritional mechanisms and temporal control of migratory energy accumulation in birds. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 14:187–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Baldwin, S. R and S. C. Kendeigh. 1938. Variations in the weight of birds. Auk 55: 416–467.Google Scholar
  15. Bartleson, F. D., Jr. and O. F. Jensen. 1955. A study of Purple Finch winter weights. Wilson Bull. 67:55–59.Google Scholar
  16. Bednekoff, P. A. 1992. Foraging and fat reserves in Great Tit in a variable environment. Ph.D. diss., University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  17. Bednekoff, P. A., H. Biebach, and J. R. Krebs. 1994. Great Tit fat reserves under unpredictable temperatures. J. Avian Biology 25:156–160.Google Scholar
  18. Berthold, P. 1971. Physiologie des Vogelzugs. In Grundriβ der Vogelzugskunde, ed. E. Schüz, pp. 257–299. Paul Parey, Berlin-Hamburg.Google Scholar
  19. Berthold, P. 1974. Circannuale Periodik bei Grasmücken (Sylvia). III. Periodik der Mauser, der Nachtunruhe und des Körpergewichtes bei mediterranen Arten mit unter- schiedlichem Zugverhalten. J. Orn. 115:251–272.Google Scholar
  20. Berthold, P. 1974b. Circannual rhythms in birds with different migratory habits. In Circannual Clocks, ed. E. T. Pengelley, pp. 55–94. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Berthold, P. 1975a. Migratory fattening: endogenous control and interaction with migratory activity. Naturwissenschaften 62:399.Google Scholar
  22. Berthold, P. 1975b. Migration: control and metabolic physiology. In Avian Biology, vol 5, eds. D. S. Farner and J. R. King, pp. 77–128. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Berthold, P. 1976a. Animalische und vegetabilische Ernährung omnivorer Singvogelarten: Nahrungsbevorzugung, Jahresperiodik der Nahrungswahl, physiologische und ökologische Bedeutung. J. Orn. 117:145–209.Google Scholar
  24. Berthold, P. 1976b. über den Einfluβ der Fettdeposition auf die Zugunruhe bei der Gartengrasmü cke Sylvia borin. Die Vogelwarte 28:263–266.Google Scholar
  25. Berthold, P. 1977. über die Entwicklung von Zugunruhe bei der Gartengrasmücke Sylvia borin bei verhinderter Fettdeposition. Die Vogelwarte 29:113–116.Google Scholar
  26. Berthold, P., E. Gwinner, and H. Klein. 1970. Vergleichende Untersuchung der Jugendent-wicklung eines ausgeprägten Zugvogels, Sylvia borin, und eines weniger ausgeprägten Zugvogels, Sylvia atricapilla. Die Vogelwarte 25:297–331.Google Scholar
  27. Berthold, P., E. Gwinner, and H. Klein. 1972. Circannuale Periodik bei Grasmücken. I. Periodik des Körpergewichtes, der Mauser und der Nachtunruhe bei Sylvia atricapilla und Sylvia borin unter verschiedenen konstanten Bedingungen. J. Orn. 113:170–190.Google Scholar
  28. Bibby, C. J. and R. E. Green. 1981. Autumn migration strategies of Reed and Sedge Warblers. Ornis Scand. 12:1–12.Google Scholar
  29. Biebach, H. 1977. Das Winterfett der Amsel (Turdus merula). J. Orn. 118:117–133.Google Scholar
  30. Biebach, H. 1985. Sahara stopover in migratory Flycatchers: fat and food affect the time program. Experientia 41:695–697.Google Scholar
  31. Biebach, H. 1990. Strategies of trans-Sahara migrants. In Bird Migration, ed. E. Gwinner, pp. 352–367. Springer-Yerlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  32. Biebach, H. 1991. Is water or energy crucial for trans-Sahara migrants? In Acta XX Con gressus Internationalis Ornithologici, ed. B. Bell et al. pp. 773–779. New Zealand Ornithological Congress Trust Board Wellington, N.Z.Google Scholar
  33. Biebach, H. 1992. Flight-range estimates for small trans-Sahara migrants. Ibis 134(Sl):47–54.Google Scholar
  34. Biebach, H., W. Friedrich, and G. Heine. 1986. Interaction of body mass, fat, foraging and stopover period in trans-Sahara migrating passerine birds. Oecologia 69:370–379.Google Scholar
  35. Biebach, H., H. Wegner, and J. Habersetzer. 1985. Measuring migratory restlessness in captive birds by an ultrasonic system. Experientia 41:411–412.Google Scholar
  36. Blem, C. R. 1975. Geographic variation in wing-loading of the House Sparrow Wilson Bull 87(4):543–549.Google Scholar
  37. Blem, C. R. 1976. Patterns of lipid storage and utilization in birds. Am. Zool. 16:671–684.Google Scholar
  38. Blem, C. R. 1980. The energetics of migration. In Animal Migration, Orientation and Navigation, ed. S. A. Gauthreaux, pp. 175–224. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  39. Blem, C. R. 1990. Avian energy storage. In Current Ornithology, vol. 7, ed. R. F. Johnston, pp. 59–113. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  40. Blem, C. R. and M. H. Shelor. 1986. Multiple regression analyses of midwinter fattening of the White-throated Sparrow. Can. J. Zool 64:2405–2411.Google Scholar
