Birth Control Vaccines Inducing Antibodies Against Chorionic Gonadotropin

  • G. P. Talwar
  • Om Singh
Part of the Progress in Vaccinology book series (VACCINOLOGY, volume 1)

Abstract

The possibility of inducing antibodies against reproductive tract antigens by deliberate immunization was indicated as early as 1899 by the pioneering work of Landsteiner (14) and Metchinikoff (15). These leaders of immunology did obtain antisera toxic to sperm. However, the practical utility of this lead for control of fertility could not materialize owing to several factors. Crude tissue extracts induced antibodies reactive to unwanted tissues with potential toxicity hazards. Not enough was known of the immune processes and the manner in which these could be modulated to advantage. Furthermore, for antigens localized on sperm, it would be necessary to ensure the right type of immune reactions in the genital tract for preventing fertilization; antibodies in systemic circulation alone may not suffice.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Arimura A, Sato H, Kumasaka T, et al: Production of antiserum to LH-releasing hormone (LH-RH) associated with gonadal atrophy in rabbits: Development of radioimmunoassay for LH-RH. Endocrinology 1973;93:1092–1103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chen HC, Matsuura S, Ohashi M: Limitations and problems of hCG specific antisera, in Segal SJ (ed): Chorionic Gonadotropin. New York, Plenum Press. 1980, pp 231–251.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Csapo AI, Pulkkincn MO, Ruttner B, et al: The significance of the human corpus luteum in pregnancy maintenance i. Preliminary studies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1972;112:1061–1067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dubey SK, Sharma NC, Talwar GP: Survivals of animals injected with Pr-β-hCG-TT. Contraception 1976;13:195–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Elin RJ, Wolff SM, McAdam KPWJ, et al: Properties of reference Escherichia coli endotoxin and its phthalylated derivative in humans. J Infect Dis 1981; 144:329–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fishel SB, Edwards RG, Evans CJ: Human chorionic gonadotropin secreted by preimplantation embryos cultured in vitro. Science 1984;223:816–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fräser HM: Active immunization of stump tailed macaque monkeys against luteinizing hormone releasing hormone and its effects on menstrual cycles, ovarian steroids and positive feed back. J Reprod Immunol 1983;5:173–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Garner PR, Armstrong DT: The effect of human chorionic gonadotropin and estradiol-17β on the maintenance of human corpus luteum of early pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1977;128:469–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gupta L, Dubey SK, Talwar GP: Investigations on pharmacopeal safety, microbiol sterility and pyrogens of Pr-β-hCG-TT. Contraception 1976;13:183–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hearn JP: Long term suppression of fertility by immunization with ßhCG subunit and its reversibility in female marmoset monkeys, in Talwar GP (ed): Recent Advances in Reproduction and Regulation of Fertility. Amsterdam, Elsevier/North Holland, 1979, pp 427–438.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hearn JP: Animal research in understanding human reproduction: An overview, in Soon TE, Rathnam SS, Min LS (eds): Proceedings of the 12th World Congress on Fertility and Sterility 1986. Lancaster, Parthenon Press, in press.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hodges JK, Hearn JP: Long term suppression of fertility by immunization against LHRH and its reversibility in female and male marmoset monkeys, in Talwar GP (ed): Recent Ailvances in Reproduction and Regulation of Fertility. Amsterdam, Elsevier/ North Holland, 1979, pp 87–96.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hoskinson RM, Scaramuzzi RJ, Campbell BK, et al: Effects of antibodies to steroid hormones on reproductive events of sheep and cattle, in Talwar GP (ed): Immunological Approaches to Contraception and Promotion of Fertility. New York, Plenum Press, 1986, pp 351–366.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Landsteiner K: Zur kenntnis der spectfisch auf blutkorperchen wirkenden sera. Zentralb Bacterial 1899;25:546.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Metchinikoff E: Etudes sur la resorption des cellules. Ann Inst Pasteur (Paris) 1899; 14:577.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nath I, Gupta PD, Bhuyan UN, et al: Autopsy report on rhesus monkeys immunized with Pr-β-hCG-TT vaccine. Contraception 1976;13:213–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Prasad CR, Srimal RC, Dhawan BN: Acute toxicity and pharmacology of beta human chorionic gonadotropin conjugated to tetanus toxoid (Pr-β-hCG-TT). Contraception 1976;13:189–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ramakrishnan S, Dubey SK, Das C, et al: Influence of hCG and tetanus toxoid injections on the antibody titres in a subject immunized with Pr-β-hCG-TT. Contraception 1976;13:245–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ramakrishnan S, Das C, Dubey SK, et al: Immunogenicity of three C-terminal synthetic peptides of the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and properties of the antibodies raised against 45-aminoacid C-terminal peptide. J Reprod Immunol 1979;1:249–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ramakrishnan S, Talwar GP: Immunological studies with β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and its subfragments, in Segal SJ (ed): Chorionic Gonadotropin. New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp 213–230.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sahal D, Ramakrishnan S, Iyer KSN, et al: Immunological characteristics of a carboxy terminal 53 aminoacid peptide of beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. J Reprod Immunol 1982;4:145–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shaha C, Kaul S, Kini M, et al: Immunization against LHRH without the use of Freunds complete adjuvant, in Talwar GP (ed): Immunological Approaches to Contraception and Promotion of Fertility. New York, Plenum Press, 1986, pp 143–150.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sharma NC, Goel BK, Bajaj JS, et ah. Metabolic, endocrine and organ functions in monkeys immunized with Pr-β-hCG-TT vaccine. Contraception 1976;13:201–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sharma NC, Singh O, Gaur A, et al: Improved immunogenic formulation for anti-gonadotropin response, in Talwar GP (ed): Immunobiological Approaches to Contraception and Promotion of Fertility. New York, Plenum Press, 1986, pp 37–41.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shastri N, Manhar SK, Talwar GP: Important role of the carrier in the induction of antibody response without Freund’s complete adjuvant against a “self” peptide hormone LHRH. Am J Reprod Immunol 1981;1:262–265.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Singh O, Singh V, Talwar GP: Studies on adjuvants for contraceptive vaccines, J Reprod Immunol 1983; [Suppt] 105–106.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Singh V, Singh O, Kaul S, et al: The dominant role of amide group at C-terminus for recognition by antibody in primates against gonadotropin releasing hormone. J Steroid Biochem 1985;23:801–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stevens VC: Perspectives of development of a fertility control vaccine from hormonal antigens of the trophoblast, in: Development of Vaccines for Fertility Regulation. Copenhagen, Scriptor, 1976, pp 93–110.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stevens VC, Cinadcr B, Powell JE, et al: Preparation and formulation of a hCG antifertility vaccine: Selection of peptide immunogen. Am J Reprod Immunol 1981;6:307–314.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stevens VC, Cinader B, Powell JE, et al: Preparation and formulation of a hCG antifertility vaccine. Selection of adjuvant and vehicle. Am J Reprod Immunol 1981;6:315–321.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Talwar GP, Sharma NC, Dubey SK, et al: Isoimmunization against human chorionic gonadotropin with conjugates of processed ß-subunit of the hormone and tetanus toxoid. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1976;73:218–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Talwar GP, Dubey SK, Salahuddin M, et al: Kinetics of antibody response in animals injected with processed beta hCG conjugated to tetanus toxoid (Pr-ß-hCG-TT). Contraception 1976:13:153–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Talwar GP, Das C, Tandon A, et al: Immunization against hCG: Efficacy and teratological studies in baboon, in Anand Kumar TC (ed): Non-human Primate Models for Study of Human Reproduction. Basel, S Karger, 1980, pp 190–201.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Talwar GP, Singh V, Singh O, et al: Pituitary and extra pituitary sites of action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone: Potential uses of active and passive immunization against gonadotropin releasing hormone, in Saxena BB, Catt KJ, Birnbaumer L, Martini L (eds): Hormone Receptors in Growth and Reproduction. New York, Raven Press, 1984, pp 351–359.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Talwar GP, Gupta SK, Singh V, et al: Bioeffective monoclonal against the decapeptide gonadotropin releasing hormone: Reacting determinant and action on ovulation and estrus suppression, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1985;82:1228–1231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Talwar GP, Singh O, Singh V, et al: Enhancement of ant ¡-gonadotropin response to beta subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone by carrier conjugation and combination with beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. Fertil Steril 1986;46:120–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Talwar GP, Gaur A. Gupta SK, et al: Immunological control of fertility, in Thompson RA (ed): Recent Advances in Clinical Immunology 1986;4:183–200.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tandon A, Das C. Jailkhani BL, et al: Efficacy of antibodies generated by Pr-ß-hCG-TT to terminate pregnancy in baboon: Its reversibility and rescue by medroxyprogesterone acetate. Contraception 1981;24:83–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tandon A, DasC, Jailkhani BL, etal: Effects on pregnancy in mice of passive immunization against ovine LH and human chorionic gonadotropin. J Reprod Fertil 1984;70:369–377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. P. Talwar
  • Om Singh

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations