Advertisement

Food flavours from yeast

  • H. Stam
  • M. Hoogland
  • C. Laane

Abstract

In the food industry yeast is a well-known microorganism (Lásztity, 1991; Thornton, 1992). From ancient times yeast has served many purposes. It is involved in baking, the production of (alcoholic) beverages, flavours and other food ingredients such as enzymes, colours, emulsifiers, stabilizers and thickeners. In addition, yeast and yeast-derived products increasingly find applications in the non-food sector, which includes animal feed, aquaculture, fermentation substrates, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products (Gordon, 1991). Figure 16.1 gives per segment an estimate of the current world market size for yeast and its derivatives. Of all the hundreds of yeast species known to-date, Saccharomyces cerevisiae forms the versatile workhorse from which more than 90% of the current yeast and yeast-based products originate. This yeast has a long history of safe use, is relatively easy to cultivate on a large scale, and has long been the prime focus of both fundamental and applied research.

Keywords

Bread Crumb Brewing Yeast Yeast Autolysate Flavour Formation Aromatic Amino Acid Biosynthesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akita, O., Ida, T., Obata, T. & Hara, S. (1990) Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing a large quantity of β-phenethyl alcohol and β-phenethyl acetate. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering, 69(2), 125–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albertazzi, E, Cardillo, R., Servi, S. & Zucchi, G. (1994) Biogeneration of 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethylacetate, important aroma components. Biotechnology Letters, 16(5), 491–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alfafara, C., Miura, K., Shimizu, H., Shioya, S. & Suga, K.I. (1992) Cysteine addition strategy for maximum glutathione production in fed-batch culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 37 141–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ames, M.J. & Elmore, J.S. (1992) Aroma components of yeast extracts. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 7 89–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ames, M.J. & Macleod, G. (1985) Volatile components of a yeast extract composition. Journal of Food Science, 50 125–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aoki, T. & Uchida, K. (1990) Enhanced formation of 2-phenylethanol in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii due to prephenate dehydrogenase deficiency. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 54(1), 273–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arctander (1969) Perfume and Flavor Chemicals, Montclair, NJ, USA.Google Scholar
  8. Asahi Breweries (1995) Temperature sensitive autolysing Saccharomyces cerevisiae is prepared by mutating wild type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and separating out autolysing variants useful for production of seasoning proteins. Patent JO6253825.Google Scholar
  9. Baigne, B. (1994) Taints and off-flavours in foods. International Food Ingredients, 4, 35–9.Google Scholar
  10. Belitz, H.-D. & Grosch, W. (1992) Lehrbuch der Lebensmittelchemie, 4. Auflage, Berlin, 304–61.Google Scholar
  11. Bergmeyer, H.O. (1983) Samples, Reagents, Assessment of results. Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, II, Third edition.Google Scholar
  12. Boog, A.L.G.M., Peters, A.L.J. & Roos, R. (1991) Process for producing delta lactones. EP409320.Google Scholar
  13. Davidek, J., Hasjlova, J., Kubelka, V. & Velisek, J. (1979) Flavor significant compounds in yeast autolysates, Gistex X-II powders. Part 1. Acid Fraction. Die Nahrung, 23 673–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Derrick, S. & Large, P.J.J. (1993) Activities of the enzymes of the Ehrlich pathway and formation of branched-chain alcohols in Saccharoymyces cerevisiae and Candida utilus. Grown in continuous culture on valine or ammonium as sole nitrogen source. Journal of General Microbiology, 139 2783–92.Google Scholar
  15. Dickinson, J.R. & Dawes, I.W. (1992) The catabolism of branched-chain amino acids occurs via 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of General Microbiology, 138 2029–33.Google Scholar
  16. Drost, B.W., Van Den Berg, R., Freijee, F.J.M., Van Der Velde, E.G. & Holleman, M. (1990) Flavour Stability. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists,48 124–31.Google Scholar
  17. El-Dash, A. & Johnson, J.A. (1970) Influence of yeast fermentation and baking on the content of free amino acids and primary amino groups and their effect on bread aroma stimuli. Cereal Chemistry, 47 247–59.Google Scholar
  18. Engan, S. (1981) Beer composition: volatile substances, in Brewing Sciences, Vol. 2 (ed. R.A. Pollock), Academic Press, London, pp. 93–165.Google Scholar
  19. Fell, D.A. & Thomas, S. (1995) Physiological control of metabolic flux: the requirement for multisite modulation. Journal of Biochemistry,311 35–9.Google Scholar