  41. Bruderer, B. 1978. Effects of alpine topography and winds on migrating birds. In Animal Migration, Navigation and Homing, ed. K. Schmidt Koenig and W. T. Keeton, pp. 252–265. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  42. Bruderer, B. and L. Jenni. 1990. Migration across the Alps. In Bird Migration, ed. E. Gwinner, pp. 60–77. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  43. Budd, S. M.1973. Thermoregulation, bioenergetics and endocrinology of cold acclimatization of Black-capped Chickadees (Parus atricapillus). Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Butler, P. J. and D. J. Turner. 1988. Effect of training on maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic capacity of locomotory muscles in Tufted Ducks Aythya fuligula. J. Physiol. 401:347–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Butler, P. J. and A. J. Woakes. 1990. The physiology of bird flight. In Bird Migration, ed. E. Gwinner, pp. 300–318. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  46. Busse, P. and W. Kania. 1970. Operation Baltic 1961–1964. Working methods. Acta Orn. 12:229–267.Google Scholar
  47. Calder, W. A. 1974. The consequences of body size for avian energetics. In Avian Energetics, Pub. no. 15, ed. R. A. Paynter, pp. 86–151. Nuttall Ornithological Club, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  48. Calder, W. A. 1984. Size, Function and Life History. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  49. Caldwell, L. D., E. P. Odum, and S. G. Marshall. 1963. Comparison of fat levels in migrating birds killed at a central Michigan and a Florida Gulf Coast television tower. Wilson Bull. 75:428–434.Google Scholar
  50. Carmi, N., B. Pinshow, W. P. Porter, and J. Jaeger. 1992. Water and energy limitations on flight duration in small migrating birds. Auk 109(2):268–276.Google Scholar
  51. Carpenter, F. L. and M. A. Hixon. 1988. A new function for torpor: fat conservation in a wild migrant Hummingbird. Condor 90:373–378.Google Scholar
  52. Carpenter, F. L., D. C. Paton, and M. A. Hixon. 1983. Weight gain and adjustment of feeding territory size in migrant hummingbirds. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 80:7259–7263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Castro, G., B. A. Wunder, and F. L. Knopf. 1990. Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) to estimate total body fat of free-living birds. Condor 92:496–499.Google Scholar
  54. Chaffee, R. R. J. and W. W. Mayhew. 1964. Studies on chemical thermoregulation in the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus). Can. J. Physiol Pharmacol 42:863–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Chaplin, S. B. 1974. Daily energetics of the Black-capped Chickadee, Parus atricapillus in winter. J. Comp. Physiol. 89:321–330.Google Scholar
  56. Child, G. I. 1969. A study of non-fat weights in migrating Swainson’s Thrushes Hylocichla ustulata. Auk 86:327–338.Google Scholar
  57. Clark, G. A. 1979. Body weights of birds: A review. Condor 81:193–202.Google Scholar
  58. Cox, G. W. 1961. The relation of energy requirements of tropical finches to distribution and migration. Ecology 42:253–266.Google Scholar
  59. Daan, S. and D. Masman. 1989. Intraspecific allometry of basal metabolic rate: relations with body size, temperature, composition, and circadian phase in the Kestrel, Falco tinnunculus. J. Biol Rhythms 4(2):267–283.Google Scholar
  60. Daan, S., D. Masman, and A. Groenewold. 1990. Avian basal metabolic rates: their association with body composition and energy expenditure in nature. Am. J. Physiol. 259:R333–R340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Davidson, N. C. 1981. Survival of shorebirds (Charadrii) during severe weather: the role of nutritional reserves. In Feeding and Survival Strategies of Estuarine Organisms, eds. N. C. Jones and W. J. Wolff, Marine Science vol. 15, pp. 231–249. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  62. Davidson, N. C. 1984. How valid are flight range estimates for waders? Ringing Migration 5:49–64.Google Scholar
  63. Davidson, N. C. and P. R. Evans. 1988. Prebreeding accumulation of fat and muscle protein by arctic-breeding shorebirds. In Acta XIV Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici, pp. 342–352. National Museum of Natural Sciences, University of Ottawa Press, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  64. Davis, E. A., Jr. 1955. Seasonal changes in the energy balance of the English Sparrow Auk. 72:385–411.Google Scholar
  65. Dawson, W. R. and J. W. Hudson. 1970. Birds. In Invertebrates and Nonmammalian Vertebrates (Comparative Physiology of Thermoregulation, vol 1), ed. G. C. Wittow, pp. 223–310. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  66. Dawson, W. R. and R. L. Marsh. 1986. Winter fattening in the American Goldfinch and the possible role of temperature in its regulation. Physiol Zool. 59(3):357–368.Google Scholar
  67. Dawson, W. R., R. Marsh, W. A. Buttemer, and C. Carey. 1983. Seasonal and geographical variation of cold resistance in House Finches Carpodacus mexicanus. Physiol Zool. 56:353–359.Google Scholar
