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Fermented protein foods in the Orient: shoyu and miso in Japan

  • T. Yokotsuka
  • M. Sasaki

Abstract

From ancient times, nations all over the world have inherited their own alcoholic beverages, which are prepared principally by converting the sugars involved in raw materials into alcohol by the action of yeasts. At the same time, vinegars have been made from almost all of these alcoholic beverages, converting alcohol into acetic acid by the action of acetic acid bacteria. Thus, fruit wines have been made from sweet fruits such as grapes, apples, oranges, and so on. However, in the preparation of wines from a starchy raw material such as wheat, barley, rice, or corn, the raw material must be degraded into sugars, mainly glucose, in order to be fermented by yeasts. It must be noted that there is a major difference between the saccharification process of Western countries and that of the Orient. The amylolytic enzymes used for the saccharification in Western countries have been derived from malt, while in the Orient, Aspergillus or Rhizopus moulds have been utilized as the source of amylolytic enzymes. Accordingly, beer is prepared by first saccharifying the starch of barley by the use of malt, while in the preparation of alcoholic beverages from rice or wheat in the Orient, Aspergillus or Rhizopus moulds are cultured on part of these raw materials to produce amylolytic enzymes. These mould-cultured materials are called ‘koji’ in Japan, and this koji is mixed with the other remaining parts of rice or wheat and water to make mash, which is then concurrently subjected to enzymatic saccharification, lactic fermentation, and yeast fermentation.

Keywords

Alkaline Protease Fermented Food Aspergillus Oryzae Yeast Fermentation Fermented Soybean 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Thomson Science 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Yokotsuka
  • M. Sasaki

There are no affiliations available

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