Yeast Genetics pp 205-224 | Cite as

Genetic Control of Flocculation

  • J. R. Johnston
  • H. P. Reader
Part of the Springer Series in Molecular Biology book series (SSMOL)


Flocculation—or conversely, lack of flocculation—is a most important characteristic of yeast strains used in industrial fermentations. Unfortunately, a certain degree of confusion has arisen by use of the term “flocculation” in the scientific literature to describe different phenomena in yeast cell behavior. The term, as used most commonly within the brewing industry in particular, is defined here as “the (reversible) aggregation of dispersed yeast cells into floes, generally toward the end of fermentation, and subsequent separation of the floes from the suspending liquid.” The definition excludes other forms of yeast aggregation, particularly those of “clumpy growth” and “chain formation,” that is, the nonseparation of daughter and mother cells during growth, which are sometimes also referred to as flocculation. The term “nonflocculent” will, therefore, imply the lack of cell aggregation and consequently much slower separation of (dispersed) yeast cells from the liquid medium. Although yeast separation is very often, as expected, by sedimentation, it may also be by flotation because of cell aggregates entrapping bubbles of carbon dioxide, as in the case of “top-fermenting” brewing yeasts.


Diploid Strain Haploid Strain Brewing Yeast Tetrad Analysis Petite Mutant 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. R. Johnston
    • 1
  • H. P. Reader
    • 2
  1. 1.Yeast Technology Group, Department of Bioscience and BiotechnologyUniversity of StrathclydeGlasgowScotland
  2. 2.Cockburn Smithes & Cia, Lda.4401 Vila Nova de Gaia CodexPortugal

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