  68. Dobush, G. R., C. D. Ankney, and D. G. Krementz. 1985. The effect of apparatus, extraction time, and solvent type on lipid extractions of Snow Geese. Can. J. Zool 63: 1917–1920.Google Scholar
  69. Dolnik, V R. 1990. Bird migration across arid and mountainous regions of Middle Asia and Kasakhstan. In Bird Migration, ed. E. Gwinner, pp. 368–387. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  70. Dolnik, V R. and T. I. Blyumental. 1967. Autumnal premigratory and migratory periods in the Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs coelebs) and some other temperate zone birds. Condor 69:435–468.Google Scholar
  71. Drent, R. and T. Piersma. 1990. An exploration of the energetics of leap-frog migration in arctic breeding waders. In Bird Migration, ed. E. Gwinner, pp. 399–412. Springer- Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  72. Dugan, P. J., P. R. Evans, L. R. Goodyer, and N. C. Davidson. 1981. Winter fat reserves in shore-birds: disturbance of regulated levels by severe weather conditions. Ibis 123(3):359–363.Google Scholar
  73. Dunbrack, R. L. and M. A. Ramsay. 1993. The allometry of mammalian adaptations to seasonal environments: a critique of the fasting endurance hypothesis. Oikos 66:2.Google Scholar
  74. Ekman, J. B. and M. K. Hake. 1990. Monitoring starvation risk: adjustments of body reserves in Greenfinches (Carduelis chloris L.) during periods of unpredictable foraging success. Behav. Ecol. 1(1):62–67.Google Scholar
  75. Ekman, J. B. and K. Lilliendahl. 1993. Using priority to food access: fattening strategies in dominance-structured Willow Tit (Parus montanus) flocks. Behav. Ecol. 4(3):232–238.Google Scholar
  76. Elliott, D. C. H., M. Waltner, L. G. Underhill, J. S. Pringle, and W. J. A. Dick. 1976. The migration system of the Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea in Africa. Ostrich 47:191–215.Google Scholar
  77. Ens, B. J., T. Piersma, W. J. Wolff, and L. Zwarts. 1990. Homeward bound: problems waders face when migrating from the Banc d’Arguin, Mauritania, to their northern breeding grounds in spring. Ardea 78(1/2): 1–364.Google Scholar
  78. Evans, P. R. 1969a. Ecological aspects of migration and premigratory fat deposition in the Lesser Redpoll Caduelis flammea cabaret. Condor 71:316–330.Google Scholar
  79. Evans, P. R. 1969b. Winter fat deposition and overnight survival of Yellow Buntings (Emberiza citrinella L.). J. Anim. Ecol. 38:415–423.Google Scholar
  80. Evans, P. R. 1992. The use of Balsfjord, north Norway, as a staging post by Knot during spring migration: fat deposition, muscle hypertrophy and flight strategies. Wader Study Group Bull. Supplement. 65:23–33.Google Scholar
  81. Evans, P. R. and N. C. Davidson. 1990. Migration strategies and tactics of waders breeding in arctic and north temperate latitudes. In Bird Migration, ed. E. Gwinner, pp. 387–398. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  82. Evans, P. R., N. C. Davidson, J. D. Uttley, and R. D. Evans. 1992. Premigratory hypertrophy of flight muscles—an ultrastructural-study. Ornis Scand. 23(3):238–243.Google Scholar
  83. Fogden, M. P. L. 1972. Premigratory dehydration in the Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus and water as a factor limiting migratory range. Ibis 114:548–552.Google Scholar
  84. Fredrickson, L. H. 1969. Mortality of coots during severe spring weather. Wilson Bull. 81(4):450–453.Google Scholar
  85. Fry, C. H., J. S. Ash, and I. J. Ferguson-Lees. 1970. Spring weights of some palaearctic migrants at Lake Chad. Ibis 112:58–82.Google Scholar
  86. Fry, C. H., I. J. Ferguson-Lees, and J. S. Ash. 1972. Flight muscle hypertrophy and ecophysiological variation of Yellow Wagteil Motacilla flava races at Lake Chad. J. Zool. Lond. 167:293–306.Google Scholar
  87. Garnett, M. C. 1976. Some aspects of body size in the Great Tit. Ph.D. diss., Oxford University.Google Scholar
  88. Gauthreaux, S. A., Jr. and K. P. Able. 1970. Wind and the direction of nocturnal songbird migration. Nature 228:476–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Gifford, C. E. and E. P. Odum. 1965. Bioenergetics of lipid deposition in the Bobolink, a transequatorial migrant. Condor 67:383–403.Google Scholar
  90. Greenewalt, C. H. 1975. The flight of birds. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 65:1–67.Google Scholar
  91. Gwinner, E. 1969. Untersuchungen zur Jahresperiodik von Laubsängern. Die Entwicklung des Gefieders, des Gewichts und der Zugunruhe bei Jungvögeln der Arten Phylloscopus bonelli, Ph. sibilatrix, Ph. trochilus und Ph. collybita. J. Orn. 110:1–21.Google Scholar
  92. Gwinner, E. 1971. A comparative study of circannual rhythms in warblers. In Biochronometry, ed. M. Menaker, pp. 405–427. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  93. Gwinner, E. 1972. Adaptive functions of circannual rhythms in warblers. In Proc. XV International Ornithological Congress, ed. K. H. Voous, pp. 218–236. E. J. Brill, Leiden.Google Scholar
  94. Gwinner, E. 1977. Circannual rhythms in bird migration. Ann. Rev. Ecol. System. 8:381–405.Google Scholar
  95. Gwinner, E. 1981. Circannual rhythms: their dependence on the circadian system. In Biological Clocks in Seasonal Reproductive Cycles, eds. B. K. Follett and D. E. Follett, pp. 135–169. John Wright & Sons, Bristol, England.Google Scholar
  96. Gwinner, E. 1986a. Circannual rhythms in the control of avian migrations. Adv. Stud. Behav. 16:191–228.Google Scholar
  97. Gwinner, E. 1987. Photoperiodic synchronization of circannual rhythms in gonadal activity, migratory restlessness, body weight and molt in the Garden Warbler (Sylvia borin). In Comparative Physiology of Environmental Adaptions, ed. Pévet 8th ESCP Conf. Strasbourg 1986, vol. 3, pp. 30–44 Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  98. Gwinner, E. and H. Biebach. 1977. Endogene Kontrolle der Mauser und der Zugdisposition bei südfinnischen und südfranzösischen Neuntötern (Lanius collurio). Vogelwarte 29:56–63.Google Scholar
  99. Gwinner, E., P. Berthold, and H. Klein. 1971. Untersuchungen zur Jahresperiodik von Laubsängern. II. Einfluss der Tageslichtdauer auf die Entwicklung des Gefieders, des Gewichts und der Zugunruhe bei Phylloscopus trochilus und Ph. collybita. J. Orn. 112:253–265.Google Scholar
  100. Gwinner, E., H. Biebach, and I. von Kries. 1985. Food availability affects migratory restlessness in caged Garden Warblers (Sylvia borin). Naturwissenschaften 72:51.Google Scholar
  101. Gwinner, E., H. Schwabl, and I. Schwabl-Benzinger. 1992. The migratory time program of the Garden Warbler—is there compensation for interruptions? Ornis Scand. 23(3):264–270.Google Scholar
  102. Haas, W. and P. Beck. 1979. Zum Friihjahrszug paläarktischer Vögel über die westliche Sahara. J. Orn. 120:237–246.Google Scholar
  103. Haftorn, S. 1976. Variation in body weight, wing length and tail length in the Great Tit Parus major. Norw. J. Zool 24:241–271.Google Scholar
  104. Haftorn, S. 1989. Seasonal and diurnal body weight variation in titmice, based on analyses of individual birds. Wilson Bull. 101:217–235.Google Scholar
  105. Hanson, H. C. 1965. The Giant Canada Goose. University Press, Carbondale, Illinois.Google Scholar
  106. Harvey, J. M. 1971. Factors affecting Blue Goose nesting success. Can. J. Zool. 49:223–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Helms, C. W. 1963. Tentative field estimates of metabolism in buntings. Auk 80:318–334.Google Scholar
  108. Helms, C. W. and W. H. Drury, Jr. 1960. Winter and migratory weight and fat field studies on some North American buntings. Bird Banding 31:1–40.Google Scholar
  109. Herrera, C. M. 1984. Adaptation to frugivory of Mediterranean avian seed disperses. Ecology 65:609–617.Google Scholar
  110. Hiebert, S. 1993. Seasonal changes in body-mass and use of torpor in a migratory hummingbird Auk 10:787–797.Google Scholar
  111. Hurly, T. A. 1992. Energetic reserves of Marsh Tits (Parus palustris)—food and fat storage in response to variable food-supply. Behavioral Ecology 3(2): 181–188.Google Scholar
  112. Hussell, D. J. T. and A. B. Lambert. 1980. New estimates of weight loss in birds during nocturnal migration. Auk 97:547–558.Google Scholar
  113. Izhaki, I. and U. N. Safriel. 1985. Why do fleshy-fruit plants of the Mediterranean scrub intercept fall—but not spring-passage of seed-dispersing migratory birds? Oecologia (Berlin) 67:40–43.Google Scholar
  114. Jansson, C., J. Ekman, and A. von Bromssen. 1981. Winter mortality and food supply in tits Parus spp. Oikos 37:313–322.Google Scholar
  115. Jenni, L. and S. Jenni-Eiermann. 1987. Body weight and energy reserves of Bramblings in winter. Ardea 75:271–284.Google Scholar
  116. Jenni, L. and S. Jenni-Eiermann. 1992. Metabolic patterns of feeding, overnight fasted and flying night migrants during autumn migration. Ornis Scand. 23(3):251–259.Google Scholar
  117. Jenni-Eiermann, S. and L. Jenni. 1991. Metabolic responses to flight and fasting in night- migrating passerines. J. Compar. Physiol B 161:465–474.Google Scholar
  118. Johnston, D. W. 1968. Body characteristics of Palm Warblers following an overwater flight. Auk 85:13–18.Google Scholar
  119. Kacelnik, A. 1979. Studies of foraging behavior and time budgeting in Great Tits Parus major. Ph.D. diss., University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  120. Kaiser, A. 1992. Fat deposition and theoretical flight range of small autumn migrants in southern Germany. Bird Study 39:96–110.Google Scholar
  121. Kaiser, A. 1993. A new multi-category classification of subcutaneous fat deposits of song-birds. J. Field Ornithol. 64(2):246–255.Google Scholar