  20. Fukada, K., Wantanabe, M., Asano, K., Ueda, H. & Ohta, S. (1990a) Breeding of brewing yeast producing a large amount of 2-phenylethyl alcohol and 2-phenylethyl acetate. Agricultural Biological Chemistry, 54(1), 269–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fukuda, K., Watanabe, M. & Asano, K. (1990b) Altered regulation of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in 2-phenylethyl-alcohol-over-producing mutants of saké yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Agricultural Biological Chemistry, 54(2), 3151–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fukuda, K., Wantanabe, M., Asano, K., Ouchi, K. & Takasawa, S. (1991a) A mutated ARO4 gene for feedback-resistant DAHP synthase which causes both o-fluoro-DL-phenylalanine resistance and 2-phenethyl alcohol overproduction in Saccharomyces cerevisae .Current Genetics, 20, 453–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fukuda, K., Wantanabe, M., Asano, K., Ouchi, K. & Takasawa, S. (1991b) Isolation and genetic study of p-fluoro-DL-phenylalanine-resistant mutants overproducing 2-phenethyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Current Genetics, 20 449–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fukuda, K., Wantanabe, M., Asano, K., Ouchi, K. & Takasawa, S. (1992) Molecular breeding of a sake yeast with a mutated ARO4 gene which causes both resistance to ortho-fluoro-DLPhenylalanine and increased production of beta-phenyl alcohol. Journal Fermentation and Bioengineering, 73(5), 366–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gassenmeier, K. & Schieberle, P. (1995) Potent aromatic compounds in the crumb of wheat bread (French-type) — influence of pre-ferments and studies on the formation of key odorants during dough processing. Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel — Unterschung and Forschung, 201(3), 241–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Golovnya, R.V., Misharina, T.A., Garbuzov, G. & Medvedyev, F.A. (1983) Volatile sulfur containing compounds in stimulated meat flavour and their comparison with the constituents of natural aroma. Die Nahrung, 27 237–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goossens, E., Debourg, A., Villanueba, K.D. & Masschelein, C.A. (1993) Decreased diacetyl production in lager brewing yeast by integration of the ILV5 gene. Proceedings of the European Brewery Convention Congress, Oslo, pp. 251–8.Google Scholar
  28. Goossens, E., Dillemans, M., Debourg, A. & Masschelein, C.A. (1987) Control of diacetyl formation by the intensification of the anabolic flux of acetohydroxyacid intermediates. Proceedings of the European Brewery Convention Congress,Madrid, 553–60.Google Scholar
  29. Gordon, I.R. (1991) Yeast extracts and HVP: W. European markets and opportunities 1990–1995. Food Ingredients Europe. Conference proceedings, Porte de Versailles, Paris, pp. 211–14.Google Scholar
  30. Grosch, W. & Schieberle, P. (1991) Bread, in Volatile Compounds in Food and Beverages (ed. H. Maarse), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 41–77Google Scholar
  31. Guymon, J.F., Ingraham, J.L. & Crowell, E.A. (1961) Influence of aeration upon the formation of higher alcohols by yeasts. American, Journal of Enology and Viticulture,12 60–6.Google Scholar
  32. Hagedorn, S. & Kaphammer, B. (1994) Microbial biocatalysis in the generation of flavor and fragrance chemicals. Annual Review of Microbiolology, 48 773–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hamada, S., Tanaka, H.H. & Sakato, K. (1986) Process for producing glutathione. US patent 4582801.Google Scholar
  34. Hammond, J.R.M. (1995) Genetically-modified brewing yeasts for the 21st century. Progress to date. Yeast, 11 1613–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hasjlova, J., Velisek, J., Davidek, J. & Kubelka, V. (1980) Flavour significant compounds in yeast autolysates, Gistex X-II powders. Part II. Neutral and basic fractions. Die Nahrung, 24 875–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hirata, D., Aoki, S., Wantanabe, K., Tsukioka, M. & Suzuki, T. (1992) Stable overproduction of isoamyl alcohol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with chromosome-integrated multicopy LEU4 genes. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 56 1682–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hou, C.T. (1995) Microbial oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Advances in Applied Microbiology, 41 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kitamoto, H.K. & Nakahara, T. (1994) Isolation of an L-methionine-enriched mutant of Kluyveromyces lactis grown on whey permeate. Process Biochemistry, 29 127–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Korch, C., Mountain, H.A., Gyllang, H., Winge, M. & Brehmer, P. (1991) A mechanism for sulphite production in beer and how to increase sulphite levels by recombinant genetics. Proceedings of the European Brewer Convention Congress, Lisbon, pp. 201–8.Google Scholar
  40. Kunkee, R.E. & Singh, R. (1975) Dehydrogenase activity for higher alcohols in cell free extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of the Institute of Brewing,81 214–7.Google Scholar
  41. Kuriyama, H. & Kobaysashi, H. (1993) Effects of oxygen supply on yeast growth and metabo- lism in continuous fermentation. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering, 75 364–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Labell, F. (1993) Glutamates under the gun. Food Processing, May, 39–45.Google Scholar
  43. Lang-Hinrichs, C. & Stahl, U. (1988) Verfahren zur Synthese von Glutathion in Hefen. EP 0300168.Google Scholar
  44. Ldsztity, R. (1991) Yeast biomass, a potential source of food ingredients. International Food Ingredients, 3 4–8.Google Scholar
  45. Maume, K.A. & Cheetham, P.S.J. (1991) The production of y-decalactone by fermentation of castor oil. Biocatalysis, 5 79–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mcmurrough, I., Madigan, D., Donnelly, D., Hurley, J., Doyle, A., Hennigan, G., McNulty, N. & Smyth, M.R. (1996) Control of ferulic acid and 4-vinyl guaiacol in brewing. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 102 327–32.Google Scholar
  47. Minetoki, T., Bogaki, T., Iwamutsu, A., Fujii, T. & Hamachi, M. (1993) The purification, properties and internal peptide sequences of alcohol acetyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisae Kyokai No. 7. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 57 2094–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Moll, M. (1991) Beers & Coolers (translated by Wainwright, T.), Intercept Ltd, Andover.Google Scholar
  49. Nagodawithana, T. (1992) Yeast-derived flavors and flavor enhancers and their probably mode of action. Food Technology, November, 138–44.Google Scholar
  50. Nagodawithana, T. (1995) Protein hydrolysates: past and present, in Savoury Flavours (ed. Esteeky Associates Inc.), pp. 225–63.Google Scholar
  51. Nordström, K. (1965) Possible control of volatile ester formation in brewing. EBC Proceedings,10th Congress, Stockholm,Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 195–208.Google Scholar
  52. Obermann, H. & Libudzisz, Z. (1997) Fermented milks, in Microbiology of Fermented Foods, 2nd edition, (ed. B.J.B. Wood), Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  53. Ohtake, Y., Watanabe, K., Tezuka, H., Ogata, T., Yabuuchi, S., Murata, K. & Kimura, A. (1988) The expression of the y-glutamyl cysteine synthetase gene in Escherichia coli B in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 52 2753–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ohtake, Y., Watanabe, K., Tezuka, H., Ogata, T., Yabuuchi, S., Murata, K. & Kimura, A. (1989) Expression of the glutathione synthetase gene of Escherichia coli B in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journaly of Fermentation and Bioengineering, 68 390–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pagot, Y. & Belin J.-M. (1996) Fatty acid cellular metabolism and lactone production by the yeast Pichia guilliermondii. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology,45 349–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Peppard, T.L. & Halsey, S.A. (1981) Malt flavour — Transformation of carbonyl compounds by yeast during fermentation. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 87 3860–90.Google Scholar
  57. Piendl, A. (1969) Brauereitechnologie and Molekularbiologie. Brauwissenschaft, 22 175.Google Scholar
  58. Preininger, M., Rychlik, M. & Grosch, W. (1994) Potent odorants of the neutral volatile fraction of Swiss Cheese (Emmentaler). Developments in Food Science, 35 267–70.Google Scholar
  59. Rainbow, C. (1981) Beer spoilage microorganisms, in Brewing Science, 2nd edn, (ed. R.A. Pollock), Academic Press, London, pp. 491–550.Google Scholar
  60. Roling, W. (1995) Traditional Indonesian soy sauce (kecap) production: microbiology of the brine fermentation, PhD Thesis, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  61. Rychlik, M. & Grosch, W. (1996) Identification and quantification of potent odorants formed by toasting of wheat bread. Food Science and Technology, 29 515–25.Google Scholar
  62. Sakato, K. & Tanaka, H. (1992) Advanced control of glutathione fermentation process. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 40 904–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schaft, P.H., Van Der Burg, N., Ter Bosch, S., Van Den & A.M. Cohen (1992) Microbiol production of natural S-decalactone and S-dodecalactone from the corresponding a, 13-unsaturated lactones in Massoi bark oil. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology,36 712–16.Google Scholar
  64. Schieberle, P. (1990) Studies on bakers Yeast as source of maillard-type bread flavour compounds, in The Maillard Reaction in Food Processing, Human Nutrition and Physiology (eds P.A. Finot, H.U. Aeschbacher, R.F. Hurrell), Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, pp. 187–96.Google Scholar
  65. Schieberle, P. (1992a) Bildung wichtiger R_staromastoffe in Lebensmitteln aus Getreide, in Getreide, Mehl and Brot, 11, 338–42.Google Scholar
  66. Schieberle, P. (1992b) Formation of furaneol in heat-processed food, in flavour Precursors, Thermal and Enzymatic Conversions (eds R. Teranishi, G.R. Takeoka, M. Göntert), American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp. 164–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Schieberle, P. (1996) The role of free amino acids present in yeast as precursors of the odorants 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyltetrahydro-pyridine in wheat bread crust. Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel — Unterschung and Forschung, 191 206–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schieberle, P. & Grosch, W. (1991) Potent odorants of the wheat bread crumb. Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel — Unterschung and Forschung, 192 130–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schieberle, P. & Grosch, W. (1994) Potent odorants of rye bread crust — differences from the crumb and from wheat bread crust. Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel — Unterschung and Forschung, 198 292–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Schoenberg, E. (1993) The technology and application of yeast derived flavour enhancers. European Food and Drink Review,55–7.Google Scholar
  71. Sentheshanmuganathan, S. (1960) The mechanism of the formation of higher alcohols from amino acids by Sacchoromyces cerevisae. Biochem. J., 74 568–76.Google Scholar
  72. Sentheshanmuganathan, S. & Elsden, S.R. (1958) The mechanism of the formation of tyrosol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem. J., 69 210–18.Google Scholar
  73. Shimizu, H., Araki, K., Shioya, S. & Suga, K. (1991) Optimal production of glutathione by controlling the specific growth rate of yeast in fed-batch culture. Biotechnology and Bioengineering,38(2), 196–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shimizu, H., Miura, K., Alfafara, C.G., Shioya, S., Suga, K. & Suzui, K. (1992) Fuzzy control of ethanol concentration and its application to glutathione production in yeast fed-batch culture. IFAC Symposium Series, (Volume 10, Modeling and Control of Biotechnical Processes), pp. 433–6.Google Scholar
  75. Singh, R. & Kunkee, R.E. (1976) Alcohol dehydrogenase activities of wine yeast in relation to higher alcohol formation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology,32(5), 666–70.Google Scholar
  76. Spicher, G. & Stephan, H. (1982) Die Hefe des Sauerteiges, in Handbuch sauerteig. Biologie, Biochemie, Technologie (ed. D. Behr), pp. 71–81.Google Scholar
  77. Tezuka, H., Mori, T., Okumura, Y., Kitabatake, K. & Tsumura, Y. (1992) Cloning of a gene suppressing hydrogen sulphide production by Saccharomyces cerevisae and its expression in a brewing yeast. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists,50 130–3.Google Scholar
  78. Thornton, J. (1992) Brewers’ yeast extract. A survey of the types available to the food processor. International Food Ingredients, 2 40–3.Google Scholar
  79. Thornton, J. (1996) Developments in savoury flavour systems. International Food Ingredients, 2 19–21.Google Scholar
  80. Udeh, K.O. & Achremowicz, B. (1994) Production of yeast biomass with elevated content of glutathione. Polish Journal of Food Nutritional Science, 3/44(No. 1), 93–100.Google Scholar
  81. Vakeria, D., Box, W.G. & Hinchliffe, E. (1991) The control of gene expression in brewing yeast with anti-sense RNA. Proceedings of the European Brewery Convention Congress,Lisbon, pp. 305–12.Google Scholar
  82. Vaughn, R.H. (1982) The microbiology of vegetable fermentations, in Microbiology of Fermented Foods, Vol. 1 (ed. B.J.B. Wood), Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, pp. 49–111.Google Scholar
  83. Villanueba, K.D., Goossens, E. & Masschelein, C.A. (1990) Sub-threshold vicinal diketone levels in lager brewing yeast fermentations by means of ILV5 gene amplification. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists,48 111–14.Google Scholar
  84. Voight, J.C. & Walla, G. (1995) A novel yeast propagation system. Proceedings of the 5th Scientific and Technical Convention, Victoria Falls, March 1995, pp. 173–8.Google Scholar
  85. VIJ S. & Gandhi, D.N. (1993) Whey — An alternative substrate for the production of bakers yeast. Indian Food Industry, 12(5), 41–3.Google Scholar
  86. Wainwright, T. (1973) Diacetyl — A review. Part I Analytical and biochemical considerations. Part II — Brewing experience. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 79 451–70.Google Scholar
  87. Werkhoff, P., Bretschneider, W., Emberger, R., Güntert, M., Hopp, R. & Köpsel, M. (1991) Recent developments in the sulfur flavour chemistry of yeast extracts. Chemie Mikrobiologie Technologie der Lebensmittel, 13, 30–57.Google Scholar
  88. Wierzbicka, G.T., Hagen, T.M. & Jones, D.P. (1989) Glutathione in food. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 2, 327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yoshizawa, K. (1966) On various factors affecting formation of isobutanol and isoamylalcohol during alcoholic fermentation. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 30, 634–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Thomson Science 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Stam
  • M. Hoogland
  • C. Laane

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations