Estrogens, Phytoestrogens, and Breast Cancer

  • Robert Clarke
  • Leena Hilakivi-Clarke
  • Elizabeth Cho
  • Mattie R. James
  • Fabio Leonessa
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 401)


Estrogens have been widely implicated in the genesis and progression of breast cancer. Over 200 years ago, the Italian physician Ramazzini observed an increased incidence of breast cancer among nuns. Almost 100 years ago the Scottish physician Beatson described the beneficial effects of ovariectomy on the progress of breast cancer in premenopausal women.1 Nevertheless, the precise role(s) of estrogens and estrogenic stimuli in breast cancer remains unknown. Indeed, it is difficult to provide a universal definition of either an estrogen or an estrogenic response.


Breast Cancer Mammary Gland Breast Cancer Risk Mammary Gland Development Estrogen Response Element 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Clarke
    • 1
    • 2
  • Leena Hilakivi-Clarke
    • 1
    • 3
  • Elizabeth Cho
    • 1
  • Mattie R. James
    • 1
  • Fabio Leonessa
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Vincent T Lombardi Cancer CenterGeorgetown University Medical SchoolUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physiology and BiophysicsGeorgetown University Medical SchoolUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryGeorgetown University Medical SchoolUSA

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