  122. Kendeigh, S. C., J. E. Kontogiannis, A. Mazac, and R. R. Roth. 1969. Environmental regu-lation of food intake by birds. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 31:941–957.Google Scholar
  123. Kerlinger, P. and E R. Moore. 1989. Atmospheric structure and avian migration. Current Ornith. 6:109–142.Google Scholar
  124. Kersten, M. and T. Piersma. 1987. High levels of energy expenditure in shorebirds: metabolic adaptation to an energetically expensive way of life. Ardea 75:175–187.Google Scholar
  125. King, J. R. 1961a. On the regulation of vernal premigratory fattening in the White-crowned Sparrow. Physiol Zool. 34:145–157.Google Scholar
  126. King, J. R. 1961b. The bioenergetics of vernal premigratory fat deposition in the White-crowned Sparrow. Condor 63:128–142.Google Scholar
  127. King, J. R. 1972. Adaptative periodic fat storage by birds. In Proc. XVth International Ornithological Congress, ed. K. H. Voous pp. 200–217. E. J. Brill Leiden, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  128. King, J. R. and D. S. Farner. 1965. Studies of fat deposition in migratory birds. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 131:422–440.Google Scholar
  129. King, J. R. and D. S. Farner. 1966. The adaptive role of winter fattening in the White- crowned Sparrow with comments on its regulation. Am. Nat. 100:403–418.Google Scholar
  130. King, J. R. and M. E. Murphy. 1985. Periods of nutritional stress in the annual cycles of endotherms: fact or fiction? Am. Zool 25:955–964.Google Scholar
  131. King, J. R., S. Barker, and D. S. Farner. 1963. A comparison of energy reserves during the autumnal and vernal migratory periods in the White-crowned Sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii. Ecology 44:513–521.Google Scholar
  132. Klaassen, M. and H. Biebach. 1994. Energetics of fattening and starvation in the longdistance migratory Garden Warbler. J. Comp. Physiol B 164:362–371.Google Scholar
  133. Kontogiannis, J. E. 1967. Day and night changes in body weight of the White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis). Auk 84:390–395.Google Scholar
  134. Krementz, D. G. and G. W. Pendleton. 1990. Fat scoring: sources of variability. Condor 92:500–507.Google Scholar
  135. Krüger, K., P. Prinzinger, and K. L. Schuchmann. 1982. Torpor and metabolism in hummingbirds. Comp. Biochem. Physiol 73A:679–689.Google Scholar
  136. Lavee, D. and U. Safriel. 1974. Utilization of an oasis by desert-crossing migrant birds. Israeli Zool. 22:219.Google Scholar
  137. Lawrence, L. 1958. On regional movements and body weight of Black-capped Chickadees in winter. Auk 75:415–443.Google Scholar
  138. LeFebvre, E. A. and D. G. Raveling. 1967. Distribution of Canada Geese in winter as related to heat loss at varying environmental temperatures. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 31:538–546.Google Scholar
  139. Lehikoinen, E. 1986. Is fat fit?—a field study of survival in the Great Tit, Parus major. Ornis Fenn. 63:112–119.Google Scholar
  140. Lehikoinen, E. 1987. Seasonality of the daily weight cycle in wintering passerines and its consequences. Ornis Scand. 18:216–226.Google Scholar
  141. Lima, S. L. 1986. Predation risk unpredictable feeding conditions: determinants of body mass in birds. Ecology 67:377–385.Google Scholar
  142. Lindstedt, S. L. and M. S. Boyce. 1985. Seasonality, fasting endurance, and body size in mammals. Am. Nat. 125:873–878.Google Scholar
  143. Lindström, Å. 1989. Finch flock size and risk of hawk predation at a migratory stopover site. Auk 106:225–232.Google Scholar
  144. Lindström, Å. 1991. Maximum fat deposition rates in migrating birds. Ornis Scand. 22:12–19.Google Scholar
  145. Lindström, Å. and T. Alerstam. 1986. The adaptive significance of reoriented migration of Chaffinches Fringilla coelebs and Bramblings F. montifringilla during autumn in southern Sweden. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 19:417–424.Google Scholar
  146. Lindström, Å. and T. Alerstam. 1992. Optimal fat loads in migrating birds—a test of the time-minimization hypothesis. Am. Nat. 140(3):477–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Lindström, Å. and T. Piersma. 1993. Mass changes in migrating birds—the evidence for fat and protein storage reexamined. Ibis 135:70–78.Google Scholar
  148. Lindström, Å., D. Hasselquist, S. Bensch, and M. Grahn. 1990. Asymmetric contests over resources for survival and migration: a field experiment with Bluethroats. Anim. Behav. 40:453–461.Google Scholar
  149. Lofts, B., A. J. Marshall, and A. Wolfson. 1963. The experimental demonstration of pre-migration activity in the absence of fat deposition in birds. Ibis 105:99–105.Google Scholar
  150. Loria, D. L. and F. R. Moore. 1990. Energy demands of migration on Red-eyed Vireos, Vireo olivaceus. Behavioral Ecol. 1:24–35.Google Scholar
  151. Mainguy, S. K. and V G. Thomas. 1985. Comparisons of body reserve buildup and use in several groups of Canada Geese. Can. J. Zool. 63:1765–1772.Google Scholar
  152. Marsh, R. L. 1983. Adaptations of the Gray Catbird Dumetella carolinensis to long-distance migration: Energy stores and substrate concentrations in plasma. Auk 100:170–179.Google Scholar
  153. Marsh, R. L. 1984. Adaptations of the Gray Catbird to long-distance migration: Flight muscle hypertrophy associated with elevated body mass. Physiological Zool. 57(1): 105–117.Google Scholar
  154. Masman, D. and M. Klaassen. 1987. Energy expenditure during free flight in trained and free-living Eurasian Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus). Auk 104:603–616.Google Scholar
  155. McLandress, M. R. and D. G. Raveling. 1981. Changes in diet and body composition of Canada Geese before spring migration. Auk 98:65–79.Google Scholar
  156. McNamara, J. M. and A. I. Houston. 1990. The value of fat reserves and the tradeoff between starvation and predation. Acta Biotheoretica. 38:37–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Mehlum, F. 1983. Resting time in migrating Robins Erithacus rubecula at Store Faerder, Outer Oslofjord, Norway. Fauna now. Ser. C, Cinclus 6:62–72.Google Scholar
  158. Moore, F. and P. Kerlinger. 1987. Stopover and fat deposition by North American wood- Warblers (Parulinae) following spring migration over the Gulf of Mexico. Oecologia 74(1):47–54.Google Scholar
  159. Moore, F. R. and P. Kerlinger. 1991. Nocturnality, long-distance migration, and ecological barriers. In Acta XX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici, ed. B. Bell et al. pp. 1122–1129. New Zealand Ornithological Congress Trust Board, Wellington, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  160. Moreau, R. E. and R. M. Dolp. 1970. Fat, water, weights and wing-lengths of autumn mi-grants in transit on the northwest coast of Egypt. Ibis 112:209–228.Google Scholar
  161. Mortensen, A. and A. S. Blix. 1985. Seasonal changes in the effects of starvation on metabolic rate and regulation of body weight in Svalbard Ptarmigan. Ornis Scand. 16:20–24.Google Scholar
  162. Mortensen, A., S. Unander, M. Kolstad, and A. S. Blix. 1983. Seasonal changes in body composition and crop content of Spitzbergen Ptarmigan Lagopus mutus hyperboreus. Ornis Scandinavica 14:144–148.Google Scholar
  163. Morton, J. M., R. L. Kirkpatrick, and E. P. Smith. 1991. Comments on estimating total body lipids from measures of lean mass. Condor 93:463–465.Google Scholar
  164. Moss, R. 1973. The digestion and intake of winter foods by wild Ptarmigan in Alaska. Condor 75:293–300.Google Scholar
  165. Myrberget, S. and H. Skar. 1976. Fat and calorific content of Willow Grouse in autumn and winter. Norw. J. Zool 24:41–45.Google Scholar
  166. Newton, I. 1966. Fluctuations in the weights of Bullfinches. British Birds 59:89–100.Google Scholar
  167. Newton, I. 1969. Winter fattening in the Bullfinch. Physiol Zool. 42:96–107.Google Scholar
  168. Nolan, V, Jr., and E. D. Ketterson. 1983. An analysis of body mass, wing length, and visible fat deposits of Dark-eyed Juncos wintering at different latitudes. Wilson Bull. 95:603–620.Google Scholar
  169. Norberg, U. M. 1990. Vertebrate Flight: Mechanics, Physiology, Morphology, Ecology, and Evolution. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  170. O’Connor, R. J. 1970. Patterns of weight change in the House Sparrow, Passer domesticus (L.). In Productivity, Population Dynamics, and Systematics of Granivorous Birds, eds. S. C. Kendeigh and J. Pinowski, pp. 111–125. Pan’stwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warsaw, Poland.Google Scholar
  171. Odum, E. P. 1949. Weight variations in wintering White-throated Sparrows in relation to temperature and migration. Wilson Bull. 61:3–14.Google Scholar
  172. Odum, E. P. 1960. Premigratory hyperphagia in birds. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 8:621–629.Google Scholar
  173. Odum, E. P. 1965. Adipose tissue in migratory birds. Handbook of Physiol. 6:37–43.Google Scholar
  174. Odum, E. P. and J. D. Perkinson, Jr. 1951. Relation of lipid metabolism to migration in birds: seasonal variation in body lipids of the migratory White-throated Sparrow. Physiol Ann. Zool. Fenn. 20:293–300.Google Scholar
  175. Peiponen, V A. 1962. über Brutbiologie, Nahrung und geographische Verbreitung des Birkenzeisigs (Carduelis flammea). Ornis Fennica 39:1–60.Google Scholar
  176. Pennycuick, C. J. 1969. The mechanics of bird migration. Ibis 111:525–556.Google Scholar
  177. Pennycuick, C. J. 1975. Mechanics of flight. In Avian Biology; vol. 5, eds. D. S. Farner and J. R. King, pp. 1–75. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  178. Pennycuick, C. J. 1978. Fifteen testable predictions about bird flight. Oikos 30:165–176.Google Scholar
  179. Pennycuick, C. J. 1989. Bird Flight Performance: A Practical Calculation Manual. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  180. Petterson, J. and D. Hasselquist. 1985. Fat deposition and migration capacity of Robins Erithacus rubecula and Goldcrest Regulus regulus at Ottenby, Sweden. Ring. Migr. 6:66–76.Google Scholar
  181. Piersma, T. 1984. Estimating energy reserves of Great Crested Grebes (Podiceps cristatus) on the basis of body dimensions. Ardea 72:119–126.Google Scholar
  182. Piersma, T. 1988. Body size, nutrient reserves and diet of Red-necked and Slavonian Grebes Podiceps grisegena and P. auritus on Lake IJsselmeer, The Netherlands. Bird Study 35:13–24.Google Scholar
  183. Piersma, T. 1990. Pre-migratory “fattening” usually involves more than the deposition of fat alone. Ringing Migration 11:113–115.Google Scholar
  184. Piersma, T. and J. Jukema. 1990. Budgeting the flight of a long-distance migrant: changes in nutrient reserve levels of Bar-tailed Godwits at successive spring staging sites. Ardea 78(1–2):315–337.Google Scholar
  185. Piersma., T. and N. E. Van Brederode. 1990. The estimation of fat reserves in coastal waders before their departure from northwest Africa in spring. Ardea 78:221–236.Google Scholar
  186. Pond, C. M. 1981. Storage. In Physiological Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach to Resource Use, eds. C. R. Townsend and P. Calow, pp. 190–219. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.Google Scholar
  187. Prinzinger, R., A. PreBmar, and E. Schleucher. 1991. Body temperature in birds. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 99A(4):499–506.Google Scholar
  188. Prokosch, P. 1988. Das Schleswig-Holsteinische Wattenmeer als Frühjahrs-Aufenthaltsgebiet arktischer Watvogel-Populationen am Beispiel von Kiebitzregenpfeifer (Pluvialis squatarola, L. 1758), Knutt (Calidris canutus, L. 1758). und Pfiihlschnepfe (Limosa lapponica, L. 1758). Corax 12:274–442.Google Scholar
  189. Rappole, J. H. and D. W. Warner. 1976. Relationships between behavior, physiology and weather in avian transients at a migration stopover site. Oecologia 26:193–212.Google Scholar
  190. Rautenberg, W. 1957. Vergleichende Untersuchungen über den Energiehaushalt des Bergfinken (Fringilla montifringilla L.) und des Haussperlings (Passer domesticus L.) J. Orn. 98:36–64.Google Scholar
  191. Raveling, D. G. 1979. The annual cycle of body composition of Canada Geese with special reference to control of reproduction. Auk 96:234–252.Google Scholar
  192. Raveling, D. G., W. E. Crews, and W. D. Klimstra. 1972. Activity patterns of Canada Geese during winter. Wilson Bull. 84(3):278–295.Google Scholar
  193. Rayner, J. M. V 1990. The mechanics of flight and bird migration performance. In Bird Migration, ed. E. Gwinner, pp. 283–299. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  194. Reinertsen, R. E.1983. Nocturnal hypothermia and its energetic significance for small birds living in the arctic and subarctic regions. A review. Polar Research 1 n.s. 269–284.Google Scholar
  195. Reinertsen, R. E. and S. Haftorn. 1984. The effect of shorttime fasting on the metabolism and nocturnal hypothermia in the Willow Tit (Parus montanus). J. Comp. Physiol. 151:109–118.Google Scholar
  196. Richardson, W. J. 1990. Timing of bird migration in relation to weather: updated review. In Bird Migration, ed. E. Gwinner, pp. 78–101. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  197. Robbins, C. T. 1983. Wildlife-Feeding and Nutrition. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  198. Robin, J. R., T. Zorn, Y. Le Maho. 1991. Prolonged winter fast and subsequent refeeding in Mallards: changes in nutrient reserves and in food intake. Ecophysiology 313:529–535.Google Scholar
  199. Roby, D. D. 1991. A comparison of two noninvasive techniques to measure total body lipid in live birds. Auk 108:509–518.Google Scholar
  200. Rogers, C. M. 1987. Predation risk and fasting capacity: do wintering birds maintain optimal body mass? Ecology 68(4): 1051–1061.Google Scholar
  201. Rogers, C. M. 1991. An evaluation of the method of estimating body fat in birds by quantifying visible subcutaneous fat. J. Field Ornithol. 62:349–356.Google Scholar
  202. Rogers, C. M. and C. J. Rogers. 1990. Seasonal variation in daily mass amplitude and minimum body mass: a test of a recent model. Ornis Scand. 21:105–114.Google Scholar
  203. Sandberg, R., J. Pettersson, and K. Persson. 1991. Migratory orientation of free-flying Robins Erithacus rubecula and Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca: Release experiments. Ornis Scand. 22:1–11.Google Scholar
  204. Scott, I., M. Grant, and P. R. Evans. 1991. Estimation of fat-free mass of live birds: use of total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) measurements in studies of single species in the field. Functional Ecol. 5:314–320.Google Scholar
  205. Seibert, H. C. 1949. Differences between migrant and non-migrant birds in food and water intake at various temperatures and photoperiods. Auk 66:128–153.Google Scholar
  206. Serle, W. 1956. Migrant land-birds at sea off west Africa. Ibis 98:307–311.Google Scholar
  207. Steen, J. 1958. Climatic adaptation in some small northern birds. Ecology 39:625–629.Google Scholar
  208. Stoddard, P. K., J. E. Marsden, and T. C. Williams. 1983. Computer simulation of autumnal bird migration over the western North Atlantic. Anim. Behaviour 31:173–180.Google Scholar
  209. Stuebe, M. M. and E. D. Ketterson. 1982. A study of fasting in Tree Sparrows (Spizella arborea) and Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis): ecological implications. Auk 99: 299–308.Google Scholar
  210. Summers, R. W. and M. Waltner. 1979. Seasonal variation in the mass of waders in southern Africa, with special reference to migration. Ostrich 50:21–37.Google Scholar
  211. Swan, H. 1974. Thermoregulation and Bioenergetics. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  212. Thomas, V G. 1982. Energetic reserves of Hudson Bay Willow Ptarmigan during winter and spring. Can. J. Zool. 60:1618–1623.Google Scholar
  213. Thomas, V G. 1987. Similar winter energy strategies of grouse, hares and rabbits in northern biomes. Oikos. 50:206–212.Google Scholar
  214. Tooze, Z. J. and C. L. Gass. 1985. Responses of Rufous Hummingbirds to midday fasts. Can. J. Zool. 63:2249–2253.Google Scholar
  215. Tucker, V A. 1974. Energetics of natural avian flight. In Avian Energetics, ed. R. A. Paynter, pp. 298–328. Nuttall Ornithological Club, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  216. Van Balen, J. H. 1967. The significance of variations in body weight and wing length in the Great Tit, Parus major. Ardea 55:1–59.Google Scholar
  217. Videler, J. J., G. Vossebelt, M. Gnodde, and A. Groenewegen. 1988. Indoor flight experiments with trained Kestrels. J. Exp. Biol. 134:173–199.Google Scholar
  218. Vincent, J. and J. Bédard. 1976. Fat reserves in Snow Buntings. Can. J. Zool. 54: 1051–1063.Google Scholar
  219. Visser, J. 1978. Fat and protein metabolism and mortality in the Coot Fulica atra. Ardea 66:173–183.Google Scholar
  220. Walsberg, G. E. 1988. Evaluation of a nondestructive method for determining fat stores in small birds and mammals. Physiol. Zool. 61(2): 153–159.Google Scholar
  221. Walsberg, G. E. 1990. Problems inhibiting energetic analyses of migration. In Bird Migration, ed. E. Gwinner, pp. 413–421. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  222. Weise, C. M. 1963. Annual physiological cycles in captive birds of differing migratory habits. In Acta XVIII Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici, ed. V. D. Ilyichev and V. M. Gavrilov, pp. 983–993.Google Scholar
  223. West, G. C. 1960. Seasonal variation in the energy balance of the Tree Sparrow in relation to migration. Auk 77:306–329.Google Scholar
  224. West, G. C. and M. S. Meng. 1968. Seasonal changes in body weight and fat and the relation of fatty acid composition to diet in the Willow Ptarmigan. Wilson Bull. 80: 426–441.Google Scholar
  225. White, C. M. and G. C. West. 1977. The annual lipid cycle and feeding behavior of Alaskan Redpolls. Oecologia 27:227–238.Google Scholar
  226. Williams, T. C. and J. M. Williams. 1990. The orientation of transoceanic migrants. In Bird Migration, ed. E. Gwinner, pp. 7–21. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  227. Williams, T. C., P. Berkeley, and V Harris. 1977. Autumnal bird migration over Miami studied by radar: a possible test of the wind drift hypothesis. Bird-Banding 48:1–10.Google Scholar
  228. Winker, K., D. W. Warner, and A. R. Weisbrod. 1992. Daily mass gains among woodland migrants at an inland stopover site. Auk 109:853–862.Google Scholar
  229. Witter, M. S. and I. C. Cuthill. 1993. The ecological cost of avian fat storage. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 340:73–93.Google Scholar
  230. Wood, A. B. 1982. Weights and migration strategy of Blackcaps Sylvia atricapilla wintering in Tunisia. Ibis 124:66–72.Google Scholar
  231. Yapp, W. B. 1956. Two physiological considerations in bird migration. Wilson Bull. 68:312–319.Google Scholar
  232. Yapp, W. B.1962. Some physical limitations on migration. Ibis 104:86–89.Google Scholar
  233. Zimmermann, J. L. 1965. Digestive efficiency and premigratory obesity in the Dickcissel. Auk 82:278–279.Google Scholar
  234. Zwarts, L. and S. Dirksen. 1990. Digestive bottleneck limits the increase in food intake of Whimbrels preparing for spring migration from the Banc d’Arguin, Mauritania. Ardea 78:257–278.Google Scholar
  235. Zwarts, L., A.-M. Blomert, and R. Hupkes. 1990. Increase of feeding time in waders preparing for spring migration from the Banc d’Arguin, Mauritania. Ardea 78:237–256.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Herbert Biebach

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations