Fermented weaning foods

  • M. R. Adams


Maternal breast milk is universally recognized as the best food for an infant. It is nutritionally balanced and generally free from pathogens and other substances that may be hazardous to health.


Lactic Acid Bacterium Faecal Coliform Fermented Food Diarrhoeal Disease Oral Rehydration Therapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Achi, O.K. (1990) Microbiology of ‘obiolor’: a Nigerian fermented non-alcoholic beverage. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 69, 321–5.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, M.R. & Moss, M.O. (1995) Food Microbiology, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  3. Adegoke, G.O. & Babalola, A.K. (1988) Characteristics of microorganisms of importance in the fermentation of fufu and ogi — two Nigerian fermented foods. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 65, 449–53.Google Scholar
  4. Akpapunam, M.A., Igbedioh, S.O. & Aremo, I. (1996) Effect of malting time on chemical composition and functional properties of soybean and bambara groundnut flours. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 47, 27–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anon (1990) The colon, the rumen and D-lactate acidosis. Lancet, 336, 599–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashworth, A. & Draper, A. (1992) The potential of traditional technologies for increasing the energy density of weaning foods. WHO/CDD/EDP/92.4, WHO, Geneva.Google Scholar
  7. Aung Myo Han, Khin Nwe Oo, Tin Aye & Thein Hlaing (1991) Bacteriologic studies of food and water consumed by children in Myanmar, 2: Lack of association between diarrhoea and contamination of food and water. Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, 9, 91–3.Google Scholar
  8. Barrell, R.A. & Rowland, M.G.M. (1980) Commercial milk products and indigenous weaning foods in a rural West African environment: a bacteriological perspective. Journal of Hygiene (Cambridge), 84, 191–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Black, R.E., Brown, K.H., Becker, S. & Yanus, M. (1982a) Longitudinal studies of infectious diseases and physical growth of children in rural Bangladesh. I Patterns of morbidity. American Journal of Epidemiology, 115, 305–14.Google Scholar
  10. Black, R.E., Brown, K.H., Becker, S., Abdul Alim, A.R.M. & Huq, I. (1982b) Longitudinal studies of infectious diseases and physical growth of children in rural Bangladesh. II Incidence of diarrhoea and association with known pathogens. American Journal of Epidemiology, 115 315–24.Google Scholar
  11. Black, R.E., Brown, K.H., Becker, S., Abdul Alim, A.R.M. & Merson, M.H. (1982c) Contamination of weaning foods and transmission of enterotoxigenic E. coli diarrhoea in children in rural Bangladesh. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 76 259–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bryan, F.L. (1992) Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Evaluations: a guide to identifying hazards and assessing risks associated with food preparation and storage. WHO, Geneva.Google Scholar
  13. Caparelli, E. & Mata, L. (1975) Microflora of maize prepared as tortillas. Applied Microbiology, 29, 802–6.Google Scholar
  14. Chavan, J.K. & Kadam, S.S. (1989) Nutritional improvement of cereals by fermentation. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 28, 349–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coetzer, P.W.W. & Kroukamp, L.M. (1989) Diarrhoeal disease — epidemiology and intervention. South African Medical Journal, 76, 465–72.Google Scholar
  16. Cruz, J.R., Gill, L., Caceres, P. & Pareja, G. (1988) Breast milk anti-Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin IgA antibodies protect against toxin-induced infantile diarrhea. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 77, 658–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Darling, J.C., Kitundu, J.A., Kingamkono, R.P., Msengi, A.E., Mduma, B., Sullivan, K.R. & Tomkins, A.M. (1995) Improved energy intakes using amylase-digested weaning foods in Tanzanian children with acute diarrhoea. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 21, 73–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davies, E.A. & Adams, M.R. (1994) Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes to the bacteriocin nisin. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 21, 341–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Delves-Broughton, J. (1990) Nisin and its use as a food preservative. Food Technology, 44, 100–17.Google Scholar
  20. Esrey, S.A. & Feachem, R.G. (1989) Intervention for the control of diarrhoeal disease among young children: promotion of food hygiene. Report Document WHO/CDD 89/30 Diarrhoeal Disease Control Programme. WHO, Geneva.Google Scholar
  21. Facon, M., Skura, B.J. & Nakai, S. (1993) Potential for immunological supplementation of foods. Food and Agricultural Immunology,5, 85–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Feachem, R.G. & Koblinski, M.A. (1984) Interventions for the control of diarrhoeal diaseases among young children: promotion of breast-feeding. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 62, 271–91.Google Scholar
  23. Gautier, E. (1969) Lactic acidosis in infancy. Helvetica Medica Acta, 35, 423–32.Google Scholar
  24. Girma, M., Gashe, B.A. & Lakew, B. (1989) The effect of fermentation on the growth and survival of Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in fermenting tef (Eragrostis tef). MIRCEN Journal, 5, 61–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Glass, R.I., Svennerholm, A.-M., Stoll, B.J., Khan, M.R., Belayet Hossain, K.M., Imdadul Huq, M. & Holmgren, J. (1983) Protection against cholera in breast-fed children by antibodies in breast milk. New England Journal of Medicine, 308, 1389–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goldman, H.I., Karelitz, S., Seifter, E., Acs, H.E. & Schell, N.B. (1960) Lactic acid acidosis. American Journal of Diseases in Children, 100, 705–7.Google Scholar
  27. Haddock, R.L., Cousens, S.N. & Guzman, C.C. (1991) Infant diet and salmonellosis. American Journal of Public Health, 81, 997–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Halm, M., Lillie, A., Sorensen, A.K. & Jakobsen, M. (1993) Microbiological and aromatic characteristics of fermented maize doughs for kenkey production in Ghana. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 19, 135–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harris, L.J., Fleming, H.P. & Klaenhammer, T.R. (1991) Sensitivity and resistance of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115, Scott A and UAL 500 to nisin. Journal of Food Protection, 54, 836–40.Google Scholar
  30. Henry, F.J., Patwary, Y., Huttley, S.R.A. & Aziz, K.M.A. (1990) Bacterial contamination of weaning foods and drinking water in rural Bangladesh. Epidemiology and Infection, 104, 79–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hibbert, J.M. & Golden, M.H.N. (1981) What is the weanling’s dilemma’ Dietary faecal bacteria ingestion of normal children in Jamaica. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 27, 255–58.Google Scholar
  32. Holmgren, J., Hanson, L.A., Carlson, B., Lindblad, B.S. & Rahimtoola, J. (1976) Neutralizing antibodies against Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae enterotoxins in human milk from a developing country. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 5, 867–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Holzapfel, W.H., Geisen, R. & Schillinger, U. (1995) Biological preservation of foods with reference to protective cultures, bacteriocins and food-grade enzymes. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 24, 343–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hounhouigan, D.J., Nout, M.J.R., Nago, C.M., Houben, J.H. & Rombouts, F.M. (1994) Microbiological changes in mawè during natural fermentation. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 10, 410–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Imong, S.M., Rungruengthanakit, K., Ruangyuttikarn, C., Wongsawasdii, L., Jackson, D.A. & Drewett, R.F. (1989) The bacterial content of infant weaning foods and water in rural Northern Thailand. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 35, 14–18.Google Scholar
  36. Kangchuan, C., Chenshui, L., Qingxin, Q., Ningmei, Z., Guokui, Z., Gongli, C., Yijun, X. Yiejie, L. & Shifu, Z. (1991) The epidemiology of diarrhoeal diseases in Southeastern China. Journal of Diarrhoeal Disease Research, 9, 94–9.Google Scholar
  37. Khin Nwe Oo, Aung Myo Han, Thein Hlaing & Tin Aye (1991) Bacteriologic studies of food and water consumed by children in Myanmar, 1: the nature of contamination. Journal of Diarrhoeal Disease Research, 9, 87–90.Google Scholar
  38. Kibona, N., Doland, C., Watson, F.E., Alnwick, D. & Tomkins, A. (1995) An evaluation of a project to improve child nutrition in Tanzania. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 46, 233–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kingamkono, R., Sjögren, E., Svanberg, U. & Kaijser, B. (1994) pH and acidity in lactic-fermenting cereal gruels: effects on viability of enteropathogenic microorganisms. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 10, 664–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kingamkono, R., Sjögren, E., Svanberg, U. & Kaijser, B. (1995) Inhibition of different strains of enteropathogens in a lactic-fermenting cereal gruel. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 11, 299–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Knight, S.M., Toodayan, W., Caique, W.J.C., Kyi, W., Barnes, A. & Desmarchelier, P. (1992) Risk factors for the transmission of diarrhoea in children: a case-control study in rural Malaysia. International Journal of Epidemiology, 21, 812–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kovar, M.G., Serdula, M.K., Marks, J.S. & Fraser, D.W. (1984) Review of the epidemiologic evidence for an association between infant feeding and infant health. Pediatrics, 74, 615–38.Google Scholar
  43. Kunitz, S.J. (1993) Diseases and the European mortality decline 1700–1900, in The Cambridge World History of Human Disease (ed. K.F. Kiple), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 287–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lindgren, S.E. & Dobrogosz, W.J. (1990) Antagonistic activities of lactic acid bacteria in food and feed fermentations. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 12, 149–64.Google Scholar
  45. Lorri, W. & Svanberg, U. (1993) Lactic acid-fermented cereal gruels: viscosity and flour concentration. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 44, 207–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lorri, W. & Svanberg, U. (1994) Lower prevalence of diarrhoea in young children fed lactic acid-fermented cereal gruels. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 15, 57–63.Google Scholar
  47. Lorri, W. & Svanberg, U. (1995) An overview of the use of fermented foods for child feeding in Tanzania. Ecology of Foods and Nutrition, 34, 65–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Malleshi, N.G. & Desikachar, H.S.R. (1982) Formulation of a weaning food with low hot paste viscosity based on malted ragi and green gram. Journal of Food Science and Technology,19, 193–7.Google Scholar
  49. Malleshi, N.G., Daodu, M.A. & Chandrasekhar, A. (1989) Development of weaning food formulations based on malting and roller drying of sorghum and cowpea. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 24, 511–19.Google Scholar
  50. Mason, P.D. (1986) Metabolic acidosis due to D-lactate. British Medical Journal, 292, 1105–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mata, L.J. (1971) Nutrition and infection. Protein Advisory Group Bulletin, 11, 18–21.Google Scholar
  52. Mata, L. (1983) Epidemiology of acute diarrhea in childhood: an overview, in Acute Diarrhea, its Nutritional Consequences in Children (ed. J.A. Bellani), Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series, Raven Press, New York, pp. 3–22.Google Scholar
  53. Mata, L. (1986) Breast-feeding and host defense. Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Research, 13, 119–33.Google Scholar
  54. Megraud, F., Boudraa, G., Bessaoud, K., Bensid, S., Dabis, F., Soltani, R. & Touhami, M. (1990) Incidence of Campylobacter infection in infants in Western Algeria and the possible protective role of breast feeding. Epidemiology and Infection, 105, 73–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mensah, P.P.A., Tomkins, A.M., Drasar, B.S. & Harrison, T.J. (1990) Fermentation of cereals for reduction of bacterial contamination of weaning foods in Ghana. Lancet, 336, 140–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mensah, P., Tomkins, A.M., Drasar, B.S. & Harrison, T.J. (1991) Antimicrobial effect of fermented Ghanaian maize dough. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 70, 203–10.Google Scholar
  57. Mensah, P., Ndiokwelu, C.I., Uwaegbute, A., Ablordey, A., van Boxtel, A.M.G.A., Brinkman, C., Nout, M.J.R. & Ngoddy, P.O. (1995) Feeding of lactic acid-fermented high nutrient density weaning formula in paediatric settings in Ghana and Nigeria: acceptance by mother and infant and performance during recovery from acute diarrhoea. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 46, 353–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ming, X. & Daeschel, M.A. (1993) Nisin resistance of foodborne disease and the specific resistance responses of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. Journal of Food Protection, 56, 944–8.Google Scholar
  59. Mølbak, K., Højlyng, N., Jepsen, S. & Gaarsley, K. (1989) Bacterial contamination of stored water and stored food: a potential source of diarrhoeal disease in West Africa. Epidemiology and Infection, 102, 309–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mosha, A-C & Svanberg, U. (1990) The acceptance and intake of bulk-reduced weaning foods: the Lungaga village study. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 12, 69–74.Google Scholar
  61. Motarjemi, Y., Käferstein, F., Moy, G. & Quevedo, F. (1993) Contaminated weaning food: a major risk factor for diarrhoea and associated malnutrition. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 71, 79–92.Google Scholar
  62. Motarjemi, Y., Käferstein, F., Moy, G. & Quevedo, F. (1994) Contaminated food, a hazard for the very young. World Health Forum, 15, 69–71.Google Scholar
  63. Nche, P.F. (1995) Innovations in the production of kenkey, a traditional fermented maize product of Ghana: nutritional and safety aspects. PhD Thesis, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  64. Nout, M.J.R., Rombouts, F.M. & Hautvast, G.J. (1989a) Accelerated natural lactic fermentation of infant food formulations. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 11, 65–73.Google Scholar
  65. Nout, M.J.R., Rombouts, F.M. & Havelaar, A. (1989b) Effect of accelerated natural lactic fermentation of infant food ingredients on some pathogenic microorganisms. International Journal of Food Microbiology,8, 351–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Odugbemi, T., Odujirin, H.T., Akitoye, CO., Oyerinde, J.P.O. & Esumeh, F.I. (1991) Study on the pH of ogi, Nigerian fermented weaning food and its effect on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 94, 219–23.Google Scholar
  67. Olsen, A., Halm, M. & Jakobsen, M. (1995) The antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria from fermented maize (kenkey) and their interactions during fermentation. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 79, 506–12.Google Scholar
  68. Olukoya, D.K., Ebigwei, S.I., Olasupo, N.A. & Ogunjimi, A.A. (1994) Production of DogiK: an improved ogi (Nigerian fermented weaning food) with potentials for use in diarrhoea control. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 40, 108–13.Google Scholar
  69. Oyewole, O.B. (1995) Lactic fermented foods in Africa and their benefits. Paper presented at the WHO/FAO Workshop on the Assessment of Fermentation as a Household Technology for Improving Food Safety. 11–15 December 1995, South Africa.Google Scholar
  70. Ray, B. & Daeschel, M. (eds) (1992) Food Biopreservatives of Microbial Origin, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  71. Rowland, M.G.M. & McCollum, J.P.K. (1977) Malnutrition and gastroenteritis in the Gambia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 71, 199–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rowland, M.G.M., Rowland, S.G.J.G. & Cole, T.J. (1988) Impact of infection on the growth of children from 0 to 2 years in an urban West African community. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 47, 134–8.Google Scholar
  73. Ruiz-Palacios, G.M., Calva, J.J., Pickering, L.K., Lopez-Vidal, Y., Volkow, P., Pezzarossi, H. & Stewart-West, M. (1990) Protection of breast-fed infants against Campylobacter diarrhea by antibodies in human milk. Journal of Pediatrics, 116, 707–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Simango, C. & Rukure, G. (1991) Survival of Campylobacter jejuni and pathogenic Escherichia coli in mahewu, a fermented cereal gruel. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 85, 399–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Snyder J.D. & Merson, M.M. (1982) The magnitude of the global problem of acute diarrhoea) disease: a review of actrive surveillance data. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 60, 605–13.Google Scholar
  76. Stevens, K.A., Sheldon, B.W., Klapes, N.A. & Klaenhammer, T.R. (1992) Effect of treatment conditions on nisin inactivation of Gram negative bacteria. Journal of Food Protection, 55, 763–7.Google Scholar
  77. Stolberg, L., Rolfe, R., Gitlin, N., Merit, J. Mann, L., Linder, J. & Finegold, S. (1982) D-Lactic acidosis due to abnormal gut flora. New England Journal of Medicine, 306, 1344–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Suhasini Livingstone, A., Sandhu, J.S. & Malleshi, N.G. (1992) Microbiological evaluation of malted wheat, chickpea, and weaning food based on them. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 38, 74–7.Google Scholar
  79. Suhasini Livingstone, A., Feng, J.J. & Malleshi, N.G. (1993) Development and nutritional quality evaluation of weaning foods based on malted, popped and roller dried wheat and chickpea. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 28, 35–43.Google Scholar
  80. Svanberg, U., Lorri, W. & Sandberg, A.-S. (1993) Lactic fermentation of non-tannin and high-tannin cereals: effects on in vitro estimation of iron availability and phytate hydrolysis. Journal of Food Science, 58, 408–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tomkins, A. & Watson, F. (1989) Malnutrition and infection: a review. United Nations ACC/SCN State of the Art Series Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper No. 5, 136pp.Google Scholar
  82. Vanderstoep, J. (1981) Effect of germination on the nutritive value of legumes. Food Technology, 35, 83–5.Google Scholar
  83. Vasconcelos, A.T., Twiddy, D.R., Westby, A. & Reilly, P.J.A. (1990) Detoxification of cassava during gari preparation. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 25, 198–203.Google Scholar
  84. Victoria, C.G., Vaughan, J.P., Lombardi, C., Fuchs, S.M.C., Gigante, L.P., Smith, P.G., Nobre, L.C., Teixeira, A.M.B., Moreira, L.B. & Barros, F.C. (1987) Evidence for protection by breast-feeding against infant deaths from infectious diseases in Brazil. Lancet, 2, 319–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Watson, F.E., Ngesa, A., Onyang’o, J., Alnwick, D. & Tomkins, A.M. (1996) Fermentation — a traditional anti-diarrhoeal practice lost? The use of fermented foods in urban and rural Kenya. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 47, 171–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Westby, A. & Choo, B.K. (1994) Cyanogen reduction during the lactic fermentation of cassava. Acta Horticulturae, 375, 209–15.Google Scholar
  87. WHO (1974) Toxicological evaluation of some food additives including anticaking agents, antimicrobails, antioxidants, emulsifiers and thickening agents. WHO Food Additives Series, No. 5, pp. 461–5.Google Scholar
  88. WHO (1992) Readings on diarrhoea: student manual, World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  89. WHO (1996) Fermentation: assessment and research. Report of a FAO/WHO Workshop on fermentation as a technology to improve food safety FAO/FNU/FOS/96.1.Google Scholar
  90. Wood, G.W. & Adams, M.R. (1992) Effect of acidification, bacterial fermentation, and temperature on the survival of rotavirus in a model weaning food. Journal of Food Protection, 55, 52–5.Google Scholar
  91. Yusof, R.M., Morgan, J.B. & Adams, M.R. (1993) Bacteriological safety of a fermented weaning food containing L-lactate and nisin. Journal of Food Protection, 56, 414–17.Google Scholar
  92. Yusof, R.M., Baker, T.A., Morgan, J.B. & Adams, M.R. (1995) Effect of ragi and L-lactate producing cultures on enteric pathogens in a rice-based weaning food. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 11, 654–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Thomson Science 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. R. Adams

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations