Tumor Promotion in Liver

  • Michael Schwarz


The concepts of initiation and promotion in liver must be viewed in the backdrop of some basic observations on stages in hepatocarcinogenesis. As originally described independently by two groups (1,2), small foci of cells, hereafter called altered hepatic foci (AHF), appear in the liver shortly after exposure of experimental animals to a hepatocarcinogen. AHF are characterized by increases or decreases in the activity and/or level of a large variety of different enzymes and cellular substrates which can be used as markers for their identification. Among many others, these include the enzymes γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (3–5), adenosine triphosphatase (6–10), glucose-6-phosphatase (2), various cytochrome P-450 species (11,12), epoxide hydrolase (12), glucuronyl transferase (13), the placental form of glutathione transferase (14,15), and cellular glycogen content (16,17). The enzyme, glutathione transferase P, may even be used to detect single enzyme-altered liver cells (18). For recent summaries on enzyme changes in AHF reported in the literature, see references (19,20). AHF have been shown to be monoclonal in origin (21–23) and display, in comparison to their surrounding normal hepatocytes, increased cell proliferation (24–29). Accumulating evidence suggests that at least some of the AHF represent precursor lesions which are causally related to the carcinogenic process in liver.


Liver Tumor Tumor Promoter Intercellular Communication Peroxisome Proliferators Ethinyl Estradiol 
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© Birkhäuser Boston 1995

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  • Michael Schwarz

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